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By Authority Of 

THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 

Legally Binding Document 



By the Authority Vested By Part 5 of the United States Code § 552(a) and 
Part 1 of the Code of Regulations § 51 the attached document has been duly 
INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE and shall be considered legally 
binding upon all citizens and residents of the United States of America. 
HEED THIS NOTICE : Criminal penalties may apply for noncompliance. 




Document Name: NCUTLO: Uniform Vehicle Code and Model Ordinance 



CFR Section(s): 41 C FR 50-204.75 



Standards Body: National Committee on Uniform Traffic Laws and Ordinance 



UNIFORM VEHICLE CODE 

AND 
MODEL TRAFFIC ORDINANCE 




Revised— 1968 



NATIONAL COMMITTEE 
ON 

UNIFORM TRAFFIC LAWS AND ORDINANCES 



Printed in the United States of America 

THE MICHIE COMPANY 
Charlottesville, Virginia 



This publication in ay be obtained from the National Committee on 

Uniform Traffic Laws and Ordinances, 525 School Street, 

S.W., Washington, D.C. 20024. 

Price: $5.00. 



k'F 



UNIFORM VEHICLE CODE 



Revised— 1968 



FOREWORD 

This volume contains the 1968 revised editions of the Uniform 
Vehicle Code and Model Traffic Ordinance. Although published 
together, these are two separate documents and each has its own 
Foreword, Table of Contents and Index. 

Earlier editions of the Code and Ordinance were published in 
separate booklets and republished each time they were revised. 1 
Under the new format, future revisions will be published in a 
pocket supplement to be used with this book. 

THE UNIFORM VEHICLE CODE 

The Uniform Vehicle Code is a specimen set of motor vehicle 
laws, designed and advanced as a comprehensive guide or stan- 
dard for state motor vehicle and traffic laws. It is not based on 
theory ; it is based on actual experience under various state laws 
throughout the nation. It reflects the need for uniformity in traf- 
fic regulation throughout the United States and, to this end, 
serves as a reliable, contemporary guide for use by state legis- 
latures. 

Since its inception, the Code has been reviewed periodically 
and revised where warranted by new developments in state and 
federal laws and by practical experience. However, changes are 
not made lightly or in any hope of any easy panacea but only on 
a clear preponderance of evidence of need and practicality. This 
edition of the Code reflects changes made following such a re- 
view in 1968. 

Nature of Cade Provisions 

The Code does not purport to cover every conceivable legal pro- 
vision applicable to motor vehicles and traffic, nor is it a mere 
compendium of all imaginable laws and regulations. Provisions 
that offer a sound legal framework within which effective high- 



1 The Code and Ordinance were first published in 1926 and 1928, respec- 
tively, and have been revised and republished at two- to six-year intervals 
since then. A complete history of these documents is published in the 
Uniform Vehicle Code: Rules of the Road with Statutory Annotations, 
National Committee on Uniform Traffic Laws and Ordinances (1967 and 
Supp.). 



vi Uniform Vehicle Code 

way safety programs can be carried out and within which effi- 
cient traffic administration can be conducted — all directed to the 
ultimate service of highway users — are advanced in the Code, 
which represents a concise statement of significant principles 
of traffic law in the form of essential legislation and not in the 
form of administrative details best left to administrative regula- 
tion and handling. 

The Desirable Degree of Uniformity 

Certain portions of the Code set forth rules of the road — the 
things that people shall and shall not do as they drive or walk. 
If the public is to understand, remember and observe these rules 
in moving from state to state, they should be exactly the same, 
word for word, in every state. Such uniformity also makes easier 
the task of police officers, judges, traffic engineers, motor vehicle 
administrators and educators. The language of the Code has been 
tested by long experience and there is no need for deviation. 

Substantial, but not necessarily verbatim, uniformity is a clear 
necessity in the chapters of the Code dealing with motor vehicle 
equipment, because vehicles are designed for use anywhere in 
the country. Similarly, an effective driver licensing law need not 
follow the precise language of the Code but should embody such 
essential principles as central administration, licensing drivers 
based on qualification to operate a particular vehicle, the "one li- 
cense" concept, authority to examine and re-examine, mandatory 
revocation after conviction of certain offenses, authority to sus- 
pend or revoke for cause, issuance of licenses for a fixed period, 
and a central records file. The same principle applies to Code 
provisions on financial responsibility. 

Finally, on such subjects as vehicle registration the need is 
not for exact uniformity but only for some kind of organization 
and procedure that will accomplish the desired ends. Even on 
these latter subjects, however, both the substance and the lan- 
guage of the Code are recommended as having stood the test 
of time. 

The concept of "uniform laws" does not, of course, mean that 
all laws on all aspects of motoring must be the same everywhere, 
but that situations similar in nature should be treated similarly. 
Thus it is not inconsistent with the principle of uniformity that 



Foreword vii 

laws may provide special exceptions for those cases deserving 
special treatment. 

The Uniform Vehicle Code is not advanced as a straitjacket or 
as a deterrent to such innovation as may be reasonably expected 
to improve the safe and efficient use of the highways. Rather, it 
is a guide for reasonable uniformity. 

Use of the Code 

Today, all states have reasonably comprehensive traffic codes. 
The task is to fill such gaps as remain and to modernize such 
provisions as are non-uniform or obsolete. The best approach is 
through a detailed, parallel-column comparison of existing laws 
with the Uniform Vehicle Code, This edition of the Code indi- 
cates in the text, in the Table of Contents, and in a Table of 
Amendments, all sections modified in 1968, to facilitate such 
comparisons and to assist in updating previous comparative 
studies. 2 

The Code serves as a constant reminder that safe, efficient 
highway transportation requires, in every state, adequate statu- 
tory coverage of not merely one but all of the subjects included 
in the Uniform Vehicle Code. 

The proper purpose of all traffic legislation is not to impose 
unnecessary or unreasonable restrictions on highway traffic, but 
to insure, as far as this can be done by law and its application, 
that traffic shall move smoothly, expeditiously and safely; that 
no legitimate user of the highway, whether in a vehicle or on 
foot, shall be killed, injured or frustrated in such use by the im- 
proper behavior of others. Such is the purpose of the Uniform 
Vehicle Code. 

The motto of the National Committee, "Salus, Libertas, Lex" 
— "Safety with Freedom Through Law" — summarizes the phi- 
losophy of both the Uniform Vehicle Code and the Committee: 
to provide to every highway user, through law, a maximum de- 
gree of safety within the framework of traditional freedoms. 



2 The Uniform Vehicle Code: Rules of the Road with Statutory Anno- 
tations (1967), together with its most recent supplement, indicates the 
current status of all state laws in comparison with all Code provisions 
on rules of the road (Chapter 11) and accidents and accident reports 
(Chapter 10). This publication should prove useful in the portions of any 
such study dealing with those subjects. 



vin Uniform Vehicle Code 

Role of the Code in the National Highway Safety Program 

The Foreword to the 1962 Uniform Vehicle Code described the 
proper function of the federal government in highway safety as 
directing attention to the more serious problems and strengthen- 
ing the ability of the several states to solve them. The passage by 
Congress in 1966 of the Highway Safety Act has directed atten- 
tion to highway safety as a national problem and promises to 
strengthen the ability of state and local governments to solve it 8 

The Act contemplates that each state will have a comprehen- 
sive highway safety program approved by the United States Sec- 
retary of Transportation and meeting uniform standards set by 
him. 4 As of December 31, 1968, the Secretary had issued 16 high- 
way safety program standards 5 covering the following elements 
of a highway safety program for each state : 

Periodic Motor Vehicle Inspection 

Motor Vehicle Registration 

Motorcycle Safety 

Driver Education 

Driver Licensing 

Codes and Laws 

Traffic Courts 

Alcohol in Relation to Highway Safety 

Identification and Surveillance of Accident Locations 

Traffic Records 

Emergency Medical Services 

Highway Design, Construction and Maintenance 

Traffic Control Devices 

Pedestrian Safety 

Police Traffic Services 

Debris Hazard Control and Cleanup 



3 Signed into law by the President on September 9, 1966, the Highway 
Safety Act can be found in 80 Stat. 731 (1966) or 23 USCA §§ 401 to 404 
(Supp. 1969). A second law passed by Congress in 1966, authorizing the 
establishment of standards for motor vehicle design and equipment, is 
discussed in footnotes 1, 4 and 8 of Chapter 12. 

4 The Department of Transportation was created by a law signed on 
October 15, 1966, and §§ 3(f)2 and 6(a)(6)(B) vested the administra- 
tion and implementation of the Highway Safety Act in the Secretary of 
Transportation. Public Law No. 670, 89th Congress, 2d Sess., 80 Stat. 931, 
932, 938 (1966). 

5 Copies of these 16 standards can be obtained from the National High- 
way Safety Bureau, Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C. 
20591, or may be found in 23 Code of Federal Regulations Part 204, as 
added by 33 'Federal Register 16336-39, 16560-64 (Nov. 7 and 14, 1968). 
The first 13 standards, however, were initially issued on June 27, 1967. 



Foreword ix 

These highway safety program elements require state and 
local implementation and emphasize the responsibility of state 
and local governments in any effort toward progress in high- 
way safety. In addition, some of the standards will require re- 
examination and revisions in state and local laws. Where neces- 
sary and appropriate in the context of formulating recommenda- 
tions for uniform motor vehicle laws, all of the standards were 
taken into account by the National Committee in 1968 and, prior 
to that time, by its subcommittees and staff. 

The state and local legislative responsibility for uniform traf- 
fic laws is stated in Highway Safety Program Standard No. 6 
on "Codes and Laws/' as follows : 

Each State shall develop and implement a program to achieve 
uniformity of traffic codes and laws throughout the State. The 
program shall provide at least that: 

I. There is a plan to achieve uniform rules of the road in all 
of its jurisdictions. 

II. There is a plan to make the State's unified rules of the 
road consistent with similar unified plans of other States. 
Toward this end, each State shall undertake and maintain con- 
tinuing comparisons of all State and local laws, statutes and or- 
dinances with the comparable provisions of the Rules of the 
Road section of the Uniform Vehicle Code. 6 

It should also be noted that the United States Department of 
Transportation is issuing an extensive Highivay Safety Program 
Manual designed to provide guidance and advice as to preferred 
practices for each of the 16 areas covered by the standards. The 
volume of this Manual for the "Codes and Laws" standard urges 
each state to develop and implement plans that will "further the 
adoption of appropriate aspects of the Rules of the Road chapter 
of the Uniform Vehicle Code" 7 and contains these general state- 
ments of policy : 

The general policy of the Department of Transportation, as 
specified in the Standard, is identification and elimination of 
major variations among traffic laws and ordinances within a 
State and among the several States, using as a basis the Rules 
of the Road portion of the latest edition of the Uniform Vehicle 
Code. 

The only rational foundation for traffic regulation through- 
out the nation is uniformity of traffic laws and ordinances with- 
in and among the several States. 



e 33 Federal Register 16562 (Nov. 14, 1968). 

T Highway Safety Program Manual, Volume 6, Chapter I, page 2, is- 
sued on January 17, 1969, by the National Highway Safety Bureau of the 
Federal Highway Administration, Department of Transportation, Wash- 
ington, D.C. 20591. 



x Uniform Vehicle Code 

Maximum uniformity should be achieved by the voluntary and 
cooperative action of State and local governments and not by 
coercive or direct Federal action. 

Although the minimum degree of standardization implicit in 
the concept of uniform traffic laws is that common conduct 
should everywhere be expected of drivers and pedestrians in es- 
sentially similar situations, fewer doubts concerning such con- 
duct will occur when the rules of the road are textually identi- 
cal in each and every State. 

The purpose of the Standard, which is to achieve uniformity 
among traffic laws and ordinances, should not, however, be a 
deterrent to such experimentation or innovation as may be rea- 
sonably expected to improve the safe and efficient use of the na- 
tion's highways. $ 

Recognition of the necessity for sound, uniform laws as a part 
of a national highway safety program is not, however, limited 
to rules of the road. For instance, the volume of the Manual on 
driver licensing notes that each state should be responsible for: 

(3) Reviewing on a regular basis the laws relating to the 
licensing of drivers to assure the compatibility with and/ or 
conformance to Chapter 6, "Drivers' Licenses," of the Uniform 
Vehicle Code (1962 as revised in 1968). 9 

These developments emphasize the urgency and necessity of 
a substantial degree of uniformity among laws and many other 
aspects of a successful local, state or national highway safety 
program and, in this context, the 1968 revised edition of the 
Uniform Vehicle Code is the most significant edition ever pub- 
lished by the National Committee. 



THE NATIONAL COMMITTEE ON UNIFORM TRAFFIC 
LAWS AND ORDINANCES 

The custodian of the Uniform Vehicle Code and Model Traffic 
Ordinance is the National Committee on Uniform Traffic Laws 
and Ordinances, an independent, non-profit, voluntary associa- 
tion. 

The Committee is a carefully selected group of more than 100 
representatives of federal, state and local governmental units 
(legislators, police officers, traffic engineers, highway officials, 
motor vehicle administrators, governors' highway safety repre- 
sentatives, judges, prosecutors, city attorneys, educators, physi- 
cians, mayors, county officials and attorneys general), insurance 



s Ibid., Chapter III, page 1. 

9 Highway Safety Program Manual, volume 5, Chapter III, pages 1-2, 

op. cit. supra , at footnote 7. 



Foreword xi 

companies, motor clubs, safety councils, manufacturers, dealers, 
trade associations, unions, national transportation associations 
and other individuals and groups interested in achieving- sound, 
uniform motor vehicle laws and regulations. 10 

Members of the Committee are people in daily contact, as offi- 
cials or otherwise, with the complex problems of highway trans- 
portation. The broadly representative membership, representing 
all groups and all sections of the country, precludes undue in- 
fluence by any one viewpoint or interest. 

The Committee operates through careful studies and reports 
made by a number of subcommittees on various subjects, each 
composed of officials and others best qualified in that particular 
field. In addition, the Committee maintains a full-time staff of 
attorneys to keep abreast of developments in highway safety 
and motor vehicle legislation and to provide information neces- 
sary for a complete and accurate determination of the best legal 
principles. 



10 The entire membership of the National Committee is published in 
the most recent supplement to the Uniform Vehicle Code: Rides of the 
Road with Statutory Annotations. 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Foreword v 

The Uniform Vehicle Code v 

Nature of Code Provisions V 

The Desirable Degree of Uniformity y l 

Use of the Code Vn 

Role of the Code in the National Highway Safety Program Vin 

The National Committee on Uniform Traffic Laws and Ordi- 
nances , ■ X 

1968 Amendments in Uniform Vehicle Code xxix 

CHAPTER 1— WORDS AND PHRASES DEFINED 

§§ 1401 to 1-184— Definitions* - 1 

CHAPTER 2— HIGHWAY SAFETY ADMINISTRATION 

Article I — Highway Safety Program (New, 1968.) 

§ 2-101 — Governor's authority to establish highway safety program .... 13 
§ 2-102 — Governor's responsibility for administration of highway 

safety program 13 

§ 2-103 — Governor's highway safety coordinator 13 

Article II — Highway Safety Coordinating 
Committee (New, 1968.) 

§ 2-201— Committee established 14 

§ 2-202— Membership . 14 

§ 2-203— Duties of committee 14 

§ 2-204 — Executive director 14 

Optional § 2-205— Meetings 15 

Article III — Department of Motor Vehicles 

§ 2-301— Department created (Revised, 1968.) 15 

§ 2-302— Office of commissioner of motoi vehicles created 15 

§ 2-303 — Organization of department (Revised, 1968.) 16 

§ 2-304 — Commissioner to appoint subordinates (Revised, 1968.) 16 

§ 2-305 — Powers and duties of commissioner (Revised, 1968.) 16 

§ 2-306— Offices of department , 17 

§ 2-307 — Commissioner to prescribe forms (Revised, 1968.) 17 

§ 2-308 — Authority to administer oaths and certify copies of records .... 17 

§ 2-309 — Records of department 17 

§ 2-310 — Authority to approve or reject applications (Revised, 

1968.) 18 



* The definitions of the following terms were revised or added in 1968: 
Alley (§ 1-102), Authorized emergency vehicle (§ 1-104), Bicycle (§ 1- 
105), Driver's license (§ 1-114.1), Intersection (§ 1-126), License or li- 
cense to operate a motor vehicle (§ 1-128), Revocation of driver's license 
(§ 1-155), State (§ 1-169), Suspension of driver's license (§ 1-174) and 
Through highway (§ 1-175). 



xiv Uniform Vehicle Code 

PAGE 

§ 2-311 — Seizure of documents and plates (Revised, 1968.) 18 

§ 2-312 — Distribution of synopsis of laws (Revised, 1968.) 18 

§ 2-313 — Department may summon witnesses and take testimony 18 

§ 2-314— Giving of notice 18 

CHAPTER 3— CERTIFICATES OF TITLE AND 
REGISTRATION OF VEHICLES 

Article 1 — Certificates of Title 

§ 3-101 — Certificate of title required 20 

§ 3-102— Exclusions 20 

§ 3-103— Optional certificate of title 20 

§ 3-104 — Application for first certificate of title 21 

§ 3-105 — Examination of records 22 

§ 3-106 — Issuance and records 22 

§ 3-107— Contents and effect 22 

§ 3-108— Delivery 23 

§ 3-109 — Registration without certificate of title; bond 23 

§ 3-110— Refusing certificate of title 24 

§ 3-111 — Lost, stolen or mutilated certificates 24 

§ 3-112— Transfer 25 

§ 3-113 — Transfer to or from dealer; records 26 

§ 3-114 — Transfer by operation of law 26 

§ 3-115 — Fees; registration cards; license plates 27 

§ 3-116— When department to issue new certificate 27 

§ 3-117 — Scrapping, dismantling or destroying vehicle 28 

Article II — Security Interests 

§ 3-201 — Excepted liens and security interests 28 

§ 3-202 — Perfection of security interests 29 

§ 3-203— Security interest 30 

§ 3-204 — Assignment by lienholder 30 

§ 3-205 — Release of security interest 31 

§ 3-206— Duty of lienholder 31 

§ 3-207 — Exclusiveness of procedure 32 

§ 3-208 — Suspension or revocation of certificates 32 

§ 3-209 — Powers of department 32 

§ 3-210 — Court review 33 

Alternate A — Article III— Previously Registered Vehicles 

§ 3-301 — Previously registered vehicle defined 3S 

§ 3-302 — Deferred application of act to previously registered ve- 
hicles 34 

§ 3-303 — Distinctive certificate 34 

§ 3-304 — Security interest in a previously registered vehicle 34 

§ 3-305— Unsatisfied security interest in a previously registered ve- 
hicle ... 34 

§ 3-306 — Filing and record of notices of security interests; examina- 
tion of record „ 3-5 



Contents xv 

Page 

§ 3-307 — Assignment by lienholder 35 

§ 3-308 — Release of security interest 36 

§ 3-309— Duty of lienholder 36 

Alternate B — Article III — Previously Certificated Vet t icles 

§ 3-301— Definitions 36 

§ 3-302 — Deferred application of act to previously certificated ve- 
hicles 37 

§ 3-303— Distinctive certificate 37 

§ 3-304 — Security interest in a previously certificated vehicle 37 

§ 3-305 — Unsatisfied security interest in a previously certificated ve- 
hicle 37 

§ 3-306 — Filing and record of notices of security interests; surrender 

of certificate; examination of record 38 

§ 3-307— Assignment by lienholder 38 

§ 3-308 — Release of security interest 39 

§ 3-309— Duty of lienholder 39 

Article IV — Original and Renewal of Registration 

§ 3-401 — Effect of provisions 39 

§ 3-402 — Vehicles subject to registration — exceptions 40 

§ 3-402.1 — Nonresidents — registration requirements, reciprocal provi- 
sions, authority of (commissioner, reciprocity commis- 

s ion ) 40 

§ 3-403 — Application for registration 50 

§ 3-404 — Application for specially constructed, reconstructed or for- 
eign vehicles 50 

§ 3-405 — Temporary permit pending registration 51 

§ 3-406 — Grounds for refusing registration or certificates of title 51 

§ 3-407 — Registration indexes 51 

§ 3-408 — Department to issue registration card 52 

§ 3-409 — Registration card to be signed, carried and exhibited on de- 
mand (Revised, 1968.) 52 

§ 3-410 — Registration plates to be furnished by the department 52 

§ 3-411 — Display of registration plates 53 

§ 3-412 — Expiration of registration 53 

§ 3-413 — Application for and renewal of registration 53 

§ 3-414 — Notice of change of address or name 54 

§ 3-415 — Lost or damaged cards and plates 54 

§ 3-416 — Registration under new identifying number 54 

§ 3-417 — Regulations governing change of motors 54 

§ 3-418 — Department may issue registration bulletins 55 

Article V — Transfer of Registration 

§ 3-501 — Registration expires on transfer by owner 55 

§ 3-502 — New owner must secure new registration 55 

§ 3-503 — Transfers to dealers 55 

§ 3-504 — Transfer by operation of law „ 56 



XVI UmEVJKJVI V JDrXl^UHi Wuxj 

Page 

Alternate § 3-501 — Transfer by owner 56 

Alternate § 3-502 — New owner to secure transfer of registration 56 

Alternate § 3-503 — Transfers to dealers 56 

Alternate § 3-504 — When department to transfer registration 56 

§ 3-505 — Return of evidence of registration 57 

Article VI — Special Plates for Manufacturers, Transporters 
and Dealers 

§ 3-601 — Operation of vehicles under special plates 57 

§ 3-602 — Application for and issuance of certificate and special 

plates 57 

§ 3-603 — Expiration of special plates 58 

§ 3-604 — Manufacturers, transporters and dealers to maintain rec- 
ords 58 

Article VII — Offenses Against Registration and Certificate 

of Title Laws or Revocation of Registration or 

Certificate of Title 

§ 3-701 — Operation of vehicles without evidences of registration 58 

§ 3-702 — Operation of vehicle when registration canceled, suspended 

or revoked , 58 

§ 3-703 — Improper use of evidences of registration or certificate of 

title 59 

§ 3-704 — Authority of department to suspend or revoke a registration 

or certificate of title , 59 

§ 3-705 — Suspending or revoking certificate or special plates of a 

manufacturer, transporter or dealer 60 

§ 3-706 — Owner to return evidences of registration upon cancellation, 

suspension or revocation 60 

Article VIII — Registration and License Fees 

§ 3-801 — Registration fees 60 

§ 3-802 — Reduced fees for portion of a year 60 

§ 3-803 — Exemption from registration fees 61 

§ 3-804 — Fees to be paid by manufacturers, transporters and dealers ., 61 

§ 3-805 — Fees for application for first certificate of title 61 

§ 3-806 — Fees upon transfer of registration and issuance of certifi- 
cates of title 61 

§ 3-807 — Fees relating to security interests 61 

§ 3-808 — Seizure and sale of vehicle for nonpayment of fees 61 

§ 3-809 — Fees for duplicate registration plates, registration cards and 

certificates of title 61 

§ 3-810 — When fees delinquent — penalties 61 

§ 3-811— When fees returnable 61 

§ 3-812— Disposition of fees 61 



Contents xvii 

CHAPTER 4— ANTITHEFT LAWS 

Page 

§ 4-101— Exceptions from provisions of this chapter 62 

§ 4-102 — Unauthorized use of a vehicle 62 

§ 4-103 — Receiving or disposing* of a vehicle 62 

§ 4-104 — Damaging or tampering with a vehicle 62 

§ 4-105 — Stolen, converted, recovered and unclaimed vehicles 62 

§ 4-106 — False report of theft or conversion 63 

§ 4-107 — Removed, falsified or unauthorized identification number, 

registration or license plate on vehicle or engine 64 

§ 4-108 — Evidence of criminal intent or knowledge 64 

§ 4-109— Principals 65 

§ 4-110 — Offenses relating to title and registration — felonies 65 

§ 4-111 — Offenses relating to title and registration — misdemeanors .... 65 

CHAPTER 5— DEALERS, WRECKERS AND REBUILDERS 

Article I — Dealers 

§ 5-101 — Dealers must be licensed 6^ 

§ 5-102 — Department to issue license certificate 66 

Article II — Used Parts Dealers, Wreckers and Rebuilders 

§ 5-201 — Used parts dealers, wreckers and rebuilders must be li- 
censed 67 

§ 5-202 — Suspension and revocation 68 

§ 5-203 — Licensee's records 68 

CHAPTER 6— DRIVERS 1 LICENSES 

Article I— Issuance of Licenses, Expiration and Renewal 
(Revised, 1968.) 

§ 6-101— Drivers must be licensed (Revised, 1968.) 69 

§ 6-102 — What persons are exempt from license (Revised, 1968.) 70 

§ 6-103— Persons not to be licensed (Revised, 1968.) 71 

§ 6-104— Classes of licenses (Revised, 1968.) 72 

§ 6-105 — Instruction permits and temporary licenses (Revised, 

1968.) 73 

§ 6-106 — Application for license or instruction permit (Revised, 

1968.) 74 

§ 6-107— Applications of minors (Revised, 1968.) 75 

§ 6-108— Release from liability 75 

§ 6-109 — Cancellation of license upon death of person signing minor's 

application 76 

§ 6-110— Examination of applicants (Revised, 1968,) 76 

§ 6-111 — Licenses issued to drivers (Revised, 1968,) 76 

§ 6-112 — License to be carried and exhibited on demand (Revised, 

1968.) 77 

§ 6-113— Restricted licenses (Revised, 1968.) 77 



Avm UNIFORM VEHICLE CODE 

Page 

§ 6-114 — Duplicate permit or license (Revised, 1968.) 78 

§ 6-115 — Expiration and renewal of license; re-examination required 

(Revised, 1968.) , 78 

§ 6-116— Notice of change of address or name (Revised, 1968.) 79 

§ 6-117 — Records to be kept by the department 79 

§ 6-118 — Medical advisory board (New, 1968.) 80 

Article II — Cancellation, Suspension or Revocation of Licenses 

§ 6-201— Authority of department to cancel license (Revised, 1968.) .... 31 
§ 6-202— Suspending privileges of nonresidents; reporting convictions, 

suspensions and revocations (Revised, 1968.) 81 

§ 6-203 — Suspending resident's license based upon conduct in another 

state (Revised, 1968.) 81 

§ 6-204 — When court to forward license to department and report 

convictions (Revised, 1968.) 82 

§ 6-205 — Mandatory revocation of license by department (Revised, 

1968.) 82 

§ 6-205.1 — Revocation of license in event of refusal to submit to chemi- 
cal tests (Revised, 1968.) , 83 

§ 6-206 — Authority of department to suspend or revoke license (Re- 
vised, 1968.) 84 

§ 6-207 — Department may require re-examination (Revised, 1968.) .... 86 

§ 6-208— Period of revocation (Revised, 1968) 87 

§ 6-209— Period of suspension (Revised, 1968) 87 

§ 6-210— Surrender and return of license (Revised, 1968) 88 

§ 6-211 — No operation under foreign license during suspension or 

revocation in this State (Revised, 1968.) 88 

§ 6-212 — Right of appeal to court 88 

Article III — Violation of License Provisions 

§ 6-301— Unlawful use of license (Revised, 1968.) 89 

§ 6-302— Making false affidavit perjury 89 

§ 6-303 — Driving while license suspended or revoked (Revised, 

1968.) 89 

§ 6-304 — Permitting unauthorized minor to drive 90 

§ 6-305— Permitting unlicensed person to drive (Revised, 1968.) 90 

Article IV— Commercial Driver Training Schools (New, 1968.) 

§ 6-401 — License required 90 

§ 6-402— Definitions 90 

§ 6-403— Exemptions 91 

§ 6-404 — Issuance and expiration of licenses; fees 91 

§ 6-405— Authority of commissioner to adopt regulations 91 

§ 6-406— Refusal, suspension or revocation of license 92 

§ 6-407— Penalties . 92 



Contents xtx 

CHAPTER 7— FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY 

Article I — Administration 

Page 

§ 7-101 — Commissioner to administer chapter 93 

§ 7-102— Court review 93 

§ 7-103 — Department to furnish operating record 93 

Article II — Security Following Accident 

§ 7-201 — Application of article II 94 

§ 7-202 — Department to determine amount of security required — 

notices 94 

§ 7-203 — Exceptions to requirement of security 95 

§ 7-204 — Requirements as to policy or bond 96 

§ 7-205 — Form and amount of security 97 

§ 7-206 — Failure to deposit security — suspensions 97 

§ 7^207— Release from liability 97 

§ 7-208— Adjudication of nonliability 98 

§ 7-209 — Agreements for payment of damages 98 

§ 7-210 — Payment upon judgment 99 

§ 7-211 — Termination of security requirement 99 

§ 7-212 — Duration of suspension 99 

§ 7-213 — Application to nonresidents, unlicensed drivers, unregistered 

vehicles and accidents in other states 100 

§ 7-214— Authority of department to decrease amount of security 101 

§ 7-215 — Correction of action of department 101 

§ 7-216— Custody of security 101 

§ 7-217 — Disposition of security 101 

§ 7-218— Return of deposit 102 

§ 7-219 — Matters not to be evidence in civil suits 102 

Article III — Proof of Financial Responsibility for the Future 

§ 7-301 — Application of article III , 102 

§ 7-302— Meaning of "proof of financial responsibility for the 

future" 103 

§ 7-303— Meaning of "judgment" and "state" (Revised, 1968.) 103 

§ 7-304 — Proof required upon certain convictions 104 

§ 7-305 — Suspension until proof furnished 104 

§ 7-306 — Action in respect to unlicensed person 104 

§ 7-307 — Action in respect to nonresidents , 105 

§ 7-308— When courts to report nonpayment of judgments 105 

§ 7-309 — Further action with respect to nonresidents 105 

§ 7-310— Suspension for nonpayment of judgments 105 

§ 7-311 — Exception in relation to government vehicles 105 

§ 7-312— Exception when consent granted by judgment creditor 106 

§ 7-313 — Exception when insurer liable 106 



xx Uniform vehicle code 

PAGE 

§ 7-314 — Suspension to continue until judgments paid and proof 

given 106 

§ 7-315 — Discharge in bankruptcy 107 

§ 7-316 — Payments sufficient to satisfy requirements 107 

§ 7-317 — Installment payment of judgments — default 107 

§ 7-318 — Action if breach of agreement 108 

§ 7-319 — Proof to be furnished for each registered vehicle 108 

§ 7-320 — Alternate methods of giving proof 108 

§ 7-321 — Certificate of insurance as proof 108 

§ 7-322 — Certificate furnished by nonresident as proof 109 

§ 7-323 — Default by nonresident insurer 109 

§ 7-324— "Motor vehicle liability policy" defined 109 

§ 7-325 — Notice of cancellation or termination of certified policy 112 

§ 7-326 — Chapter not to affect other policies , 112 

§ 7-327— Bond as proof 113 

§ 7-328— When bond shall constitute a lien 113 

§ 7-329— Action on bond 113 

§ 7-330 — Money or securities as proof 114 

§ 7-331 — Application of deposit 114 

§ 7-332 — Owner may give proof for others 114 

§ 7-333— Substitution of proof 114 

§ 7-334 — Other proof may be required 115 

§ 7-335 — Duration of proof — when proof may be canceled or re- 
turned 115 

Article IV — Violation of Provisions of Chapter 7 

§ 7-401 — Transfer of registration to defeat purpose of act prohibited 

(Revised, 1968.) , .116 

§ 7-402 — Surrender of license and registration (Revised, 1968.) 116 

§ 7-403— Forged proof , 117 

Article V — Miscellaneous Provisions Relating 
to Financial Responsibility 

Optional § 7-501 — Assigned risk plans 117 

§ 7-502 — Exception in relation to vehicles insured under other laws .... 118 

§ 7-503— Self-insurers 118 

§ 7-504 — Past application of chapter 118 

§ 7-505 — Chapter not to prevent other process 119 

CHAPTER 8— OWNERS OF FOR-RENT VEHICLES 

§ 8-101 — Owner of for-rent motor vehicle to give proof of financial 

responsibility 120 

§ 8-102 — Owner of for-rent vehicle liable when no policy obtained ...... 121 

§ 8-103 — Renting motor vehicle to another (Revised, 1968.) 122 



Contents xxi 

CHAPTER 9— CIVIL LIABILITY 

Article I — Liability of Government Agencies 

Page 
§ 9-101 — Liability of State, counties, municipalities and other public 

corporations 124 

Article II — Imputing Negligence and Liability to Guests 

§ 9-201 — Imputing negligence or willful misconduct of operator to 

owner 124 

§ 9-202— Liability for bodily injury to or death of guest 125 

Article III — Process on Nonresident 
§ 9-301 — Service of process on nonresident (Revised, 1968.) 126 

CHAPTER 10— ACCIDENTS AND ACCIDENT REPORTS 

§ 10-101 — Provisions of chapter apply throughout State 128 

§ 10-102 — Accidents involving death or personal injury 128 

§ 10-103 — Accidents involving damage to vehicle oi property 128 

§ 10-104 — Duty to give information and render aid 128 

§ 10-105 — Duty upon damaging unattended vehicle or other property 

(Revised, 1968.) 129 

§ 10-106— -Immediate notice of accident (Revised, 1968.) 130 

§ 10-107 — Written report of accident by drivers or owners (Revised, 

1968.) 130 

§ 10-108— False reports 131 

§ 10-109 — Suspension and penalty for failure to report 131 

§ 10-110 — State bureau of vital statistics to report 131 

§ 10-111— Garages to report (Revised, 1968.) 132 

§ 10-112— Police to report (Revised, 1968.) 132 

§ 10-113— Accident report forms 132 

§ 10-114 — Department to tabulate and analyze accident reports 133 

§ 10-115 — Any local authority may require accident reports 133 

CHAPTER 11— RULES OF THE ROAD 

Article I — Obedience to and Effect of Traffic Laws 

§ 11-101 — Provisions of chapter refer to vehicles upon the highways — 

exceptions 134 

§ 11-102 — Required obedience to traffic laws 134 

§ 11-103 — Obedience to police officers 134 

§ 11-104 — Persons riding animals or driving animal-drawn vehicles .... 134 

§ 11-105 — Persons working on highways — exceptions 134 

§ 11-106 — Authorized emergency vehicles (Revised, 1968.) 135 



XXII UNIFORM VEHICLE CODE 

Article II — Traffic Signs, Signals and Markings 

Page 
§ 11-201 — Obedience to and required traffic-control devices (Revised, 

1968.) 135 

§ 11-202— Traffic-control signal legend (Revised, 1968.) 136 

§ 11-203 — Pedestrian-control signals 138 

§ 11-204— Flashing signals (Revised, 1968.) 138 

§ 11-204.1 — Lane-direction-control signals .139 

§ 11-205 — Display of unauthorized signs, signals or markings 139 

§ 11-206 — Interference with official traffic-control devices or railroad 

signs or signals 139 

Article III — Driving on Right Side of Roadway — 
Overtaking and Passing— Use of Roadway 

§ 11-301 — Drive on right side of roadway — exceptions (Revised, 

1988.) 140 

§ 11-302 — Passing vehicles proceeding in opposite directions 141 

§ 11-303 — Overtaking a vehicle on the left 141 

§ 11-304 — When overtaking on the right is permitted 141 

§ 11-305 — Limitations on overtaking on the left ... 142 

§ 11-306 — Further limitations on driving on left of center of roadway 

(Revised, 1968.) 142 

§ 11-307— No-passing zones (Revised, 1968.) , 142 

§ 11-308 — One-way roadways and rotary traffic islands (Revised, 

1968.) 143 

§ 11-309 — Driving on roadways laned for traffic 143 

§ 11-310— Following too closely 144 

§ 11-311 — Driving on divided highways 144 

§ 11-312 — Restricted access 145 

§ 11-313 — Restrictions on use of controlled-access roadway (Revised, 

1968.) 145 

Article IV — Right of Way 

§ 11-401 — Vehicle approaching or entering intersection (Revised, 

1968.) 145 

§ 11-402— Vehicle turning left 146 

§ 11-403 — Vehicle entering stop or yield intersection (Revised, 

1968.) 146 

§ 11-404 — Vehicle entering highway from private road or driveway 

(Revised, 1968.) 14V 

§ 11-405 — Operation of vehicles (and streetcars) on approach of au- 
thorized emergency vehicles 147 

Article V — Pedestrians' Rights and Duties 

§ 11-501— Pedestrian obedience to traffic-control devices and traffic 

regulations (Revised, 1968.) 147 

§ 11-502 Pedestrians' right of way in crosswalks 148 



Contents xxm 

Page 

§ 11-503 — Crossing at other than crosswalks 148 

§ 11-504 — Drivers to exercise due care (Revised, 1968.) 149 

§ 11-505 — Pedestrians to use right half of crosswalks 149 

§ 11-506 — Pedestrians on roadways 149 

§ 11-507 — Pedestrians soliciting rides or business (Revised, 1968.) 149 

§ 11 -508- -Driving through safety zone prohibited 149 

§ 11-509— Pedestrians' right of way on sidewalks (New, 1968.) 150 

Article VI — Turning and Starting and Signals 
on Stopping and Turning 

§ 11-601 — Required position and method of turning at intersections 

(Revised, 19G8.) . 150 

§ 11-602 — Turning on curve or crest of grade prohibited 150 

§ 11-603— Starting parked vehicle 151 

§ 11-604 — Turning movements and required signals 151 

§ 11-605 — Signals by hand and arm or signal lamps 151 

§ 11-606 — Method of giving hand-and-arm signals 152 

Article VII — Special Stops Required 

§ 11-701 — Obedience to signal indicating approach of train 152 

§ 11-702 — All vehicles must stop at certain railroad grade crossings .. 153 
§ 11-703 — Certain vehicles must stop at all railroad grade crossings .... 153 

§ 11-704 — Moving heavy equipment at railroad grade crossings 153 

§ 11-705 — Emerging from alley, driveway or building (Revised, 

1968.) 154 

§ 11-706 — Overtaking and passing school bus 154 

Article VIII — Speed Restrictions 

§ 11-801— Basic rule (Revised, 1968.) 155 

§ 11-801.1— Maximum limits (Revised, 1968.) 155 

§ 11-802— Establishment of State speed zones 156 

§ 11-803 — When local authorities may and shall alter maximum lim- 
its .... .. , 156 

§ 11-804 — Minimum speed regulation 157 

§ 11-805 — Special speed limitation on motor-driven cycles 157 

§ 11-806 — Special speed limitations 158 

§ 11-807— -Charging violations and rule in civil actions 158 

§ 11-808 — Racing on highways (New, 1968.) 159 

Article IX — Serious Traffic Offenses 

§ 11-901 — Reckless driving 159 

§ 11-902— Persons under the influence of intoxicating liquor (Revised, 

1968.) 160 

§ 11-902.1 — Persons under the influence of drugs 161 

§ 11-902.2 — Penalties and administrative action of commissioner 162 



xxrv Uniform Vehicle Code 

Page 

§ 11-903— Homicide by vehicle (Revised, 1968.) 162 

§ 11-904 — Fleeing or attempting to elude a police officer (New, 

1968.) 162 

Article X — Stopping, Standing and Parking 

§ 11-1001 — Stopping, standing or parking outside of business or res- 
idence districts 163 

§ 11-1002— Officers authorized to remove vehicles (Revised, 1968.) 163 

§ 11-1003 — Stopping, standing or parking prohibited in specified places 

(Revised, 1968.) 164 

§ 11-1004 — Additional parking regulations 165 

Article XI — Miscellaneous Rules 

§ 11-1101 — Unattended motor vehicle 166 

§ 11-1102 — Limitations on backing 166 

§ 11-1103— Driving upon sidewalk (New, 1968.) '. 166 

§ 11-1104 — Obstruction to driver's view or driving mechanism (Re- 
vised, 1968.) 166 

§ 11-1105 — Opening and closing vehicle doors 167 

§ 11-1106 — Riding in house trailers 167 

§ 11-1107 — Driving on mountain highways 167 

§ 11-1108— Coasting prohibited (Revised, 1968.) 167 

§ 11-1109 — Following fire apparatus prohibited 168 

§ 11-1110— Crossing fire hose (Revised, 19680 168 

§ 11-1111 — Putting glass, etc., on highway prohibited 168 

Article XII — Operation of Bicycles and Play Vehicles 

§ 11-1201— Effect of regulations 168 

§ 11-1202 — Traffic laws apply to persons riding bicycles 169 

§ 11-1203— Riding on bicycles 169 

§ 11-1204— Clinging to vehicles (Revised, 1968.) 169 

§ 11-1205 — Riding on roadways and bicycle paths 169 

§ 11-1206— Carrying articles 169 

§ 11-1207 — Lamps and other equipment on bicycles (Revised, 1968.) .... 169 

Article XIII — Special Rules for Motorcycles (New, 1968.) 

§ 11-1301 — Traffic laws apply to persons operating motorcycles 170 

§ 11-1302 — Riding on motorcycles (Revised and repositioned, 1968.) .... 170 

§ 11-1303 — Operating motorcycles on roadways laned for traffic 171 

§ 11-1304— Clinging to other vehicles 171 

§ 11-1305— Footrests and handlebars 171 

§ 11-1306 — Equipment for motorcycle riders 171 



Contents xxv 

Article XIV— Streetcars 

Page 

§ 11-1401— Traffic laws apply to operators of streetcars (New, 1968.) .... 172 

§ 11-1402— Passing streetcar on left ^ 

§ 11-1403— Passing streetcar on right J-^j 

§ 11-1404 — Driving on streetcar tracks 

CHAPTER 12— EQUIPMENT OF VEHICLES 
Article I— Scope and Effect of Regulations 

§ 12-101— Scope and effect of regulations (Revised, 19680 17 ^ 

§ 12-102 — Authority of commissioner (New, 1968.) 17o 

Article II— Lamps and Other Lighting Equipment 

§ 12-201— When lighted lamps are required (Revised, 1968.) 176 

§ 12-202— Visibility distance and mounted height of lamps 177 

§ 12-203— Head lamps on motor vehicles (Revised, 1968.) 177 

§ 12-204— Tail lamps (Revised, 1968.) I-? 7 

§ 12-205— Reflectors (Revised, 1968.) 178 

§ 12-206— Stop lamps and turn signals (Revised, 1968.) 173 

§ 12-207— Application of succeeding sections 179 

§ 12-208— Additional lighting equipment required on certain equip- 
ment - 179 

§ 12-209— Color of clearance lamps, identification lamps, side marker 

lamps, back-up lamps and reflectors 180 

§ 12-210 — Mounting of reflectors, clearance lamps and side marker 

lamps (Revised, 1968.) 181 

§ 12-211 — Visibility requirements for reflectors, clearance lamps, iden- 
tification lamps and marker lamps (Revised, 1968.) 182 

§ 12-212— Obstructed lights not required 182 

§ 12-213 — Lamps or flags on projecting load (Revised, 1968.) 182 

§ 12-214 — Lamps on parked vehicles (Revised, 1968.) 183 

§ 12-215 — Lamps, reflectors and emblems on farm tractors, farm equip- 
ment and implements of husbandry (Revised, 1968.) 184 

§ 12-216 — Lamps on other vehicles and equipment (Revised, 1968.) .... 185 

§ 12-217 — Spot lamps and auxiliary lamps (Revised, 1968.) 186 

§ 12-218 — Audible and visual signals on vehicles 186 

§ 12-219 — Signal lamps and signal devices 187 

§ 12-220 — Vehicular hazard warning signals (Revised, 1968.) 188 

§ 12-221— Additional lighting equipment 188 

§ 12-222— Multiple-beam road-lighting equipment (Revised, 1968.) .... 189 
§ 12-223 — Use of multiple-beam road-lighting equipment (Revised, 

1968.) 190 

§ 12-224— Single-beam road-lighting equipment (Revised, 1968.) 190 

§ 12-225 — Alternate road-lighting equipment (Revised, 1968.) 191 

§ 12-226 — Number of driving lamps required or permitted (Revised, 

1968.) 191 

§ 12-227 — Special restrictions on lamps (Revised, 1968.) 191 



xxvi Uniform Vehicle Code 

Page 

§ 12-228 — Special lighting equipment on school buses (Revised, 

1968.) . 192 

§ 12-229 — Standards for lights on snow-removal and other highway 

maintenance and service equipment 192 

§ 12-230 — Selling or using lamps or equipment 192 

§ 12-231 — Revocation of certificate of approval on lighting devices .... 193 

Article III — Brakes 

§ 12-301— Brake equipment required (Revised, 1968.) 194 

§ 12-302— Performance ability of brakes (Revised, 1968.) 198 

§ 12-303— Maintenance of brakes 199 

§ 12-304— Hydraulic brake fluid 199 

Article IV — Other Equipment 

§ 12-401— Horns and warning devices (Revised, 1968.) 201 

§ 12-402— Mufflers, prevention of noise (Revised, 1968.) 202 

§ 12-403— Mirrors 202 

§ 12-404 — Windshields must be unobstructed and equipped with wipers 

(Revised, 1968) 202 

§ 12-405 — Restrictions as to tire equipment (Revised, 1968.) 203 

§ 12-406 — Safety glazing material in motor vehicles (Revised, 1968.) .... 203 
§ 12-407 — Certain vehicles to carry flares or other devices (Revised, 

1968.) ., 204 

§ 12-408 — Display of warning lights and devices when vehicle is 

stopped or disabled (Revised, 1968.) 206 

§ 12-409 — Vehicles transporting hazardous materials (Revised, 1968.) 208 

§ 12-410 — Air-conditioning equipment 209 

§ 12-411— Television receivers (New, 1968.) 210 

§ 12-412— Seat belts and shoulder harnesses (New, 1968.) 210 

Article V — Equipment on Motorcycles and 
Motor-driven Cycles (New, 1968.) 

§ 12-501— Head lamps 211 

§ 12-502— -Tail lamps 211 

§ 12-503— Reflectors 211 

§ 12-504— Stop lamps , 211 

§ 12-505 — Lamps on parked vehicles 212 

§ 12-506 — Multiple-beam road-lighting equipment 212 

§ 12-507 — Lighting equipment for motor-driven cycles 212 

§ 12-508 — Brake equipment required 213 

§ 12-509 — Performance ability of brakes 213 

§ 12-510 — Brakes on motor-driven cycles 213 

§ 12-511— Other equipment 214 

CHAPTER 13— INSPECTION OF VEHICLES (Revised, 1968.) 

§ 13-101 — Vehicles without required equipment or in unsafe condition 215 
§ 13-102 — Inspection by officers 215 



Contents xxvii 

Page 

§ 13-103— Owners and drivers to comply with inspection laws 216 

§ 13-104 — Periodic inspection required 216 

§ 13-105 — Commissioner may establish stations 218 

§ 13-106 — Appointment of official inspection stations 218 

§ 13-107 — Operation of inspection stations; issuance of inspection cer- 

tiacates 219 

§ 13-108 — Display of inspection certificates 220 

§ 13-109 — Improper representation as official station 220 

§ 13-110— False certificates 221 

§ 13-111— Official signs or posters 221 

§ 13-112 — Authority of commissioner to adopt regulations 221 

CHAPTER 14— SIZE, WEIGHT AND LOAD 

§ 14-101— Scope and effect of chapter 222 

§ 14-102— Width of vehicles 222 

§ 14-103 — Projecting loads on passenger vehicles 223 

§ 14-104— Height and length of vehicles and loads (Revised, .1968.) .... 223 

§ 14-105— Special load limits 224 

§ 14-106 — Loads on vehicles 224 

§ 14-107 — Trailers and towed vehicles 225 

§ 14-108— Single-axle load limit 225 

§ 14-109 — Gross weight of vehicles and loads 225 

§ 14-110 — Registration of vehicles according to permissible gross 

weight (Revised, 1968.) 226 

§ 14-111 — Officers may weigh vehicles and require removal of excess 

loads , , 227 

§ 14-112 — Permits for excess size and weight 227 

§ 14-113 — When the (State highway commission) or local authority 

may restrict right to use highways (Revised, 1968.) 228 

§ 14-114 — Liability for damage to highway or structure 229 

CHAPTER 15— RESPECTIVE POWERS OP STATE 
AND LOCAL AUTHORITIES 

§ 15-101 — Provisions uniform throughout State (Revised, 1968.) 230 

§ 15-102— Powers of local authorities (Revised, 196S.) 230 

§ 15-103 — Adoption by reference (New, 1968.) , 231 

§ 15-104— (State highway commission) to adopt sign manual (Revised, 

19*80 232 

§ 15-105— (State highway commission) to sign all State (and county) 

highways ,,, , , _ 233 

§ 15-106 — Local traffic-control devices 233 

§ 15-107— Authority to restrict pedestrian crossings (Revised, 1968.) 234 

§ 15-108 — Authority to close unmarked crosswalks (New, 1968.) 234 

§ 15-109— Authority to designate through highways and stop and yield 

intersection s 234 

§ 15-110 — Regulations relative to school buses , 234 

§ 15-111— Designation of authorized emergency vehicles (New, 1968.) 235 
§ 15-112 — Abandoned vehicles (New, 1968„) 235 



XXVIII UJNirOKM VUJUJLUL.U KjVUn 

Page 

§ 15-113 — Removal of traffic hazards (New, 1968.) 236 

§ 15-114— Rights of owners of real property 237 

CHAPTER 16— PARTIES AND PROCEDURE UPON ARREST 

§ 16-101 — Parties to a crime 238 

§ 16-102 — Offenses by persons owning or controlling vehicles 238 

§ 16-103 — Public officers and employees — exceptions 238 

§ 16-104 — Procedure upon arrest for felony 238 

§ 16-105 — Arrests for serious offenses (Revised, 1968.) 238 

§ 16-106 — When person must be taken immediately before a magistrate 239 
§ 16-107 — When officer has option to take person before a magistrate 

(Revised, 1968.) 240 

§ 16-108 — Arrest of nonresident 240 

§ 16-109 — When person to be given five-day notice to appear in court 241 

§ 16-110 — Authority of an officer at the scene of an accident 241 

§ 16-111 — Appearance before magistrate having jurisdiction 242 

§ 16-112— Release of defendant when magistrate not available 242 

§ 16-113— Failure to obey citation 243 

§ 16-114 — Procedure prescribed herein not exclusive 243 

§ 16-115 — Evidence of conviction inadmissible in a civil action ... 243 

§ 16-116 — Conviction for traffic violation not to affect credibility of 

witness 243 

§ 16-117— Form for traffic citations 243 

§ 16-118 — Disposition and records of traffic citations 244 

§ 16-119 — Illegal cancellation of traffic citation — audit of citation rec- 
ords 245 

§ 16-120 — When copy of citation shall be deemed a lawful complaint .... 245 

CHAPTER 17— PENALTIES AND DISPOSITION OP 
FINES AND FORFEITURES 

§ 17-101— Penalties for misdemeanor (Revised, 1968.) 246 

§ 17-102— Penalty for felony 246 

§ 17-103 — Disposition of fines and forfeitures 246 

CHAPTER 18— RECORDS AND REPORTS OF CONVICTIONS 

§ 18-101 — Record of traffic cases — report of convictions to department 

(Revised, 1968.) 248 

CHAPTER 19— EFFECT OF AND SHORT TITLE OF ACT 

§ 19-101 — Uniformity of interpretation 250 

§ 19-102—Effect of headings 250 

§ 19-103— Short title 250 

§ 19-104— Act not retroactive 250 

§ 19-105— Constitutionality 250 

§ 19-106— Repeal 250 

§ 19-107— Time of taking effect 250 

Index 251 



1968 AMENDMENTS IN UNIFORM VEHICLE CODE 

This table lists every section or subsection of the Code that 
was in any way altered by action of the National Committee in 
its 1968 meetings. 



1-102 

1-103 

1-104 

1-105 

1-106 

1-107 

1-108 

1-114.1 

1- 126(c) 

1-128 



-140 

-141 

-142 

-149 
155 

-169 

-174 

-175 

-101 

-102 

-103 

-201 

-202 

■203 

■-204 

-205 
2-301 

2-301 Alt. (a) 
2-302 
2-303 
2-304 
2-305 
2-306 
2-307 
2-308 
2-309 
2-310 
2-311 
2-312 
2-313 
2-314 
3-409(a) 
6-101Ca) 
6-101(b) 
6- 101(c) 
6- 101(d) 
6-102(2) 
6-102(3) 
6-102(4) 
6-102(5) 
6-103 
6-104(a) 
6- 104(b) 
6-104(c) 
6-105(a) 
6-105(b) 
6- 105(c) 
6-105(d) 
6- 106(a) 
6- 106(b) 
6-107(a) 
6-110 
6-lll(a) 
6111(b) 
6-112 
6-1 13(a) 
6-114 
6-llS(a) 



New 

Renumbered 

Revised, Renumbered 

Revised, Renumbered 

Renumbered 

Renumbered 

Renumbered 

New 

New 

Revised 

Renumbered 

Renumbered 

Renumbered 

Revised 

Revised 

Revised 

Revised 

Revised 

New 

New 

New 

New 

New 

New 

New 

New 

Repositioned 

New 

Repositioned 

Revised, Repositioned 

Revised, Repositioned 

Revised, Repositioned 

Repositioned 

Revised, Repositioned 

Repositioned 

Repositioned 

Revised, Repositioned 

Revised, Repositioned 

Revised, Repositioned 

Repositioned 

Repositioned 

Revised 

Revised 

New 

Revised, Repositioned 

Revised 

Revised 

Revised, Repositioned 

New 

New 

Revised 

Revised 

Revised, Repositioned 

Revised, Repositioned 

Revised 

New 

Revised, Relettered 

Revised, Relettered 

Revised 

Revised 

Revised 

Revised 

Revised 

Revised, Relettered 

Revised 

Revised 

Revised 

Revised 



6-115(b) New 

6- 115(c) New 

6-116 Revised 

6-118 New 

6-201 Revised 

6-202(a) Revised 

6-202(b) Revised 

6-202(c) New 

6-203(a) Revised 

6-203(b) New 

6-204 Revised 

6-205 Revised 

6-205. 1(c) Revised 

6-205. 1(d) Revised 

6-205.1(e) Revised 

6-206(a) Revised 

6-206(b) New 

6 -206(c) Revised 

6-207 Revised 

6-208 Revised 

6-209(a) Repositioned 

6- 209(b) New 

6-210(a) Revised, Repositioned 

6-210(b) New 

6-211 Revised, Renumbered 

6-212 Renumbered 

6-301 Revised 

6-303 (b) Revised 

6-305 Revised 

6-401 New 

6-402 New 

6-403 New 

6-404 New 

6-405 New 

6-406 New 

6-407 New 

I -303(b) Revised 
/-401(b) Revised 
7-402(a) Revised 
9-301 (a) Revised 
9-301 (b) Revised 
9- 301(h) New 
10-105 Revised 
10- 106 (a) Revised 
10-107(a) Revised 
10- 107(d) Revised 
10-111 Revised 
10-112 Revised 
10-115 Revised 
ll-106(c) Revised 
11-201 (a) Revised 
11 -201(b) Revised 
11 -202(e) Revised 
11 -204(a) Revised 

II -301 (a) Revised 
ll-301(c) Revised 
11-306 Revised 
11 -307(a) Revised 
ll-307(c) New 

11 -308 (a) Revised 

11- 308(b) Revised 

11-313 Revised 

11-401 Revised 

11-403 Revised 

11-404 Revised 

11 -405(a) Revised 

ll-501(a) New 

11-501 (b) Revised 



XXX 



Uniform vehicle uodu 



11-504 Revised 

11-507 Revised 

11-509 New 

11 -601(b) Revised 

11 -601(c) Revised 

11-705 Revised, Renumbered 

11-706 Renumbered 

11-801 Revised 

11-801.1 Repositioned 

11-808 New 

11-902 (b) Revised 

II -902(g) Revised 

11 -90.1(a) Revised 

11-904 New 

11- 1002(b) Revised 

ll-1002(c) New 

ll-1003(a) Revised 

11-1101 .Revised 

11-110.3 New 

11- 1104(b) Revised 

11-1108 Revised 

It- 1110 Revised 

11-1204 .Revised 

11- 1207(a) Revised 
11-1301 New 

11 -1302(a) Revised, Repositioned 

11-1.302 (b) New 

11- 1302(c) New 

ll-1302(d) New 

11-1303 New 

11-1304 New 

11-1305 New 

11-1306 New 

11-1401 New 

11-1402 Repositioned 

1 1- 1403 Repositioned 

11-1404 Repositioned 

12-101 (c) Revised 

12- 101(d) New 

12-102 New 

12-201 Revised 

12-203 Revised 

12-204(a) Revised 

12-205 Revised 

12-206 Revised 

12-210 Revised 

12-211(a) Revised 

12-213 Revised 

12-214(a) Revised 

12-214(b) Revised 

12-215 Revised 

12-216 Revised 

12-2l7(b) Revised 

12-217(c) Revised 

12-217(d) Revised 

12-218 Revised 

12- 219(b) Revised 

12- 220(a) Revised, Repositioned 

12-220(b) New ... 

12- 220(c) Revised, Repositioned 

12-221 Repositioned 

12-222 Renumbered 

12-222(a) Revised 

12-223 Revised, Renumbered 

12-224 Revised, Renumbered 

12-225 Revised 

12-226Xa) Revised 

12- 227(a) Revised 

12- 227(c) Revised 

12-22S Revised 

12-230 Revised 

12-231 Renumbered 

12- 301 (b) Revised 

12-301(c) Revised 

12-301(h) Revised 

12- 302(c) Table revised 

12-304 Renumbered 

12- 401(d) Revised 

12-40S(a) Revised 

12- 404(a) Revised 



12- 405(c) 

l2-406(a) 

12-406(b) 

12-406(c) 

12 -406(d) 

12-407 

12-408 

12-409 

12-411 

12-412 

12-501 

12-502 

12-503 

12-504 

12-505 

12-506 

12-507 

12-507(a) 

12-507(b) 

12-508 

12-509 

12-5.10 

12-510(a) 

12-511 

13-101 

13-102(a) 

13-102(b) 

13-102(c) 

13-102(d) 

13-103 

13- 104(a) 

13-104(b) 

13-104(c) 

13- 104(d) 

13-104(e) 

13- 106(a) 

13-106(b) 

13-106(c) 

13- 106(d) 

13 -106(e) 

13-107(a) 

13- 107(b) 

13-107(c) 

13-107(d) 

13- 107(e) 

13-107(0 

13-108 

13-109 

13- 109(b) 

13- 109(c) 

13-110 

13-111 

13-112 

34- 1.04(a) 

14-104(b) 

14-104(c) 

14- 104(d) 

14-109 

14- 110(a) 

14-113(c) 

14-113(d) 

15-101 

15-102 

15-103 

15-104 

15-107 

15-108 

15-109 

15-110 

15-111 

15-112 

15-113 

15-114 

16-105 

16-107(2) 

16-117(a) 

17- 101(b) 

18- 101(b) 

18-lOKc) 



Repositioned 
Repositioned 
Repositioned 
Repositioned 
Repositioned 
Repositioned 
:d 



Repositioned 
Repositioned 



Revised 

Revised 

New 

Re lettered 

Relettered 

Revised 

Revised 

Revised 

New 

New 

Revised 

Revised 

Revised, 

Revised, 

Revised, 

Revised. 

Reposition 

Revised 

Revised 

Revised, 

Revised, 

Repositioned 

Revised 

New 

Revised 

Revised 

Revised, Relettered 

New 

Revised, Repositioned 

Revised 

Revised 

New 

New 

Revised, Relettered 

Revised, Relettered 

Revised 

Revised 

New 

New 

Revised, Relettered 

Revised 

Revised 

Revised 

New 

New 

Revised, .Relettered 

Revised, Repositioned 

Renumbered 

Revised 

New 

Renumbered 

New 

New 

Revised 

Revised 

Revised 

New 

Table revised 

Revised 

Revised 

Revised 

Revised 

Revised 

New 

Revised 

Revised 

New 

.Renumbered 

Renumbered 

New 

New 

New 

Renumbered 

Revised 

Revised 

Revised 

Revised 

Revised 

Revised 



UNIFORM VEHICLE CODE 

NOTE : This act or any portion thereof should be prefaced by 
a descriptive title conforming to the requirements of the consti- 
tution or statutes of the state enacting it. 

Be it enacted, * * * 

CHAPTER 1 
Words and Phrases Defined 

§ 1-101 — Definition of words and phrases 

The following words and phrases when used in this act shall, 
for the purpose of this act, have the meanings respectively 
ascribed to them in this chapter, except when the context other- 
wise requires. 

§ 1-102 — Alley. — A street or highway intended to provide ac- 
cess to the rear or side of lots or buildings in urban districts 
and not intended for the purpose of through vehicular traffic. 
(New, 1968.) 

§ 1-103 — Arterial street. — Any U.S. or State numbered 
route, controlled-access highway, or other major radial or cir- 
cumferential street or highway designated by local authorities 
within their respective jurisdictions as part of a major arterial 
system of streets or highways. (New, 1954; renumbered, 1968.) 

§ 1-104 — Authorized emergency vehicle. — Such fire depart- 
ment vehicles, police vehicles and ambulances as are publicly 
owned, and such other publicly or privately owned vehicles as 
are designated by the commissioner (or other appropriate state 
official) under § 15-111 of this act. (Revised and renumbered, 
1968.) 

§ 1-105 — Bicycle. — Every device propelled by human power 
upon which any person may ride, having two tandem wheels 
either of which is more than 14 inches in diameter. (Revised 
and renumbered, 1968.) 

§ 1-106 — Bus. — Every motor vehicle designed for carrying 

1 



§ 1-107 Uniform Vehicle Code 

more than 10 passengers and used for the transportation of 
persons ; and every motor vehicle, other than a taxicab, designed 
and used for the transportation of persons for compensation. 
(Renumbered, 1968.) 

§ 1-107— Business district. — The territory contiguous to and 
including a highway when within any 600 feet along such high- 
way there are buildings in use for business or industrial pur- 
poses, including but not limited to hotels, banks, or office build- 
ings, railroad stations and public buildings which occupy at 
least 300 feet of frontage on one side or 300 feet collectively on 
both sides of the highway. (Renumbered, 1968.) 

§ 1-108 — Cancellation of driver's license. — The annulment or 
termination by formal action of the department of a person's 
driver's license because of some error or defect in the license or 
because the licensee is no longer entitled to such license, but the 
cancellation of a license is without prejudice and application for 
a new license may be made at any time after such cancellation. 
(Renumbered, 1968.) 

§ 1-109 — Commissioner. 1 — The commissioner of motor ve- 
hicles of this State. 

§ 1-110 — Controlled-access highway. — Every highway, street 
or roadway in respect to which owners or occupants of abut- 
ting lands and other persons have no legal right of access to or 
from the same except at such points only and in such manner as 
may be determined by the public authority having jurisdiction 
over such highway, street or roadway. 

§ 1-111 — Crosswalk. — (a) That part of a roadway at an in- 
tersection included within the connections of the lateral lines 
of the sidewalks on opposite sides of the highway measured 
from the curbs or, in the absence of curbs, from the edges of the 
traversable roadway; 

(b) Any portion of a roadway at an intersection or elsewhere 
distinctly indicated for pedestrian crossing by lines or other 
markings on the surface. 



i If the term "commissioner" is not appropriate in a particular state, 
then the appropriate term and definition should be substituted. 

2 



Words and Phrases Defined § 1-117 

§ 1-112 — Dealer. — Every person engaged in the business of 
buying, selling or exchanging vehicles who has an established 
place of business for such purpose in this State (and to whom 
current dealer registration plates have been issued by the de- 
partment). (Revised, 1956.) 

§ 1-113 — Department, 2 — The department of motor vehicles 
of this State. 

§ 1-113.1 — Driveaway-towaway operation. — Any operation 
in which any motor vehicle, trailer or semitrailer, singly or in 
combination, new or used, constitutes the commodity being 
transported, when one set or more of wheels of any such vehicle 
are on the roadway during the course of transportation, 
whether or not any such vehicle furnishes the motive power. 
(New, 1962.) 

§ 1-114 — Driver. — Every person who drives or is in actual 
physical control of a vehicle. 

§ 1-114.1 — Driver's license. — Any license to operate a motor 
vehicle issued under the laws of this State. (New, 1968.) 

§ 1-115— Essential parts. — All integral and body parts of a 
vehicle of a type required to be registered hereunder, the re- 
moval, alteration or substitution of which would tend to conceal 
the identity of the vehicle or substantially alter its appearance, 
model, type or mode of operation. 

§ 1-116- — Established place of business. — The place actually 
occupied either continuously or at regular periods by a dealer 
or manufacturer where his books and records are kept and a 
large share of his business is transacted. 

§ 1-117 — Explosives. — Any chemical compound or mechanical 
mixture that is commonly used or intended for the purpose of 
producing an explosion and which contains any oxidizing and 



2 If the administration of this act is not vested in the department of 
motor vehicles within a particular state, the above definition should be 
revised to designate the appropriate department or bureau of the state 
government to administer this act. 



§ 1-118 UNIFORM VEHICLE CODE 

combustive units or other ingredients in such proportions, quan- 
tities or packing that an ignition by fire, by friction, by concus- 
sion, by percussion or by detonator of any part of the compound 
or mixture may cause such a sudden generation of highly heated 
gases that the resultant gaseous pressures are capable of pro- 
ducing destructive effects on contiguous objects or of destroy- 
ing life or limb. 

§ 1-118- — Farm tractor. — Every motor vehicle designed and 
used primarily as a farm implement, for drawing plows, mow- 
ing machines and other implements of husbandry. 

§ 1-119 — Flammable liquid.— Any liquid which has 8 flash 
point of 70° F., or less : as determined by a tagliabue or equiva- 
lent closed-cup test device. 

§ 1-120 — Foreign vehicle. — Every vehicle of a type required 
to be registered hereunder brought into this State from another 
state, territory or country other than in the ordinary course of 
business by or through a manufacturer or dealer and not reg- 
istered in this State. 

§ 1-121 — Gross weight. — The weight of a vehicle without 
load plus the weight of any load thereon. 

§ 1-122 — Highway. — The entire width between the boundary 
lines of every way publicly maintained when any part thereof 
is open to the use of the public for purposes of vehicular travel. 3 

§ 1-123 — House trailer. — (a) A trailer or semitrailer which 
is designed, constructed and equipped as a dwelling place, liv- 
ing abode or sleeping place (either permanently or temporarily) 
and is equipped for use as a conveyance on streets and high- 
ways, or 

(b) A trailer or a semitrailer whose chassis and exterior 
shell is designed and constructed for use as a house trailer, as 
defined in paragraph (a), but which is used instead perma- 
nently or temporarily for the advertising, sales, display or pro- 
motion of merchandise or services, or for any other commercial 



3 By the above definition the terms "street" and "highway" are synony- 
mous and interchangeable. 



Words and Phrases Defined § 1-128 

purpose except the transportation of property for hire or the 
transportation of property for distribution by a private carrier. 
(New section, 1956.) 

§ 1-124 — Identifying: number. — The numbers, and letters if 
any, on a vehicle designated by the department for the purpose 
of identifying the vehicle. (New, 1956.) 

§ 1-125 — Implement of husbandry. — Every vehicle designed 
and adapted exclusively for agricultural, horticultural or live- 
stock raising operations or for lifting or carrying an imple- 
ment of husbandry and in either case not subject to registra- 
tion if used upon the highways. (Revised, 1956.) 

§ 1-126 — Intersection. — (a) The area embraced within the 
prolongation or connection of the lateral curb lines, or, if none, 
then the lateral boundary lines of the roadways of two highways 
which join one another at, or approximately at, right angles, or 
the area within which vehicles traveling upon different high- 
ways joining at any other angle may come in conflict. 

(b) Where a highway includes two roadways (30) feet or 
more apart, then every crossing of each roadway of such divided 
highway by an intersecting highway shall be regarded as a sep- 
arate intersection. In the event such intersecting highway also 
includes two roadways (30) feet or more apart, then every 
crossing of two roadways of such highways shall be regarded 
as a separate intersection. 

(c) The junction of an alley with a street or highway shall 
not constitute an intersection. (New, 1968.) 

§ 1-127 — Laned roadway. — A roadway which is divided into 
two or more clearly marked lanes for vehicular traffic. 

§ 1-128 — License or license to operate a motor vehicle. — Any 

driver's license or any other license or permit to operate a mo- 
tor vehicle issued under, or granted by, the laws of this State 
including: (Revised, 1968.) 

1. Any temporary license or instruction permit; 

2. The privilege of any person to drive a motor vehicle 
whether or not such person holds a valid license ; 

3. Any nonresident's operating privilege as defined herein. 



$ 1-IZy UNIFORM VEHICLE UODE 

§ 1-129— Lienholden— A person holding a security interest 
in a vehicle. (New, 1956.) 

§ 1-130— Local authorities. — Every county, municipal and 
other local board or body having authority to enact laws relat- 
ing to traffic under the constitution and laws of this State. 

§ 1-131— Mail. — To deposit in the United States mail properly 
addressed and with postage prepaid. (New, 1956.) 

§ 1-132 — Manufacturer. — Every person engaged in the busi- 
ness of constructing or assembling vehicles of a type required 
to be registered hereunder at an established place of business 
in this State. 

§ 1-133 — Metal tire. — Every tire the surface of which in con- 
tact with the highway is wholly or partly of metal or other hard, 
nonresilient material. 

§ 1-134 — Motor vehicle.— Every vehicle which is self-pro- 
pelled and every vehicle which is propelled by electric power 
obtained from overhead trolley wires, but not operated upon 

rails. 

§ 1-135 — Motorcycle. — Every motor vehicle having a seat or 
saddle for the use of the rider and designed to travel on not 
more than three wheels in contact with the ground, but exclud- 
ing a tractor. 

§ 1-136— Motor-driven cycle. — Every motorcycle, including 
every motor scooter, with a motor which produces not to exceed 
five brake 4 horsepower, and every bicycle with motor attached. 
(Revised, 1962.) 

§ 1-137— Nonresident.— Every person who is not a resident of 
this State. 

§ 1-138— Nonresident's operating privilege. — The privilege 
conferred upon a nonresident by the laws of this State pertain- 

4 Horsepower developed by the engine, as measured at the drive shaft. 

6 



Words and Phrases Defined § 1-146 

ing to the operation by such person of a motor vehicle, or the 
use of a vehicle owned by such person, in this State. 

§ 1-139— Official traffic-control devices. — All signs, signals, 
markings and devices not inconsistent with this act placed or 
erected by authority of a public body or official having jurisdic- 
tion, for the purpose of regulating, warning or guiding traffic. 

§ i-140 — Owner.— A person, other than a lienholder, having 
the property in or title to a vehicle. The term includes a person 
entitled to the use and possession of a vehicle subject to a se- 
curity interest in another person, but excludes a lessee under 
a lease not intended as security. (Revised, 1956; renumbered, 
1968.) 

§ 1-141 — Park or parking. — Means the standing of a vehicle, 
whether occupied or not, otherwise than temporarily for the 
purpose of and while actually engaged in loading or unloading 
merchandise or passengers. (REVISED, 1956; RENUMBERED, 
1968.) 

§ 1-142 — Passenger car. — Every motor vehicle, except motor- 
cycles and motor-driven cycles, designed for carrying 10 pas- 
sengers or less and used for the transportation of persons. (New, 
1962 ; renumbered, 1968.) 

§ 1-143 — Pedestrian. — Any person afoot. 

§ 1-144 — Person. — Every natural person, firm, copartnership, 
association or corporation. 

§ 1-145— Pneumatic tire. — Every tire in which compressed air 
is designed to support the load. 

§ 1-146 — Pole trailer. — Every vehicle without motive power 
designed to be drawn by another vehicle and attached to the tow- 
ing vehicle by means of a reach or pole, or by being boomed or 
otherwise secured to the towing vehicle, and ordinarily used for 
transporting long or irregularly shaped loads such as poles, pipes 
or structural members capable, generally, of sustaining them- 
selves as beams between the supporting connections. 



§ 1-147 — Police officer. — Every officer authorized to direct or 
regulate traffic or to make arrests for violations of traffic regu- 
lations. 

§ 1-148 — Private road or driveway. — Every way or place in 
private ownership and used for vehicular travel by the owner 
and those having express or implied permission from the owner, 
but not by other persons. 

§ 1-149— Railroad. — A carrier of persons or property upon 
cars (, other than streetcars,) operated upon stationary rails. 
(Revised, 1968.) 

§ 1-150 — Railroad sign or signal. — Any sign, signal or device 
erected by authority of a public body or official or by a railroad 
and intended to give notice of the presence of railroad tracks 
or the approach of a railroad train. 

§ 1-151 — Railroad train. — A steam engine, electric or other 
motor, with or without cars coupled thereto, operated upon rails, 
except streetcars. 

§ 1-152 — Reconstructed vehicle. — Every vehicle of a type re- 
quired to be registered hereunder materially altered from its 
original construction by the removal, addition or substitution of 
essential parts, new or used. 

§ 1-153 — Registration. — The registration certificate or cer- 
tificates and registration plates issued under the laws of this 
State pertaining to the registration of vehicles. 

§ 1-154 — Residence district. — The territory contiguous to and 
including a highway not comprising a business district when the 
property on such highway for a distance of 300 feet or more 
is in the main improved with residences or residences and build- 
ings in use for business. 

§ 1-155 — Revocation of driver's license. — The termination by 
formal action of the department of a person's license or privilege 
to operate a motor vehicle on the public highways, which termi- 
nation shall not be subject to renewal or restoration except that 

8 



Words and Phrases Defined § 1-162 

an application for a new license may be presented and acted up- 
on by the department after the expiration of the applicable pe- 
riod of time prescribed in this act. (Revised, 1968.) 

§ 1-156— Right of way. — The right of one vehicle or pedes- 
trian to proceed in a lawful manner in preference to another ve- 
hicle or pedestrian approaching under such circumstances of 
direction, speed and proximity as to give rise to danger of col- 
lision unless one grants precedence to the other. (Revised, 1962.) 

§ 1-157 — Road tractor. — Every motor vehicle designed and 
used for drawing other vehicles and not so constructed as to 
carry any load thereon either independently or any part of the 
weight of a vehicle or load so drawn. 

§ 1-158 — Roadway. — That portion of a highway improved, de- 
signed or ordinarily used for vehicular travel, exclusive of the 
berm or shoulder. In the event a highway includes two or more 
separate roadways the term "roadway" as used herein shall re- 
fer to any such roadway separately but not to all such roadways 
collectively. 

§ 1-159 — Safety zone. — The area or space officially set apart 
within a roadway for the exclusive use of pedestrians and which 
is protected or is so marked or indicated by adequate signs as to 
be plainly visible at all times while set apart as a safety zone. 

§ 1-160 — School bus. — Every motor vehicle that complies with 
the color and identification requirements set forth in the most 
recent edition of Minimum Standards for School Buses 5 and is 
used to transport children to or from school or in connection with 
school activities, but not including buses operated by common 
carriers in urban transportation of school children. (Revised, 
1962.) 

§ 1-161 — Security agreement. — A written agreement which 
reserves or creates a security interest. (New, 1956.) 

§ 1-162 — Security interest. — An interest in a vehicle reserved 
or created by agreement and which secures payment or per- 



5 Produced and sponsored by the National Commission on Safety Edu- 
cation of the National Education Association, Washington, D. C. 20036. 



§ 1-163 Uniform Vehicle Code 

formance of an obligation. The term includes the interest of a 
lessor under a lease intended as security. A security interest is 
"perfected" when it is valid against third parties generally, sub- 
ject only to specific statutory exceptions. (New, 1956.) 

§ 1-163 — Semitrailer. — Every vehicle with or without motive 
power, other than a pole trailer, designed for carrying persons 
or property and for being drawn by a motor vehicle and so con- 
structed that some part of its weight and that of its load rests 
upon or is carried by another vehicle. 

§ 1-164 — Sidewalk. — That portion of a street between the 
curb lines, or the lateral lines of a roadway, and the adjacent 
property lines, intended for use by pedestrians. 

§ 1-165 — Solid tire. — Every tire of rubber or other resilient 
material which does not depend upon compressed air for the sup- 
port of the load. 

§ 1-166 — Special mobile equipment. — Every vehicle not de- 
signed or used primarily for the transportation of persons or 
property and only incidentally operated or moved over a high- 
way, including but not limited to: ditch digging apparatus, well 
boring apparatus and road construction and maintenance ma- 
chinery such as asphalt spreaders, bituminous mixers, bucket 
loaders, tractors other than truck tractors, ditchers, levelling 
graders, finishing machines, motor graders, road rollers, scarifi- 
ers, earth moving carry-alls and scrapers, power shovels and drag 
lines, and self-propelled cranes and earth moving equipment. 
The term does not include house trailers, dump trucks, truck 
mounted transit mixers, cranes or shovels, or other vehicles de- 
signed for the transportation of persons or property to which 
machinery has been attached. (Revised, 1956.) 

§ 1-167 — Specially constructed vehicle. — Every vehicle of a 
type required to be registered hereunder not originally con- 
structed under a distinctive name, make, model or type by a 
generally recognized manufacturer of vehicles and not mate- 
rially altered from its original construction, 

§ 1-168 — Stand or standing. — Means the halting of a vehicle, 

10 



Words and Phrases Defined § 1-175 

whether occupied or not, otherwise than temporarily for the 
purpose of and while actually engaged in receiving or discharg- 
ing passengers. (New, 1956.) 

§ 1-169 — State. — A state, territory or possession of the United 
States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto 
Rico or a province of Canada. (REVISED, 1968.) 

§ 1-170 — Stop. — When required means complete cessation 
from movement. 

§ 1-171 — Stop or stopping. — When prohibited means any 
halting even momentarily of a vehicle, whether occupied or not, 
except when necessary to avoid conflict with other traffic or in 
compliance with the directions of a police officer or traffic-control 
sign or signal. (Revised, 1956.) 

§ 1-172 — Street. — The entire width between boundary lines 
of every way publicly maintained when any part thereof is open 
to the use of the public for purposes of vehicular travel. 6 

§ 1-173 — Streetcar. — A car other than a railroad train for 
transporting persons or property and operated upon rails princi- 
pally within a municipality. 7 

§ 1-174 — Suspension of driver's license.— The temporary 
withdrawal by formal action of the department of a person's 
license or privilege to operate a motor vehicle on the public high- 
ways, which temporary withdrawal shall be for a period specifi- 
cally designated by the department. (Revised, 1968.) 

§ 1-175 — Through highway. — Every highway or portion 
thereof on which vehicular traffic is given preferential right of 
way, and at the entrances to which vehicular traffic from inter- 
secting highways is required by law to yield the right of way to 
vehicles on such through highway in obedience to a stop sign, 
yield sign, or other official traffic-control device, when such signs 
or devices are erected as provided in this act. (Revised, 1968.) 



• By the above definition the terms "street" and "highway" are synony- 
mous and interchangeable. 

7 This definition should be omitted by states in which streetcars are not 
in operation. 

11 



§ 1-176 Uniform Vehicle Code 

§ 1-176 — Trackless trolley coach. — Every motor vehicle which 
is propelled by electric power obtained from overhead trolley 

wires but not operated upon rails. 

§ 1-177 — Traffic. — Pedestrians, ridden or herded animals, ve- 
hicles, streetcars and other conveyances either singly or together 
while using any highway for purposes of travel. 

§ 1-178 — Traffic-control signal. — Any device, whether manu- 
ally, electrically or mechanically operated, by which traffic is al- 
ternately directed to stop and permitted to proceed. (Revised, 
1962.) 

§ 1-179 — Trailer. — Every vehicle with or without motive 
power, other than a pole trailer, designed for carrying persons 
or property and for being drawn by a motor vehicle and so con- 
structed that no part of its weight rests upon the towing vehicle. 

§ 1-180 — Transporter. — Every person engaged in the business 
of delivering vehicles of a type required to be registered here- 
under from a manufacturing, assembling or distributing plant 
to dealers or sales agents of a manufacturer. 

§ 1-181 — Truck. — Every motor vehicle designed, used or main- 
tained primarily for the transportation of property. 

§ 1-182 — Truck tractor. — Every motor vehicle designed and 
used primarily for drawing other vehicles and not so constructed 
as to carry a load other than a part of the weight of the vehicle 
and load so drawn. 

§ 1-183— Urban district. — The territory contiguous to and in- 
cluding any street which is built up with structures devoted to 
business, industry or dwelling houses situated at intervals of less 
than 100 feet for a distance of a quarter of a mile or more. (New, 

1954.) 

§ 1-184 — Vehicle. — Every device in, upon or by which any 
person or property is or may be transported or drawn upon a 
highway, excepting devices moved by human power or used ex- 
clusively upon stationary rails or tracks. 

12 



CHAPTER 2 
Highway Safety Administration 

Article I — Highway Safety Program 1 (New, 1968.) 

§ 2-101 — Governor's authority to establish highway safety 
program 

The governor, in addition to other powers and responsibilities 
conferred upon him by the constitution and laws of this State, 
is hereby empowered to contract and to do all other things nec- 
essary in behalf of this State to secure the full benefits available 
to this State under the Federal Highway Safety Act of 1966 and 
acts amendatory or supplemental thereto, and in so doing to 
cooperate with local, state and federal agencies, interested pri- 
vate and public organizations, and with individuals, so as to 
effectuate the purposes of that enactment and any subsequent 
amendments thereto. 

§ 2-102 — Governor's responsibility for administration of high- 
way safety program 

The governor shall be the official of this State having the re- 
sponsibility for dealing with the federal government with re- 
spect to programs and activities pursuant to the Federal High- 
way Safety Act of 1966 and acts amendatory or supplemental 
thereto. To that end he shall coordinate the activities of any and 
all departments and agencies of this State and its subdivisions 
relating thereto. 

§ 2-103 — Governor's highway safety coordinator 

There is hereby created the office of governor's highway safety 



1 This article is recommended for consideration bv states in the con- 
text of the Federal Highway Safety Act of 1966, 80 Stat. 731 (1966). 
Section 402(a) of that Act contemplates that each state will have a high- 
way safety program approved by the Secretary of Transportation. 23 
USC § 402(a). To secure such approval, however, a program must pro- 
vide "that the governor of the state shall be responsible for the admin- 
istration of the program." 23 USC § 402(b)(1)(A). In adopting this 
article, it is expected that each state will make such modifications or ad- 
ditions as may be necessary or desirable to comply with constitutional 
restrictions or to be compatible with any existing statutory provisions re- 
lating to the governor or to federal-state matters generally. 

13 



§ 2-2U1 UNIFORM VEHICLE (JODE 

coordinator. The powers and duties of the governor conferred by 
this article may be delegated by him to the highway safety co- 
ordinator, but responsibility for the highway safety program 
of this State remains with the governor, as otherwise by law pro- 
vided. 

Article II— Highway Safety Coordinating Committee 
(New, 1968.) 

§ 2-201 — Committee established 

There is hereby established the (name of State) highway 
safety coordinating committee hereinafter referred to as the 
"committee." 

§ 2-202— Membership 

(a) The following State officers shall, ex officio, be members of 
the committee : 

1. The governor, who shall be chairman of the committee. 

2. (Here insert, by official title, the heads of all State execu- 
tive agencies, and chairmen of legislative committees, involved 
in activities relating to traffic safety.) 2 

(b) The governor may appoint such additional members as 
he deems appropriate, which members shall serve at his pleasure. 

(c) Each member of the committee may, from time to time, 
designate a person to serve temporarily as his alternate. 

§ 2-203 — Duties of committee 

The committee shall act as the central coordinating agency in 
the planning and execution of highway safety programs. The 
committee shall have no authority, power or duty vested in any 
other department or departments of State government. 

§ 2-204 — Executive director 

The governor's highway safety coordinator shall be the exec- 
utive director of the committee. The executive director shall be 



2 Chairmen of legislative committees should not be included where state 
constitutions or interpretations thereof prohibit this degree of participa- 
tion in the executive branch by members of the legislature. In other states, 
it may be necessary to limit membership to chairmen of committees princi 
pally involved in highway safety legislation or financing. 

14 



Highway Safety Administration § 2-302 

the administrative officer for the committee and shall be in gen- 
eral charge of the work of the committee. The executive director 
shall develop, plan and execute such functions and duties as are 
prescribed by the (governor, committee) under this article. 8 

Optional § 2-205— Meetings 

The committee shall meet at the call of the chairman, but not 
less often than 



Article III — Department of Motor Vehicles 
(Sections renumbered, 1968.) 

§ 2-301 — Department created 

(a) A department of the government of this State to be 
known as the "department of motor vehicles" is hereby cre- 
ated. 

Alternate (a) There shall be a (bureau or division of mo- 
tor vehicles) within the department of 4 (New, 1968.) 

(b) The department shall succeed to and is hereby vested with 
all the powers, duties and jurisdiction now vested in the (present 
State bureau or department exercising such functions) . 

§ 2-302 — Office of commissioner of motor vehicles created 

The department shall be under the control of a civil executive 
officer to be known as the "commissioner of motor vehicles." 5 



3 Consideration should be given to providing adequate staff and sup- 
porting services. 

4 The precise description and placement within the executive branch of 
the agency that will administer motor vehicle and driver licensing laws is 
a matter for the enacting jurisdiction to decide. In some statesman in- 
dependent and major department of motor vehicles has been created, while 
in others, administration of these laws has been vested within a depart- 
ment, bureau or division of another state agency, such as a department 
of transportation, department of public safety, department of highways 
or the office of the secretary of state. Although the description and place- 
ment of this administration is not significant for purposes of uniformity, 
the National Committee does recommend that responsibility for such 
principal functions as licensing drivers and registering or titling vehicles 
be vested in the same department, bureau or division. 

r> The text does not provide the method of filling the office of the com- 
missioner of motor vehicles or the term of office. It is recommended that 
each state adopt a method and provide a salary appropriate to the im- 
portance of the position and provide means to insure continuance in of- 
fice, as a commissioner's experience in office is of great value in the proper 
administration of the motor vehicle laws. 

15 



§ 2-303 — Organization of department 

The commissioner shall organize the department in such man- 
ner as he may deem necessary properly to segregate and con- 
duct the work of the department, but the work of the depart- 
ment is hereby divided into at least two divisions to be known 
respectively as the division of registration and the division of 
drivers' licenses. 6 (Revised, 1968.) 

§ 2-304 — Commissioner to appoint subordinates 

The commissioner (subject to civil-service laws) shall appoint 
such deputies, subordinate officers, clerks, investigators and 
other employees as may be necessary to carry out the provi- 
sions of this act. The salaries of all such appointees shall be 
fixed by the commissioner subject to the approval of (the State 
financial officer or board exercising supervision with respect to 
salaries of other subordinate state officers and employees). (Re- 
vised, 1968.) 

§ 2-305 — Powers and duties of commissioner 

(a) The commissioner is hereby vested with the power and 
is charged with the duty of administering the provisions of this 
act and of all laws the administration of which is now or here- 
after vested in the department. 

(b) The commissioner is hereby authorized to adopt such 
rules and regulations as may be necessary to carry out the pro- 
visions of this act and any other laws the administration of 
which is vested in the department. 

(c) The commissioner shall adopt an official seal for the use 
of the department. 

(d) The commissioner and such officers and employees of the 
department as he shall designate shall have the power : 

1. To inspect any vehicle of a type required to be registered 
hereunder which is in any garage or repair shop or in any place 



6 Prior to 1968, this chapter provided for a highway patrol division 
within the department of motor vehicles and defined its law enforcement 
powers and duties. Primarily because many states had found it desirable 
to provide for some other placement of a state-wide police agency, these 
provisions were deleted from the Code. Nonetheless, the National Com- 
mittee continues to recommend that the laws of each state provide for a 
strong and effective state-wide police agency with traffic and motor ve- 
hicle law enforcement responsibilities. 

16 



Highway Safety Administration § 2-309 

where such vehicles are held for sale or wrecking, for the pur- 
pose of investigating the title and registration thereof. 

2. To collect information on accidents and obtain testimony 
of witnesses or of persons involved. (Section revised, 1968.) 

§ 2-306— Offices of department 

The commissioner shall maintain an office in the State capitol 
and in such other places in the State as he may deem necessary 
properly to carry out the powers and duties vested in the depart- 
ment. 

§ 2-307 — Commissioner to prescribe forms 

The commissioner shall prescribe and provide suitable forms 
of applications, certificates of title, registration cards, drivers' 
licenses and all other forms requisite or deemed necessary to 
carry out the provisions of this act and any other laws the ad- 
ministration of which is vested in the department. (Revised, 
1968.) 

§ 2-308 — Authority to administer oaths and certify copies of 
records 

(a) Officers and employees of the department designated by 
the commissioner are, for the purpose of administering the mo- 
tor vehicle laws, authorized to administer oaths and acknowl- 
edge signatures, and shall do so without fee. 

(b) The commissioner and such officers of the department as 
he may designate are hereby authorized to prepare under the 
seal of the department and deliver upon request a certified copy 
of any record of the department, charging a fee of (50 cents) 
for each document so authenticated, and every such certified 
copy shall be admissible in any proceeding in any court in like 
manner as the original thereof. 

§ 2-309 — Records of department 

(a) All records of the department, other than those declared 
by law to be for the confidential use of the department, shall be 
open to public inspection during office hours. 

(b) The commissioner may destroy any records of the de- 
partment which have been maintained on file for five years 

17 



§ 2-310 Uniform Vehicle Code 

which he may deem obsolete and of no further service in carry- 
ing out the powers and duties of the department. 

§ 2-310 — Authority to approve or reject applications 

The department shall examine and determine the genuine- 
ness, regularity and legality of every application for registra- 
tion of a vehicle, for a certificate of title therefor, and for a 
driver's license and of any other application lawfully made to 
the department, and may in all cases make investigation as may 
be deemed necessary or require additional information, and 
shall reject any such application if not satisfied of the genuine- 
ness, regularity or legality thereof or the truth of any state- 
ment contained therein, or for any other reason when autho- 
rized by law. (Revised, 1968.) 

§ 2-311 — Seizure of documents and plates 

The commissioner, such employees of the department as he 
shall designate, and all police officers are hereby authorized to 
take possession of any certificate of title, registration or license 
issued by this or any other state, which has been revoked, can- 
celled or suspended, or which is fictitious, stolen or altered. ( Re- 
vised, 1968.) 

§ 2-312 — Distribution of synopsis of laws 

The department may publish a synopsis of the laws of this 
State regulating the operation of vehicles and may deliver a 
copy thereof without charge to each person applying lor or 
receiving an original or renewed vehicle registration or driver's 
license. (Revised, 1968.) 

§ 2-313 — Department may summon witnesses and take testi- 
mony 

(a) The commissioner and officers of the department desig- 
nated by him shall have authority to summon witnesses to give 
testimony under oath or to give written deposition upon any 
matter under the jurisdiction of the department. Such summons 
may require the production of relevant books, papers or records. 

(b) Every such summons shall be served at least five days 
before the return date, either by personal service made by any 

18 



Highway Safety Administration § 2-314 

person over 18 years of age or by registered mail, but return 
and acknowledgment is required to prove such latter service. 
Failure to obey such a summons so served shall constitute a 
misdemeanor. The fees for the attendance and travel of wit- 
nesses shall be the same as for witnesses before the (superior 
court) . 

(c) The (superior court) shall have jurisdiction, upon ap- 
plication by the commissioner, to enforce all lawful orders of 
the commissioner under this section. 

§ 2-314 — living of notice 

Whenever the department is authorized or required to give 
any notice under this act or other law regulating the operation 
of vehicles, unless a different method of giving such notice is 
otherwise expressly prescribed, such notice shall be given 
either by personal delivery thereof to the person to be so noti- 
fied or by deposit in the United States mail of such notice in an 
envelope with postage prepaid, addressed to such person at his 
address as shown by the records of the department. The giving 
of notice by mail is complete upon the expiration of four days 
after such deposit of said notice. Proof of the giving of notice 
in either such manner may be made by the certificate of any 
officer or employee of the department or affidavit of any person 
over 18 years of age, naming the person to whom such notice 
was given and specifying the time, place and manner of the 
giving thereof. 



19 



CHAPTER 3 

Certificates of Title and Registration of Vehicles 

Article I — Certificates of Title (New, 1956.) 
§ 3-101 — Certificate of title required 

(a) Except as provided in § 3-102, every owner of a vehicle 
which is in this State and for which no certificate of title has 
been issued by the department shall make application to the de- 
partment for a certificate of title of the vehicle. 

(b) The department shall not register or renew the registra- 
tion of a vehicle unless a certificate of title has been issued by the 
department to the owner or an application therefor has been de- 
livered by the owner to the department. 

§ 3-102— Exclusions 

No certificate of title need be obtained for : 

1. A vehicle owned by the United States unless it is registered 
in this State; 

2. A vehicle owned by a manufacturer or dealer and held for 
sale, even though incidentally moved on the highway or used for 
purposes of testing or demonstration; or a vehicle used by a 
manufacturer solely for testing; 

3. A vehicle owned by a nonresident of this State and not 
required by law to be registered in this State ; 

4. A vehicle regularly engaged in the interstate transporta- 
tion of persons or property for which a currently effective cer- 
tificate of title has been issued in another state ; 

5. A vehicle moved solely by animal power; 

6. An implement of husbandry ; 

7. Special mobile equipment; 

(8. A self-propelled invalid wheel chair or tricycle;) 
(9. A pole trailer.) 

§ 3-103 — Optional certificate of title 

The owner of an implement of husbandry or special mobile 
equipment may apply for and obtain a certificate of title on it. 
All of the provisions of this chapter are applicable to a certifi- 

20 



Title and Registration § 3-104 

cate of title so issued, except that a person who receives a 
transfer of an interest in the vehicle without knowledge of the 
certificate of title is not prejudiced by reason of the existence of 
the certificate, and the perfection of a security interest under 
this act is not effective until the lienholder has complied with 
the provisions of applicable law which otherwise relate to the 
perfection of security interests in personal property. 

§ 3-104 — Application for first certificate of title 

(a) The application for the first certificate of title of a vehicle 
in this State shall be made by the owner to the department on 
the form it prescribes and shall contain : 

1. The name, residence and mail address of the owner; 

2. A description of the vehicle including, so far as the follow- 
ing data exist: its make, model, identifying number, type of 
body, the number of cylinders, and whether new or used ; 

3. The date of purchase by applicant, the name and address 
of the person from whom the vehicle was acquired and the 
names and addresses of any lienholders in the order of their 
priority and the dates of their security agreements ; and 

4. Any further information the department reasonably re- 
quires to identify the vehicle and to enable it to determine 
whether the owner is entitled to a certificate of title and the 
existence or non-existence of security interests in the vehicle. 

(b) If the application refers to a vehicle purchased from a 
dealer, it shall contain the name and address of any lienholder 
holding a security interest created or reserved at the time of the 
sale and the date of his security agreement and be signed by the 
dealer as well as the owner, and the dealer shall promptly mail 
or deliver the application to the department. 

(c) If the application refers to a vehicle last previously reg- 
istered in another state or country, the application shall contain 
or be accompanied by : 

1. Any certificate of title issued by the other state or country; 

2. Any other information and documents the department rea- 
sonably requires to establish the ownership of the vehicle and 
the existence or non-existence of security interests in it; and 

3. The certificate of a person authorized by the department 
that the identifying number of the vehicle has been inspected 
and found to conform to the description given in the application, 

21 



§ 3-105 Uniform Vehicle Code 

or any other proof of the identity of the vehicle the department 
reasonably requires, 

§ 3-105 — Examination of records 

The department, upon receiving application for a first cer- 
tificate of title, shall check the identifying number of the vehicle 
shown in the application against the records of vehicles required 
to be maintained by § 3-106 and against the record of stolen and 
converted vehicles required to be maintained by § 4-105. 

§ 3-106 — Issuance and records 

(a) The department shall file each application received and, 
when satisfied as to its genuineness and regularity and that the 
applicant is entitled to the issuance of a certificate of title, shall 
issue a certificate of title of the vehiele. 

(b) The department shall maintain a record of all certificates 
of title issued by it : 

1. Under a distinctive title number assigned to the vehicle; 

2. Under the identifying number of the vehicle ; 
(3. Alphabetically, under the name of the owner;) 

and, in the discretion of the department, in any other method it 
determines. 

§ 3-107 — Contents and effect 

(a) Each certificate of title issued by the department shall 
contain : 

1. The date issued; 

2. The name and address of the owner; 

3. The names and addresses of any lienholders, in the order of 
priority as shown on the application or, if the application is based 
on a certificate of title, as shown on the certificate ; 

4. The title number assigned to the vehicle ; 

5. A description of the vehicle including, so far as the follow- 
ing data exist: its make, model, identifying number, type of 
body, number of cylinders, whether new or used, and, if a new 
vehicle, the date of the first sale of the vehicle for use ; and 

6. Any other data the department prescribes. 

(b) Unless a bond is filed as provided in § 3-109 (b), a dis- 
tinctive certificate of title shall be issued for a vehicle last 

22 



Title and Registration § 3-109 

previously registered in another state or country the laws of 
which do not require that lienholders be named on a certificate 
of title to perfect their security interests. The certificate shall 
contain the legend "This vehicle may be subject to an undis- 
closed lien" and may contain any other information the depart- 
ment prescribes. If no notice of a security interest in the vehicle 
is received by the department within four months from the 
issuance of the distinctive certificate of title, it shall, upon 
application and surrender of the distinctive certificate, issue a 
certificate of title in ordinary form. 

(c) The certificate of title shall contain forms for assignment 
and warranty of title by the owner, and for assignment and 
warranty of title by a dealer, and may contain forms for applica- 
tions for a certificate of title by a transferee, the naming of a 
lienholder and the assignment or release of the security interest 
of a lienholder. 

(d) A certificate of title issued by the department is prima 
facie evidence of the facts appearing on it. 

(e) A certificate of title for a vehicle is not subject to garnish- 
ment, attachment, execution or other judicial process, but this 
subsection does not prevent a lawful levy upon the vehicle. 

§ 3-108— Delivery 

The certificate of title shall be mailed to the first lienholder 
named in it or, if none, to the owner. 

§ 3-109 — Registration without certificate of title; bond 

If the department is not satisfied as to the ownership of the 
vehicle or that there are no undisclosed security interests in it, 
the department may register the vehicle but shall either : 

(a) Withhold issuance of a certificate of title until the appli- 
cant presents documents reasonably sufficient to satisfy the 
department as to the applicant's ownership of the vehicle and 
that there are no undisclosed security interests in it ; or 

(b) As a condition of issuing a certificate of title, require the 
applicant to file with the department a bond in the form pre- 
scribed by the department and executed by the applicant, and 
either accompanied by the deposit of cash with the department 
or also executed by a person authorized to conduct a surety 

23 



§ 3-110 Uniform Vehicle Code 

business in this State. The bond shall be in an amount equal to 
one and one-half times the value of the vehicle as determined by 
the department and conditioned to indemnify any prior owner 
and lienholder and any subsequent purchaser of the vehicle or 
person acquiring any security interest in it, and their respective 
successors in interest, against any expense, loss or damage, in- 
cluding reasonable attorney's fees, by reason of the issuance of 
the certificate of title of the vehicle or on account of any defect 
in or undisclosed security interest upon the right, title and 
interest of the applicant in and to the vehicle. Any such inter- 
ested person has a right of action to recover on the bond for 
any breach of its conditions, but the aggregate liability of the 
surety to all persons shall not exceed the amount of the bond. 
The bond, and any deposit accompanying it, shall be returned 
at the end of three years or prior thereto if the vehicle is no 
longer registered in this State and the currently valid certificate 
of title is surrendered to the department, unless the department 
has been notified of the pendency of an action to recover on the 
bond. 

§ 3-110— Refusing certificate of title 

The department shall refuse issuance of a certificate of title if 
any required fee is not paid or if it has reasonable grounds to 
believe that : 

(a) The applicant is not the owner of the vehicle; 

(b) The application contains a false or fraudulent statement ; 
or 

(c) The applicant fails to furnish required information or 
documents or any additional information the department reason- 
ably requires. 

§ 3-111 — Lost, stolen or mutilated certificates 

(a) If a certificate of title is lost, stolen, mutilated or destroyed 
or becomes illegible, the first lienholder or, if none, the owner or 
legal representative of the owner named in the certificate, as 
shown by the records of the department, shall promptly make 
application for and may obtain a duplicate upon furnishing in- 
formation satisfactory to the department. The duplicate certifi- 
cate of title shall contain the legend "This is a duplicate certifi- 

24 



Title and Registration § 3-112 

cate and may be subject to the rights of a person under the 
original certificate." It shall be mailed to the first lienholder 
named in it or, if none, to the owner. 1 

(b) The department shall not issue a new certificate of title 
to a transferee upon application made on a duplicate until 15 
days after receipt of the application. 

(c) A person recovering an original certificate of title for 
which a duplicate has been issued shall promptly surrender the 
original certificate to the department. 

§ 3-112— Transfer 

(a) If an owner transfers his interest in a vehicle, other than 
by the creation of a security interest, he shall, at the time of the 
delivery of the vehicle, execute an assignment and warranty of 
title to the transferee in the space provided therefor on the cer- 
tificate or as the department prescribes, and cause the certificate 
and assignment to be mailed or delivered to the transferee or 
to the department. 

(b) Except as provided in § 3-113, the transferee shall, 
promptly after delivery to him of the vehicle, execute the appli- 
cation for a new certificate of title in the space provided therefor 
on the certificate or as the department prescribes, and cause the 
certificate and application to be mailed or delivered to the de- 
partment. 

(c) Upon request of the owner or transferee, a lienholder in 
possession of the certificate of title shall, unless the transfer was 
a breach of his security agreement, either deliver the certificate 
to the transferee for delivery to the department or, upon receipt 
from the transferee of the owner's assignment, the transferee's 
application for a new certificate (, the registration card) (, li- 
cense plates) and the required fee, mail or deliver them to the 
department. The delivery of the certificate does not affect the 
rights of the lienholder under his security agreement. 

(d) If a security interest is reserved or created at the time of 
the transfer, the certificate of title shall be retained by or de- 
livered to the person who becomes the lienholder, and the parties 
shall comply with the provisions of § 3-203. 



1 "Legal representative" in subsection (a) is intended to mean executor, 
administrator, trustee in bankruptcy, etc., as distinguished from a mere 
agent. 

25 



8 O-lXO UIN1FUKM VEHICLE UODE 

(e) Except as provided in § 3-113 and as between the parties, 
a transfer by an owner is not effective until the provisions of 
this section (and § 3-115) have been complied with ( ; however, 
an owner who has delivered possession of the vehicle to the trans- 
feree and has complied with the provisions of this section (and § 
3-115) requiring action by him is not liable as owner for any 
damages thereafter resulting from operation of the vehicle) . 2 

§ 3-113 — Transfer to or from dealer; records 

(a) If a dealer buys a vehicle and holds it for resale and 
procures the certificate of title from the owner or the lienholder 
within 10 days after delivery to him of the vehicle, he need not 
send the certificate to the department but, upon transferring 
the vehicle to another person other than by the creation of a 
security interest, shall promptly execute the assignment and 
warranty of title by a dealer, showing the names and addresses 
of the transferee and of any lienholder holding a security interest 
created or reserved at the time of the resale and the date of 
his security agreement, in the spaces provided therefor on the 
certificate or as the department prescribes, and mail or deliver 
the certificate to the department with the transferee's application 
for a new certificate. 

(b) Every dealer shall maintain for five years a record in the 
form the department prescribes of every vehicle bought, sold or 
exchanged by him, or received by him for sale or exchange, which 
shall be open to inspection by a representative of the department 
or peace officer during reasonable business hours. 

§ 3-114 — Transfer by operation of law 

(a) If the interest of an owner in a vehicle passes to another 
other than by voluntary transfer, the transferee shall, except as 
provided in subsection (b), promptly mail or deliver to the 
department the last certificate of title, if available, proof of the 
transfer, and his application for a new certificate in the form 
the department prescribes. 

(b) If the interest of the owner is terminated or the vehicle is 
sold under a security agreement by a lienholder named in the 



2 The parenthetical language in subsection (e) should be included in the 
act as adopted unless other laws of the state clearly fix the time when an 
owner of a vehicle who transfers it ceases to be liable for its operation. 

26 



Title and Registration § 3-116 

certificate of title, the transferee shall promptly mail or deliver 
to the department the last certificate of title, his application for 
a new certificate in the form the department prescribes, and an 
affidavit made by or on behalf of the lienholder that the vehicle 
was repossessed and that the interest of the owner was lawfully 
terminated or sold pursuant to the terms of the security agree- 
ment. If the lienholder succeeds to the interest of the owner and 
holds the vehicle for resale, he need not secure a new certificate 
of title but, upon transfer to another person, shall promptly mail 
or deliver to the transferee or to the department the certificate, 
affidavit and other documents (and articles) required to be sent 
to the department by the transferee. 

(c) A person holding a certificate of title whose interest in 
the vehicle has been extinguished or transferred other than by 
voluntary transfer shall mail or deliver the certificate to the de- 
partment upon request of the department. The delivery of the 
certificate pursuant to the request of the department does not 
affect the rights of the person surrendering the certificate, and 
the action of the department in issuing a new certificate of title 
as provided herein is not conclusive upon the rights of an owner 
or lienholder named in the old certificate. 

§ 3-115 — Fees; registration cards; license plates 

(a) An application for a certificate of title shall be accom- 
panied by (the registration card) (,) (license plates) (and) the 
required fee when mailed or delivered to the department. 

(b) An application for the naming of a lienholder or his 
assignee on a certificate of title shall be accompained by (the 
registration card and) the required fee when mailed or delivered 
to the department. 

Optional (c) A transferor of a vehicle, other than a dealer 
transferring a new vehicle, shall deliver to the transferee at the 
time of the delivery of possession of the vehicle (the registration 
card) (and) (license plates) for the vehicle. 

§ 3-116 — When department to issue new certificate 

(a) The department, upon receipt of a properly assigned 
certificate of title, with an application for a new certificate of 
title, the required fee and any other documents (and articles) re- 

27 



§ 3-1 It UNIFORM VEHICLE UODiU 

quired by law, shall issue a new certificate of title in the name 
of the transferee as owner and mail it to the first lienholder 
named in it or, if none, to the owner. 

(b) The department, upon receipt of an application for a new 
certificate of title by a transferee other than by voluntary trans- 
fer, with proof of the transfer, the required fee and any other 
documents (and articles) required by law, shall issue a new 
certificate of title in the name of the transferee as owner. If 
the outstanding certificate of title is not delivered to it, the de- 
partment shall make demand therefor from the holder thereof. 

(c) The department shall file and retain for (five) years 
every surrendered certificate of title, the file to be maintained so 
as to permit the tracing of title of the vehicle designated therein. 

§ 3-117 — Scrapping, dismantling or destroying vehicle 

An owner who scraps, dismantles or destroys a vehicle and a 
person who purchases a vehicle as scrap or to be dismantled or 
destroyed shall immediately cause the certificate of title to be 
mailed or delivered to the department for cancellation. A certifi- 
cate of title of the vehicle shall not again be issued except upon 
application containing the information the department requires, 
accompanied by a certificate of inspection in the form and con- 
tent specified in § 3-104 (c). 

Article II — Security Interests (New, 1956.) 
§ 3-201 — Excepted liens and security interests 

This act does not apply to or affect: 

(a) A lien given by statute or rule of law to a supplier of 
services or materials for the vehicle ; 

(b) A lien given by statute to the United States, this State or 
any political subdivision of this State; 

(c) A security interest in a vehicle created by a manufacturer 
or dealer who holds the vehicle for sale (, but a buyer in the 
ordinary course of trade from the manufacturer or dealer takes 
free of the security interest). 3 



3 A state which permits a security interest created by a manufacturer 
or dealer to be superior to the rights of a buyer in the ordinary course 
of trade should enact the parenthetical language. 

28 



Title and Registration § 3-202 

§ 3-202 — Perfection of security interests 

(a) Unless excepted by § 3-201, a security interest in a vehicle 
of a type for which a certificate of title is required is not valid 
against creditors of the owner or subsequent transferees or lien- 
holders of the vehicle unless perfected as provided in this act. 

(b) A security interest is perfected by the delivery to the 
department of the existing certificate of title, if any, an applica- 
tion for a certificate of title containing the name and address 
of the lienholder and the date of his security agreement and the 
required fee (and registration card) . It is perfected as of the 
time of its creation if the delivery is completed within 10 days 
thereafter, otherwise, as of the time of the delivery. 

(c) If a vehicle is subject to a security interest when brought 
into this State, the validity of the security interest is determined 
by the law of the jurisdiction where the vehicle was when the 
security interest attached, subject to the following: 

1. If the parties understood at the time the security interest 
attached that the vehicle would be kept in this State and it was 
brought into this State within 30 days thereafter for purposes 
other than transportation through this State, the validity of the 
security interest in this State is determined by the law of this 
State. 

2. If the security interest was perfected under the law of the 
jurisdicton where the vehicle was when the security interest 
attached, the following rules apply : 

a. If the name of the lienholder is shown on an existing 
certificate of title issued by that jurisdiction, his security 
interest continues perfected in this State. 

b. If the name of the lienholder is not shown on an existing 
certificate of title issued by that jurisdiction, the security in- 
terest continues perfected in this State for four months after 
a first certificate of title of the vehicle is issued in this State, 
and also, thereafter if, within the four-month period, it is 
perfected in this State. The security interest may also be 
perfected in this State after the expiration of the four-month 
period; in that case perfection dates from the time of per- 
fection in this State. 

3. If the security interest was not perfected under the law of 
the jurisdiction where the vehicle was when the security interest 

29 



§ 3-203 Uniform Vehicle Code 

attached, it may be perfected in this State ; in that case, perfec- 
tion dates from the time of perfection in this State. 

4. A security interest may be perfected under paragraph 2b 
or paragraph 3 of this subsection either as provided in subsection 
(b) or by the lienholder delivering to the department a notice of 
security interest in the form the department prescribes and the 
required fee. 

§ 3-203— Security interest 

If an owner creates a security interest in a vehicle : 

(a) The owner shall immediately execute the application, in 
the space provided therefor on the certificate of title or on a 
separate form the department prescribes, to name the lienholder 
on the certificate, showing the name and address of the lien- 
holder and the date of his security agreement, and cause the 
certificate, application and the required fee (and registration 
card) to be delivered to the lienholder. 

(b) The lienholder shall immediately cause the certificate, 
application and the required fee (and registration card) to be 
mailed or delivered to the department. 

(c) Upon request of the owner or subordinate lienholder, a 
lienholder in possession of the certificate of title shall either mail 
or deliver the certificate to the subordinate lienholder for de- 
livery to the department or, upon receipt from the subordinate 
lienholder of the owner's application and the required fee (and 
registration card) , mail or deliver them to the department with 
the certificate. The delivery of the certificate does not affect the 
rights of the first lienholder under his security agreement. 

(d) Upon receipt of the certificate of title, application and the 
required fee (and registration card), the department shall either 
endorse on the certificate or issue a new certificate containing the 
name and address of the new lienholder, and mail the certificate 
to the first lienholder named in it. 

§ 3-204 — Assignment by lienholder 

(a) A lienholder may assign, absolutely or otherwise, his 
security interest in the vehicle to a person other than the owner 
without affecting the interest of the owner or the validity of the 
security interest, but any person without notice of the assign- 

30 



Title and Registration § 3-206 

ment is protected in dealing with the lienholder as the holder of 
the security interest and the lienholder remains liable for any 
obligations as lienholder until the assignee is named as lienholder 
on the certificate. 

(b) The assignee may, but need not to perfect the assignment, 
have the certificate of title endorsed or issued with the assignee 
named as lienholder, upon delivering to the department the cer- 
tificate and an assignment by the lienholder named in the 
certificate in the form the department prescribes. 

§ 3-205 — Release of security interest 

(a) Upon the satisfaction of a security interest in a vehicle 
for which the certificate of title is in the possession . of the lien- 
holder, he shall, within 10 days after demand and, in any event, 
within 30 days, execute a release of his security interest, in the 
space provided therefor on the certificate or as the department 
prescribes, and mail or deliver the certificate and release to the 
next lienholder named therein, or, if none, to the owner or any 
person who delivers to the lienholder an authorization from the 
owner to receive the certificate. The owner, other than a dealer 
holding the vehicle for resale, shall promptly cause the certificate 
and release to be mailed or delivered to the department, which 
shall release the lienholder's rights on the certificate or issue 
a new certificate. 

(b) Upon the satisfaction of a security interest in a vehicle 
for which the certificate of title is in the possession of a prior 
lienholder, the lienholder whose security interest is satisfied shall 
within 10 days after demand and, in any event, within 30 days 
execute a release in the form the department prescribes and de- 
liver the release to the owner or any person who delivers to the 
lienholder an authorization from the owner to receive it. The lien- 
holder in possession of the certificate of title shall either deliver 
the certificate to the owner, or the person authorized by him, for 
delivery to the department, or, upon receipt of the release (and 
registration card), mail or deliver it (them) with the certificate 
to the department, which shall release the subordinate lien- 
holder's rights on the certificate or issue a new certificate. 

§ 3-206— Duty of lienholder 

A lienholder named in a certificate of title shall, upon written 

31 



§ 3-207 Uniform Vehicle Code 

request of the owner or of another lienholder named on the 
certificate, disclose any pertinent information as to his security 
agreement and the indebtedness secured by it. 

§ 3-207 — Exclusiveness of procedure 

The method provided in this act of perfecting and giving no- 
tice of security interests subject to this act is exclusive. Security 
interests subject to this act are hereby exempted from the pro- 
visions of law which otherwise require or relate to the ( (re- 
cording) (filing) of instruments creating or evidencing security 
interests ) 4 

§ 3-208 — Suspension or revocation of certificates 

(a) The department shall suspend or revoke a certificate of 
title, upon notice and reasonable opportunity to be heard in 
accordance with § 3-210, when authorized by any other provision 
of law or if it finds : 

1. The certificate of title was fraudulently procured or erro- 
neously issued, or 

2. The vehicle has been scrapped, dismantled or destroyed. 

(b) Suspension or revocation of a certificate of title does not, 
in itself, affect the validity of a security interest noted on it. 

(c) When the department suspends or revokes a certificate of 
title, the owner or person in possession of it shall, immediately 
upon receiving notice of the suspension or revocation, mail or 
deliver the certificate to the department. 

(d) The department may seize and impound any certificate of 
title which has been suspended or revoked. 

§ 3-209 — Powers of department 

(a) The department shall prescribe and provide suitable 
forms of applications, certificates of title, notices of security 
interests, and all other notices and forms necessary to carry out 
the provisions of this chapter. 



4 Insert in the parentheses appropriate phraseology to refer to technical 
requirements of other statutes relating not only to recording or filing of 
security agreements but also to acknowledgments, affidavits of good faith, 
witnesses, etc. 

32 



Title and Registration § 3-301 

(b) The department may: 

1. Make necessary investigations to procure information re- 
quired to carry out the provisions of this act ; 

2. Assign a new identifying number to a vehicle if it has none, 
or its identifying number is destroyed or obliterated, or its motor 
is changed, and shall either issue a new certificate of title show- 
ing the new identifying number or make an appropriate en- 
dorsement on the original certificate. 

§ 3-210— Court review 

A person aggrieved by an act or omission to act of the depart- 
ment under this act is also entitled to a review thereof by the 

court in accordance with (the administrative pro- 
cedure act of this State) (law). 

ALTERNATE A— For States Having No Certificate of 
Title Act 5 (New, 1956.) 

Article III— Previously Registered Vehicles 

§ 3-301 — Previously registered vehicle defined 

A "previously registered vehicle" means a vehicle registered 



5 Administrative considerations require that the act be put into effect 
gradually in a state with no present certificate of title act but having 
thousands, hundreds of thousands or millions of registered vehicles. 

This article proceeds on the following premises : 

1. Application for a certificate of title should be required for: 

a. New vehicles — when sold to a "user in the state; 

b. Used vehicles from other states — when required to be registered 
in the state; 

c. Previously registered vehicles — when sold by a dealer in the state, 
until the backlog of uncertificated vehicles is so reduced as to per- 
mit the department readily to process applications for certificates 
on all remaining uncertificated vehicles. 

Sale by a dealer of a previously registered vehicle has been selected 
as the criterion for requiring certification because, generally, dealers 
are more likely than owners to have sufficient financial responsibility 
to make good their warranties of title and of freedom from security 
interests. 

Creation of a security interest has been rejected as the criterion be- 
cause no lending agency would be willing to warrant against de- 
fects in title or undisclosed perfected security interests. 

2. Compulsory central filing of notices of existing security interests 
should not be required until the expiration of the period when most 
of the indebtedness secured thereby would normally be paid. To re- 
quire earlier central filing would unnecessarily involve administra- 
tive problems for both the department and financing agencies as well 
as expense to debtors. 

UVC— 2 33 



§ 3-302 Uniform Vehicle Code 

in this State when this act takes effect or a vehicle whose last 
registration before this act takes effect was in this State. 

§ 3-302 — Deferred application of act to previously registered 
vehicles 

Articles I and II of this chapter do not apply to a previously 
registered vehicle until: 

(a) It is purchased from a dealer in this State after this act 
takes effect; 

(b) The department issues a certificate of title for the vehicle ; 
or 

(c) (Three) years elapse from the date this act takes effect. 

§ 3-303 — Distinctive certificate 

If the department is not satisfied that there are no undisclosed 
security interests, created before this act takes effect, in a pre- 
viously registered vehicle, it may, in addition to its options 
under § 3-109, issue a distinctive certificate of title of the vehicle 
containing the legend "This vehicle may be subject to an undis- 
closed lien" and any other information the department pre- 
scribes. 

§ 3-304 — Security interest in a previously registered vehicle 

A security interest in a previously registered vehicle for which 
no certificate of title or application for a certificate is required is 
perfected by the delivery to the department of a notice of security 
interest in the form the department prescribes and the required 
fee. It is perfected as of the time of its creation if the delivery 
is completed within 10 days thereafter, otherwise, as of the time 
of delivery. A notice of a security interest created or reserved 
before this act takes effect need be executed by the lienholder 
only. 

§ 3-305 — Unsatisfied security interest in a previously registered 
vehicle 

If a security interest in a previously registered vehicle is per- 
fected under any other applicable law of this State at the time 
this act takes effect, the security interest continues perfected : 

(a) Until its perfection lapses under the law under which it 

34 



Title and Registration § 3-307 

was perfected (or would lapse in the absence of a further (filing) 
(recording) ) ; or 6 

(b) Until the earlier lapse of (two years and nine months) 
from the date this act takes effect ; and 

(c) Thereafter if previously perfected under § 3-304. 

§ 3-306 — Filing and record of notices of security interests; ex- 
amination of record 

(a) The department shall file each notice of security interest 
received by it with the required fee and maintain a record of all 
notices of security interests filed by it : 

1. Alphabetically, under the name of the owner; 

2. Under the identifying number of the vehicle ; and 

3. In the discretion of the department, in any other method it 
determines. 

(b) The department need not maintain, in the record provided 
for in subsection (a), any reference to a security interest in a 
previously registered vehicle after the department files a notice 
of release of the security interest or issues a certificate of title of 
the vehicle containing the name of the lienholder. 

(c) The department, before issuing or reissuing a certificate 
of title, shall check the name of the owner and the identifying 
number of the vehicle against the record provided for in sub- 
section (a). 

§ 3-307 — Assignment by lienholder 

(a) A lienholder may assign, absolutely or otherwise, his 
security interest in the vehicle to a person other than the owner 
without affecting the interest of the owner or the validity of the 
security interest, but any person without notice of the assign- 
ment is protected in dealing with the lienholder as the holder of 
the security interest and the lienholder remains liable for any 
obligations as lienholder until an assignment by the lienholder 
is delivered to the department as provided in subsection (b). 

(b) The assignee may, but need not to perfect the assignment, 



6 Insert in the parentheses in subsection (a) appropriate phraseology to 
refer to technical requirements of other statutes, if any, requiring re- 
filing, re-recording, or filing of a renewal statement or affidavit, to con- 
tinue the perfection of a security interest after the lapse of a specified 
period. 

35 



S u-ouo UJN1KUKM VEHICLE CODE 

deliver to the department an assignment by the lienholder in the 
form the department prescribes with the required fee. 

(c) The department shall file each assignment received by it 
with the required fee and note the assignee as lienholder upon 
the record of notices of security interests maintained by the de- 
partment pursuant to § 3-306. 

§ 3-308 — Release of security interest 

(a) If the security interest of a lienholder named in a notice 
of security interest filed by the department is satisfied, he shall, 
within 10 days after demand or, in any event, within 30 days, 
execute a release of the security interest in the form the depart- 
ment prescribes and mail or deliver the release to the department. 

(b) Upon receipt of the release of security interest the de- 
partment shall file the release and note it upon the record of 
notices of security interests maintained by the department pur- 
suant to § 3-306. 

§ 3-309— Doty of lienholder 

A lienholder named in a notice of security interest filed by the 
department shall, upon written request of the owner or of 
another lienholder, disclose any pertinent information as to his 
security agreement and the indebtedness secured by it. 

ALTERNATE B — For States Having a Certificate of Title 
Act But Not Requiring Endorsement of Security 

Interests on Certificates 7 (New, 1956.) 

Article III— Previously Certificated Vehicles 

§ 3-301— Definitions 

Except when the context otherwise requires, as used in this 
act: 

(a) "Previous act" means (insert appropriate designation of 
prior certificate of title act) . 

(b) A "previously certificated vehicle" means a vehicle for 



^ Administrative considerations also require that the act be put into 
effect gradually in a state having- a certificate of title^ act but not re- 
quiring the endorsement of security interests on a certificate of title. 



36 



Title and Registration § 3-305 

which a certificate of title issued under the previous act is in 
force when this act takes effect. 

(c) A "first certificate of title in this State" of a vehicle means 
the first certificate of title of the vehicle issued under this act. 

§ 3-302 — Deferred application of act to previously certificated 
vehicles 

Articles I to III of this chapter do not apply to a previously 
certificated vehicle until: 

(a) It is purchased from a dealer in this State after this act 
takes effect; 

(b) The certificate of title of the vehicle issued under the 
previous act is revoked or lapses ; 

(c) The department issues a certificate of title of the vehicle 
under this act ; or 

(d) (Three) years elapse from the date this act takes effect. 

§ 3-303 — Distinctive certificate 

If the department is not satisfied that there are no undisclosed 
security interests, created before this act takes effect, in a pre- 
viously certificated vehicle, it may, in addition to its options 
under § 3-109, issue a distinctive certificate of title of the vehicle 
containing the legend "This vehicle may be subject to an undis- 
closed lien" and any other information the department pre- 
scribes. 

§ 3-304— Security interest in a previously certificated vehicle 

A security interest in a previously certificated vehicle for 
which no certificate of title or application for a certificate is 
required is perfected by the delivery to the department of a 
notice of security interest in the form the department prescribes 
and the required fee. It is perfected as of the time of its creation 
if the delivery is completed within 10 days thereafter, otherwise 
as of the time of delivery. A notice of a security interest created 
or reserved before this act takes effect need be executed by the 
lienholder only. 

§ 3-305- — Unsatisfied security interest in a previously certificated 
vehicle 

If a security interest in a previously certificated vehicle is 

37 



§ 3-306 Uniform Vehicle Code 

perfected under any other applicable law of this State at the 
time this act takes effect, the security interest continues per- 
fected : 

(a) Until its perfection lapses under the law under which it 
was perfected (or would lapse in the absence of a further (filing) 
(recording) ) ; or 8 

(b) Until the earlier lapse of (two years and nine months) 
from the date this act takes effect ; and 

(c) Thereafter if previously perfected under § 3-304. 

§ 3-306 — Filing and record of notices of security interests; sur- 
render of certificate; examination of record 

(a) The department shall file each notice of security interest 
received by it with the required fee and maintain a record of all 
notices of security interests filed by it : 

1. Alphabetically, under the name of the owner ; 

2. Under the identifying number of the vehicle; and 

3. In the discretion of the department, in any other method it 
determines. 

(b) The department need not maintain, in the record provided 
for in subsection (a), any reference to a security interest in a 
previously certificated vehicle after the department files a notice 
of release of the security interest or issues a certificate of title of 
the vehicle containing the name of the lienholder. 

(c) The department, before issuing a first certificate of title 
under this act, shall require the surrender of any outstanding 
certificate of title for the vehicle issued under the previous act 
and, before issuing or reissuing a certificate of title, shall check 
the name of the owner and the identifying number of the vehicle 
against the record provided for in subsection (a). 

§ 3-307 — Assignment by lienholder 

(a) A lienholder may assign, absolutely or otherwise, his 
security interest in the vehicle to a person other than the owner 
without affecting the interest of the owner or the validity of the 



8 Insert in the parentheses in subsection (a) appropriate phraseology 
to refer to technical requirements of other statutes, if any, requiring re- 
filing, re-recording or filing of a renewal statement or affidavit, to con- 
tinue the perfection of a security interest after the lapse of a specified 
period. 

38 



Title and Registration § 3-401 

security interest, but any person without notice of the assign- 
ment is protected in dealing with the lienholder as the holder of 
the security interest and the lienholder remains liable for any 
obligations as lienholder until an assignment by the lienholder is 
delivered to the department as provided in subsection (b). 

(b) The assignee may, but need not to perfect the assignment, 
deliver to the department an assignment by the lienholder in the 
form the department prescribes with the required fee. 

(c) The department shall file each assignment received by it 
with the required fee and note the assignee as lienholder upon 
the record of notices of security interests maintained by the 
department pursuant to § 3-306. 

§ 3-308 — Release of security interest 

(a) If the security interest of a lienholder named in a notice 
of security interest filed by the department is satisfied, he shall, 
within 10 days after demand or, in any event, within 30 days, 
execute a release of the security interest in the form the depart- 
ment prescribes and mail or deliver the release to the depart- 
ment. 

(b) Upon receipt of the release of security interest the de- 
partment shall file the release and note it upon the record of 
notices of security interests maintained by the department pur- 
suant to § 3-306. 

§ 3-309— Duty of lienholder 

A lienholder named in a notice of security interest filed by the 
department shall, upon written request of the owner or of an- 
other lienholder, disclose any pertinent information as to his 
security agreement and the indebtedness secured by it. 

Article IV — Original and Renewal of Registration 
§ 3-401— Effect of provisions 

It is a misdemeanor for any person to drive or move or for 
an owner knowingly to permit to be driven or moved upon any 
highway any vehicle of a type required to be registered here- 
under which is not registered or for which the appropriate fee 
has not been paid when and as required hereunder, except that 



§ 3-4UZ UNIFORM VEHICLE (JODE 

when application accompanied by proper fee has been made for 
registration of a vehicle it may be operated temporarily pending 
complete registration upon displaying a duplicate application 
duly verified or other evidence of such application or otherwise 
under rules and regulations promulgated by the commissioner. 

§ 3-402 — Vehicles subject to registration — exceptions 

Every motor vehicle, trailer, semitrailer and pole trailer when 
driven or moved upon a highway shall be subject to the registra- 
tion and certificate of title provisions of this chapter except : 

1. Any such vehicle driven or moved upon a highway in con- 
formance with the provisions of this chapter relating to manu- 
facturers, transporters, dealers, lienholders or nonresidents or 
under a temporary registration permit issued by the department 
as hereinafter authorized ; 

2. Any such vehicle which is driven or moved upon a highway 
only for the purpose of crossing such highway from one prop- 
erty to another ; 

3. Any implement of husbandry whether of a type otherwise 
subject to registration hereunder or not which is only incidentally 
operated or moved upon a highway ; 

4. Any special mobile equipment as herein defined ; 

5. Any vehicle which is propelled exclusively by electric power 
obtained from overhead trolley wires though not operated upon 
rails. 

(Former paragraphs (b), (c) and (d) deleted, 1962. Substance 
now dealt with in new § 3-402.1.) 

§ 3-402.1 — Nonresidents — registration requirements, reciprocal 
provisions, authority of (commissioner, reciprocity commission) 
(New Section, 1962.) 

(a) Declaration of policy.— it is the policy of this State to 
promote and encourage the fullest possible use of its highway 
system by authorizing the making and execution of motor vehicle 
reciprocal or proportional registration agreements, arrange- 
ments and declarations with other states, provinces, territories 
and countries with respect to vehicles registered in this and such 
other states, provinces, territories and countries, thus contribut- 
ing to the economic and social development and growth of this 
State. 

40 



Title and Registration § 3-402.1 

(b) Certain vehicles of nonresidents not subject to registra- 
tion or reciprocal agreements. — A nonresident owner of any 
foreign vehicle may operate or permit the operation of such 
vehicle within this State without registering such vehicle in, or 
paying any fees to, this State; provided that such vehicle at all 
times when operated in this State is duly registered in, and 
displays upon it a valid registration card and registration plate 
or plates issued for such vehicle in, the place of residence of 
such owner; and further provided that such vehicle is not: 

1. Used for the transportation of persons for hire, compensa- 
tion or profit, or 

2. Regularly operated in carrying on business within this 
State, or 

3. Designed, used or maintained primarily for the transporta- 
tion of property. 

A trailer or semitrailer, when towed by a vehicle entitled to 
the privileges granted by this subsection, shall be entitled to the 
same privileges granted the towing vehicle. 

This subsection shall not apply to a vehicle leased by an owner 
engaged in the business of leasing such vehicles. 

(c) Definitions. — As used in this section; 

1. "Commercial vehicle" means any vehicle which is operated 
in interstate commerce and used for the transportation of per- 
sons for hire, compensation or profit, or designed or used 
primarily for the transportation of property. 

2. "Jurisdiction" means and includes a state, territory or pos- 
session of the United States, the District of Columbia, the 
Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, a foreign country and a state or 
province of a foreign country. 

3. "Owner" means a person who holds the legal title to a 
vehicle, or in the event a vehicle is the subject of an agreement 
for the conditional sale thereof with the right of purchase upon 
performance of the conditions stated in the agreement and with 
an immediate right of possession vested in the conditional vendee, 
or in the event a vehicle is subject to a lease, contract or other 
legal arrangement vesting right of possession or control, for 
security or otherwise, or in the event a mortgagor of a vehicle is 
entitled to possession, then the owner shall be deemed to be such 
person in whom is vested right of possession or control. 

41 



§ 3-402.1 Uniform Vehicle Code 

(A) "Properly registered," as applied to place of registra- 
tion, means : 

(1) The jurisdiction where the person registering the vehi- 
cle has his legal residence, or 

(2) In the case of a commercial vehicle, the jurisdiction in 
which it is registered if the commercial enterprise in which 
such vehicle is used has a place of business therein and, if the 
vehicle is most frequently dispatched, garaged, serviced, main- 
tained, operated or otherwise controlled in or from such place 
of business and, the vehicle has been assigned to such place of 
business, or 

(3) In the case of a commercial vehicle, the jurisdiction 
where, because of an agreement or arrangement between two 
or more jurisdictions, or pursuant to a declaration, the vehicle 
has been registered as required by said jurisdiction. 

(B) In case of doubt or dispute as to the proper place of 
registration of a vehicle, the department shall make the final 
determination, but in making such determination, the depart- 
ment may confer with departments of the other jurisdictions 
affected. 

4. "Fleet" means or more commercial vehicles. 

5. The words "department," "motor vehicle," "person" and 
"vehicle" shall each have the meanings ascribed to them respec- 
tively by chapter 1 of this act. 

6. "Preceding year" means a period of 12 consecutive months 
fixed by the department which period shall be within the 16 
months immediately preceding the commencement of the regis- 
tration or license year for which proportional registration is 
sought; and the department in fixing such period shall make it 
conform to the terms, conditions and requirements of any appli- 
cable agreement or arrangements for the proportional registra- 
tion of vehicles. 

(d) Administrator may make reciprocity arrangements, 
agreements, or declarations. — The commissioner shall have the 
authority to execute or make arrangements, agreements or decla- 
rations to carry out the provisions of this section. 

Alternate (d) Reciprocity commission, creation, officers, 
compensation, powers and duties. — There is hereby created a reci- 

42 



Title and Registration § 3-402.1 

procity commission 9 consisting of Annually, the com- 
mission shall organize by electing from its membership a chair- 
man, vice-chairman and a secretary. The department shall 
provide such assistance and facilities to the commission as it 
may require. The members of the commission shall receive no 
additional compensation for their services except that they shall 
be allowed their actual and necessary expenses incurred in the 
performance of their official duties to be paid from funds made 
available for the use of the commission. The commission shall 
have the authority to execute arrangements, agreements or 
declarations to carry out the provisions of this section. 

(e) Authority for reciprocity agreements, provisions, reci- 
procity standards. — The (commissioner, reciprocity commis- 
sion) may enter into an agreement or arrangement with the 
duly authorized representatives of other jurisdictions, granting 
to vehicles or to owners of vehicles which are properly registered 
or licensed in such jurisdictions, and for which evidence of 
compliance is supplied, benefits, privileges and exemptions from 
the payment, wholly or partially, of any taxes, fees, or other 
charges imposed upon such vehicles or owners with respect to 
the operation or ownership of such vehicles under the laws of 
this State. Such an agreement or arrangement shall provide that 
vehicles properly registered or licensed in this State, when 
operated upon highways of such other jurisdiction, shall receive 
exemptions, benefits and privileges of a similar kind or to a 
similar degree as are extended to vehicles properly registered or 
licensed in such jurisdiction when operated in this State. Each 
such agreement or arrangement shall, in the judgment of the 
(commissioner, reciprocity commission), be in the best interest 
of this State and the citizens thereof and shall be fair and 
equitable to this State and the citizens thereof, and all of the 
same shall be determined on the basis and recognition of the 
benefits which accrue to the economy of this State from the 
uninterrupted flow of commerce. 

(f) Base state registration reciprocity. — An agreement or 
arrangement entered into, or a declaration issued under the 



9 Where a state uses a commission, such commission should consist of 
members of departments administering applicable fee and regulatory 
statutes. The attorney general should not be on this commission as he 
may be called upon to pass on the legality of its acts. 

43 



§ 3-40^.1 UNIFORM VEHICLE UODE 

authority of this act may contain provisions authorizing the 
registration or licensing in another jurisdiction of vehicles lo- 
cated in or operated from a base in such other jurisdiction which 
vehicles otherwise would be required to be registered or licensed 
in this State; and in such event the exemptions, benefits and 
privileges extended by such agreement, arrangement or declara- 
tion shall apply to such vehicles, when properly licensed or 
registered in such base jurisdiction. 

(g) Proportional registration of fleet vehicles. — If any juris- 
diction permits or requires the licensing of fleets of vehicles in 
interstate or combined interstate and intrastate commerce and 
payment of registration fees, license taxes or other fixed fees 
thereon on an apportionment basis commensurate with and de- 
termined by the miles traveled on and the use made of said 
jurisdiction's highways, as compared with the miles traveled 
on and the use made of other jurisdictions' highways or 
any other equitable basis of apportionment, and exempts ve- 
hicles registered in other jurisdictions under such apportion- 
ment basis from the requirements of full payment of its 
own registration, license or other fixed fees, then said (com- 
missioner, reciprocity commission) may, by agreement, adopt 
such exemption with respect to vehicles of such fleets, whether 
owned by residents or nonresidents of this State and regard- 
less of where based. Such agreements, under such terms, 
conditions or restrictions as the (commissioner, reciprocity com- 
mission) deems proper, may provide that owners of vehicles 
operated in interstate or combined interstate and intrastate 
commerce in this State shall be permitted to pay registration, 
license or other fixed fees on an apportionment basis, commen- 
surate with and determined by the miles traveled on and the use 
made of the highways of this State as compared with the use 
made of the highways of other jurisdictions or any other equi- 
table basis of apportionment. No such agreement shall autho- 
rize, or be construed as authorizing, any vehicle so registered to 
be operated in intrastate commerce in this State unless the 
owner thereof has been granted intrastate authority or rights 
by (the public utilities commission, the utilities commission, the 
corporation commission) if such grant is otherwise required by 
law. The (commissioner, reciprocity commission) may adopt and 
promulgate such rules and regulations as (he, it) shall deem 

44 



Title and Registration § 3-402.1 

necessary to effectuate and administer the provisions of this 
subsection, and the registration of fleet vehicles under this sec- 
tion shall be subject to the rights/terms and conditions granted 
by or contained in any applicable agreement, arrangement or 
declaration made by the (commissioner, reciprocity commission) . 

(h) Declarations of extent of reciprocity.— In the absence of 
an agreement or arrangement with another jurisdiction, the 
(commissioner, reciprocity commission) may examine the laws 
and requirements of such jurisdiction and declare the extent 
and nature of exemptions, benefits and privileges to be extended 
to vehicles properly registered or licensed in such other juris- 
diction, or to the owners of such vehicles, which shall, in the 
judgment of the (commissioner, reciprocity commission), be in 
the best interest of this State and the citizens thereof, and 
which shall be fair and equitable to this State and the citizens 
thereof, and all of the same shall be determined on the basis and 
recognition of the benefits which accrue to the economy of this 
State from the uninterrupted flow of commerce. 

(i) Extension of reciprocal privileges to lessees authorized. — 
An agreement or arrangement entered into, or a declaration 
issued under the authority of this act, may contain provisions 
under which a leased vehicle properly registered by the lessor 
thereof may be entitled, subject to terms and conditions stated 
therein, to the exemptions, benefits and privileges extended by 
such agreement, arrangement or declaration. 

(j) Automatic reciprocity. — After (date) if no 

agreement, arrangement or declaration is in effect with respect 
to another jurisdiction as authorized by this section, any vehicle 
properly registered or licensed in such other jurisdiction, and 
for which evidence of compliance is supplied, shall receive, when 
operated in this State, the same exemptions, benefits and privi- 
leges granted by such other jurisdictions to vehicles properly 
registered in this State. Reciprocity extended under this sub- 
section shall apply to commercial vehicles only when engaged 
exclusively in interstate commerce. 

(k) Proportional registration not exclusive. — Nothing con- 
tained in this section relating to proportional registration of fleet 
vehicles shall be construed as requiring any vehicle to be pro- 
portionally registered if it is otherwise registered in this State 
for the operation in which it is engaged, including but not by 

45 



§ 3-402.1 Uniform Vehicle Code 

way of limitation, regular registration, temporary registration, 
or trip permit or registration. 

(1) Suspension of reciprocity benefits. — Agreements, arrange- 
ments or declarations made under the authority of this section 
may include provisions authorizing the department to suspend 
or cancel the exemptions, benefits or privileges granted there- 
under to a person who violates any of the conditions or terms 
of such agreements, arrangements or declarations or who vio- 
lates the laws of this State relating to motor vehicles, or regula- 
tions lawfully promulgated thereunder. 

(m) Agreements to be written, filed and available for distribu- 
tion. — All agreements, arrangements or declarations, or amend- 
ments thereto, shall be in writing and shall be filed in the office 
of the (commissioner, reciprocity commission). A copy of each 
agreement, arrangement or declaration, or amendment thereto, 
shall be filed by the (commissioner, reciprocity commission) in 

the office of 10 within days after 

execution or the effective date of the instrument, whichever is 
later. The department shall provide copies for public distribu- 
tion upon request. 

(n) Reciprocity agreements in effect. — All reciprocity and 
proportional registration agreements, arrangements and declara- 
tions relating to vehicles, in force and effect at the time this 
section becomes effective, shall continue in force and effect until 
specifically amended or revoked as provided by law or by such 
agreements or arrangements. 

(o) Section part of and supplemental to motor vehicle regis- 
tration law. — This section shall be a part of and supplemental to 
the motor vehicle registration law of this State. 

OPTIONAL PROVISIONS n (NEW, 1962.) 
(p) Proportional registration of fleet vehicles, application, 
fee, formula and payment. — 

1. Any owner engaged in operating one or more fleets may, in 



10 The name of the state official with whom rules and regulations of ad- 
ministrative agencies are filed. If existing state law does not specify any 
such state official, the secretary of state or some other appropriate official 
should be specified. 

11 When a state enacting this section contemplates the consummation of 
proportional registration agreements, it may desire to include these sub- 
sections in statutory form. The subsections are designed to facilitate the 
administration of proportional registration agreements and to establish 
uniform implementation of such agreements. 

46 



Title and Registration § 3-402.1 

lieu of registration of vehicles under other sections of this chap- 
ter, register and license each fleet for operation in this State by 
filing an application with the department which shall contain the 
following information, and such other information pertinent to 
vehicle registration as the department may require : 

(A) Total fleet miles. This shall be the total number of 
miles operated in all jurisdictions during the preceding year 
by the vehicles in such fleet during said year. 

(B) In-state miles. This shall be the total number of miles 
operated in this State during the preceding year by the vehicles 
in such fleet during said year. 

(C) A description and identification of each vehicle of such 
fleet which is to be operated in this State during the registra- 
tion year for which proportional fleet registration is requested. 
2. The application for each fleet shall be accompanied by a 

fee payment computed as follows: 

(A) Divide in-state miles by total fleet miles. 

(B) Determine the total amount necessary to register each 
and every vehicle in the fleet for which registration is re- 
quested, based on the regular annual registration fees pre- 
scribed by sections of this chapter. 

(C) Multiply the sum obtained under subsection 2(B) here- 
of by the fraction obtained under subsection 2(A) hereof. 

(q) Registration and identification of proportionally regis- 
tered vehicles; effect of such registration. — 

1. The department shall register the vehicles so described and 
identified and shall issue a license plate or plates, or a distinctive 
sticker, or other suitable identification device, for each vehicle 
described in the application upon payment of the appropriate 
fees for such application and for the stickers or devices issued. 

A fee of shall be paid for each license plate, 

sticker or device issued for each proportionally registered vehicle. 
A registration card shall be issued for each proportionally 
registered vehicle. Such registration card shall, in addition to 
other information required by this chapter, bear upon its face 
the number of the license, sticker or other device issued for 
such proportionally registered vehicle and shall be carried in 
such vehicle at all times or, in the case of a combination, in the 
vehicle supplying the motive power. 

2. Fleet vehicles so registered and identified shall be deemed 

47 



§ 3-402.1 Uniform Vehicle Code 

to be fully licensed and registered in this State for any type of 
movement or operation, except that in those instances in which a 
grant of authority is required for intrastate movement or opera- 
tion, no such vehicle shall be operated in intrastate commerce in 
this State unless the owner thereof has been granted intrastate 
authority or rights by (the public utilities commission, the 
utilities commission, the corporation commission) and unless 
said vehicle is being operated in conformity with such authority 
or rights. 

(r) Proportional registration cannot be in a single jurisdic- 
tion, — The right to the privileges and benefits of proportional 
registration of fleet vehicles extended by this section, or by any 
contract, agreement, arrangement or declaration made under the 
authority of this section, shall be subject to the condition that 
each fleet vehicle proportionally registered under the authority 
of this section shall also be proportionally or otherwise properly 
registered in at least one other jurisdiction during the period 
for which it is proportionally registered in this State. 

(s) Registration of additional fleet vehicles. — Vehicles ac- 
quired by the owner after the commencement of the registration 
year and subsequently added to a proportionally registered fleet 
shall be proportionally registered by applying the mileage per- 
centage used in the original application for such fleet for such 
registration period to the regular registration fees due with 
respect to such vehicle for the remainder of the registration year. 

(t) Withdrawal of fleet vehicles; credits and accounting. — If 
any vehicle is withdrawn from a proportionally registered fleet 
during the period for which it is registered under the provisions 
of this section, the owner of such fleet shall so notify the depart- 
ment on appropriate forms to be prescribed by the department. 
The department may require the owner to surrender proportional 
registration cards and such other identification devices which 
have been issued with respect to such vehicle as the department 
may deem advisable. If a vehicle is permanently withdrawn from 
a proportionally registered fleet because it has been destroyed, 
sold or otherwise completely removed from the service of the 
registrant, the unused portion of the fees paid with respect to 
such vehicle, which shall be a sum equal to the amount paid with 
respect to such vehicle when it was first proportionally registered 
in such registration year, reduced by 1/12 of the total annual pro- 

48 



Title and Registration § 3-402.1 

portional registration responsibility of such vehicle for each cal- 
endar month and fraction thereof elapsing between the first day 
of the month of the current year in which the vehicle was regis- 
tered and the date the notice of withdrawal is received by the 
department, shall be credited to the proportional registration 
account of such owner. Such credit shall be applied against 
liability for subsequent additions to be prorated during such 
registration year or for additional fees due upon audit under 
subsection (w) hereof. If any such credit is less than $5, no 
credit shall be made or entered. In no event shall such amount 
be credited against fees other than those for such registration 
year, nor shall any such amount be subject to refund. 

(u) New fleet; estimated mileage. — The initial application for 
proportional registration of a fleet shall state the mileage data 
with respect to such fleet for the preceding year in this and other 
jurisdictions. If no operations were conducted with such fleet 
during the preceding year, the application shall contain a full 
statement of the proposed method of operation and estimates of 
annual mileage in this State and other jurisdictions. The depart- 
ment shall determine the in-state and total fleet miles to be 
used in computing the fee payment for the fleet. The department 
may evaluate and adjust the estimate in the application if it is 
not satisfied as to the correctness thereof. 

(v) Fleet registration may he denied, — The (commissioner, 
reciprocity commission) may refuse to accept proportional reg- 
istration applications for the registration of vehicles based in, or 
owned by residents of, another jurisdiction if the (commis- 
sioner, reciprocity commission) shall find that such other juris- 
diction does not grant similar registration privileges to fleet 
vehicles based in or owned by residents of this State. 

(w) Preservation of proportional registration records. — Any 
owner whose application for proportional registration has been 
accepted shall preserve the records on which the application is 
based for a period of four years following the year or period 
upon which said application is based. Upon request of the de- 
partment, the owner shall make such records available to the 
department at its office for audit as to accuracy of computations 
and payments, or pay the reasonable costs of an audit at the 
home office of the owner, by a duly appointed representative of 
the department. The department may make arrangements with 

49 



agencies of other jurisdictions administering motor vehicle regis- 
tration laws for joint audits of any such owner. 

(x) Relation to other state laws. — The provisions of this sec- 
tion shall constitute complete authority for the registration of 
fleet vehicles upon a proportional registration basis without 
reference to or application of any other statutes of this State 
except as in this section expressly provided. 

§ 3-403 — Application for registration 

(a) Every owner of a vehicle subject to registration here- 
under shall make application to the department for the registra- 
tion of such vehicle upon the appropriate form or forms furnished 
by the department and every such application shall bear the 
signature of the owner written with pen and ink and (said 
signature shall be acknowledged by the owner before a person 
authorized to administer oaths and) said application shall con- 
tain: 

1. The name, bona fide residence and mail address of the owner 
or business address of the owner if a firm, association or corpora- 
tion ; 

2. A description of the vehicle including such information as is 
required in an application for a certificate of title; 

3. Such further information as may reasonably be required by 
the department to enable it to determine whether the vehicle is 
lawfully entitled to registration and the owner entitled to a cer- 
tificate of title. 

(b) When such application refers to a new vehicle purchased 
from a dealer the application shall be accompanied by a statement 
by the dealer or a bill of sale showing any lien retained by the 
dealer. 

§ 3-404 — Application for specially constructed, reconstructed or 
foreign vehicles 

(a) In the event the vehicle to be registered is a specially con- 
structed, reconstructed or foreign vehicle, such fact shall be 
stated in the application and with reference to every foreign ve- 
hicle which has been registered heretofore outside of this State 
the owner shall surrender to the department all registration 
plates, registration cards or other evidence of such foreign regis- 

50 



Title and Registration § 3-407 

tration as may be in his possession or under his control except as 
provided in subdivision (b) hereof. 

(b) Where in the course of interstate operation of a vehicle 
registered in another state it is desirable to retain registration of 
said vehicle in such other state, such applicant need not surrender 
but shall submit for inspection said evidences of such foreign 
registration and the department upon a proper showing shall 
register said vehicle in this State but shall not issue a certificate 
of title for such vehicle. 

§ 3-405 — Temporary permit pending registration 

The department in its discretion may grant a temporary per- 
mit to operate a vehicle for which application for registration and 
certificate of title has been made where such application is accom- 
panied by the proper fee, pending action upon said application by 

the department. 

§ 3-406 — Grounds for refusing registration or certificate of title 

The department shall refuse registration or any transfer of 
registration upon any of the following grounds : 

1. That the application contains any false or fraudulent state- 
ment or that the applicant has failed to furnish required infor- 
mation or reasonable additional information requested by the 
department or that the applicant is not entitled to the issuance of 
a certificate of title or registration of the vehicle under this chap- 
ter; 

2. That the vehicle is mechanically unfit or unsafe to be oper- 
ated or moved upon the highways ; 

3. That the department has reasonable ground to believe that 
the vehicle is a stolen or embezzled vehicle or that the granting 
of registration would constitute a fraud against the rightful 
owner or other person having valid lien upon such vehicle ; 

4. That the registration of the vehicle stands suspended or 
revoked for any reason as provided in the motor vehicle laws of 
this State ; or 

5. That the required fee has not been paid. 

§ 3-407 — Registration indexes 

The department shall file each application received and when 

51 



§ 3-408 Uniform Vehicle Code 

satisfied as to the genuineness and regularity thereof, and that 
the applicant is entitled to register such vehicle and to the is- 
suance of a certificate of title, shall register the vehicle therein 
described and keep a record thereof in suitable books or on index 
cards as follows : 

1. Under a distinctive registration number assigned to the ve- 
hicle ; 

2. Under the identifying number of the vehicle; (Revised, 
1956.) 

3. Alphabetically, under the name of the owner ; 

4. In the discretion of the department, in any other manner it 
may deem desirable. 

§ 3-408 — Department to issue registration card 

(a) The department upon registering a vehicle shall issue a 
registration card. 

(b) The registration card shall be delivered to the owner and 
shall contain upon the face thereof the date issued, the name and 
address of the owner, the registration number assigned to the ve- 
hicle and such description of the vehicle as determined by the 
commissioner. 

§ 3-409 — Registration card to be signed, carried and exhibited 
on demand 

(a) Every owner upon receipt of a registration card shall 
write his signature thereon with pen and ink in the space pro- 
vided. Every such registration card shall at all times be carried 
in the vehicle to which it refers or shall be carried by the person 
driving or in control of such vehicle who shall display the same 
upon demand of a police officer. (Revised, 1968.) 

(b) The provisions of this section requiring that a registra- 
tion card be carried in the vehicle to which it refers or by the 
person driving the same shall not apply when such card is used 
for the purpose of making application for renewal of registration 
or upon a transfer of registration of said vehicle. 

§ 3-410 — Registration plates to be furnished by the department 

(a) The department upon registering a vehicle shall issue to 

52 



Title and Registration § 3-413 

the owner one registration plate for a motorcycle, trailer or semi- 
trailer and two registration plates for every other motor vehicle. 

(b) Every registration plate shall have displayed upon it the 
registration number assigned to the vehicle for which it is issued, 
also the name of this State, which may be abbreviated, and the 
year number for which it is issued or the date of expiration there- 
of. 

(c) Such registration plate and the required letters and 
numerals thereon, except the year number for which issued, shall 
be of sufficient size to be plainly readable from a distance of 100 
feet during daylight. The dimensions of the plate shall be six by 
12 inches. (Revised, 1956.) 

(d) The department shall issue for every passenger motor ve- 
hicle rented without a driver the same type of registration plates 
as the type of plates issued for a private passenger vehicle. 

§ 3-411 — Display of registration plates 

(a) Registration plates issued for a motor vehicle other than 
a motorcycle shall be attached thereto, one in the front and the 
other in the rear. The registration plate issued for a motorcycle 
or other vehicle required to be registered hereunder shall be at- 
tached to the rear thereof. 

(b) Every registration plate shall at all times be securely 
fastened in a horizontal position to the vehicle for which it is is- 
sued so as to prevent the plate from swinging and at a height of 
not less than 12 inches from the ground, measuring from the bot- 
tom of such plate, in a place and position to be clearly visible and 
shall be maintained free from foreign materials and in a condition 
to be clearly legible. 

§ 3-412— Expiration of registration 

Every vehicle registration under this chapter and every regis- 
tration card and registration plate issued hereunder shall expire 
at midnight on the 31st day of December of each year. 

§ 3-413— Application for and renewal of registration 

(a) Application for renewal of a vehicle registration shall be 
made by the ow T ner upon proper application and by payment of 
the registration fee for such vehicle, as provided by law. 

53 



§ 3-414 Uniform Vehicle Code 

(b) The department may receive applications for renewal of 
registration and grant the same and issue new registration cards 
and plates at any time prior to expiration of registration, but no 
person shall display upon a vehicle the new registration plates 
prior to December 15. 

§ 3-414 — Notice of change of address or name 

(a) Whenever any person after making application for or 
obtaining the registration of a vehicle shall move from the ad- 
dress named in the application or shown upon a registration card 
or certificate of title such person shall within 10 days thereafter 
notify the department in writing of his old and new addresses. 

(b) Whenever the name of any person who has made applica- 
tion for or obtained the registration of a vehicle is thereafter 
changed by marriage or otherwise such person shall within 10 
days notify the department of such former and new name. 

§ 3-415 — Lost or damaged cards and plates 

In the event any registration card or registration plate is lost, 
mutilated or becomes illegible, the owner or legal representative 
or successor in interest of the owner of the vehicle for which the 
same was issued as shown by the records of the department shall 
immediately make application for and may obtain a duplicate or 
a substitute or a new registration under a new registration num- 
ber, as determined to be most advisable by the department, upon 
the applicant furnishing information satisfactory to the depart- 
ment. 

§ 3-416 — Registration under new identifying number 

When the department issues a new identifying number, such 
motor vehicle shall be registered under such identifying number 
in lieu of the former identifying number. 

§ 3-417 — Regulations governing change of motors 

The commissioner is authorized to adopt and enforce such 
registration rules and regulations as may be deemed necessary 
and compatible with the public interest with respect to the change 
or substitution of one engine in place of another in any motor 

vehicle. 

54 



Title and Registration § 3-503 

§ 3-418 — Department may issue registration bulletins 

(a) The commissioner may annually, following a renewal of 
registration, compile and publish in books or bulletins a list of all 
registered vehicles and may thereafter compile and publish sup- 
plements thereto at least every three months. The list of regis- 
tered vehicles shall be arranged serially according to the registra- 
tion numbers assigned to registered vehicles and shall contain in 
addition the names and addresses of registered owners and a brief 
description of each vehicle including the serial or other identify- 
ing number thereof. 

(b) The commissioner may furnish a copy of such registration 
lists without charge to any police department and may furnish a 
a copy thereof upon payment of a uniform amount approximating 
the cost thereof as determined by the commissioner to any other 
person or agency. 

Article V — Transfer of Registration 

§ 3-501 — Registration expires on transfer by owner 

Whenever the owner of a registered vehicle transfers or as- 
signs his title, or interest thereto, the registration of such vehicle 
shall expire. The owner shall remove the registration plates 
therefrom and forward the same to the department or may have 
such plates and the registration number thereon assigned to an- 
other vehicle upon payment of the fees required by law and sub- 
ject to the rules and regulations of the department. 

§ 3-502 — New owner must secure new registration 

The transferee before operating or permitting the operation of 
such vehicle upon a highway shall apply for and obtain the regis- 
tration thereof, as upon an original registration, except as other- 
wise permitted in §§ 3-503 and 3-504. (Revised, 1956.) 

§ 3-503 — Transfers to dealers 

When the transferee of a vehicle is a dealer who holds the same 
for resale and lawfully operates the same under dealers' number 
plates or when the transferee does not drive such vehicle or per- 
mit it to be driven upon the highways, such transferee shall not be 
required to obtain a new registration of said vehicle. 

55 



§ 3-504 Uniform Vehicle Code 

§ 3-504 — Transfer by operation of law 

Whenever the title or interest of an owner in or to a registered 
vehicle shall pass to another otherwise than by voluntary trans- 
fer, the registration thereof shall expire and the vehicle shall not 
be operated upon the highways unless and until the person en- 
titled to possession of such vehicle shall apply for and obtain the 
registration thereof. 

Alternate § 3-501 — Transfer by owner 

(a) Whenever the owner of a registered vehicle transfers or 
assigns his title or interest thereto, the registration plates issued 
for such vehicle shall remain attached thereto. 

(b) The owner shall endorse upon the reverse side of the reg- 
istration card the name and address of the transferee and the 
date of transfer and shall immediately deliver such card to the 
transferee (who shall deliver the same to the department with 
the application for the certificate of title) . 

Alternate § 3-502 — New owner to secure transfer of registration 

The transferee shall promptly apply to the department for a 
transfer of registration of the vehicle except as otherwise per- 
mitted in § 3-503. 

Alternate § 3-503 — Transfers to dealers 

When the transferee of a vehicle is a dealer who holds the 
same for resale and operates the same only for purposes incident 
to a resale and displays thereon the registration plates issued for 
such vehicle or when a transferee does not drive such vehicle or 
permit it to be driven upon the highways, the transferee shall not 
be required to obtain registration of such vehicle. 

Alternate § 3-504 — When department to transfer registration 

The department, upon receipt of a properly endorsed applica- 
tion for transfer of registration accompanied by the required fee, 
shall transfer the registration thereof under its registration num- 
ber to the new owner and shall issue a new registration card as 
upon an original registration. 

56 



Title and Registration § 3-602 

§ 3-505— Return of evidence of registration 

Any person who dismantles, scraps or destroys a vehicle and a 
person who purchases a vehicle as scrap or to be dismantled or 
destroyed shall immediately cause the registration card and li- 
cense plates to be mailed or delivered to the department for can- 
cellation. 

Article VI— Special Plates for Manufacturers, 
Transporters and Dealers 

§ 3-601— Operation of vehicles under special plates 

(a) A manufacturer or dealer owning any vehicle of a type 
otherwise required to be registered under this act may operate 
or move the same upon the highways solely for purposes of trans- 
porting, testing, demonstrating or selling the same without regis- 
tering each such vehicle upon condition that any such vehicle dis- 
play thereon in the manner prescribed in § 3-411 hereof a special 
plate or plates issued to such owner as provided in this article. 

(b) Also, a transporter may operate or move any vehicle of 
like type upon the highways solely for the purpose of delivery 
upon likewise displaying thereon like plates issued to him as pro- 
vided in this article. 

(c) The provisions of this article shall not apply to work or 
service vehicles owned by a manufacturer, transporter or dealer* 

§ 3-602 — Application for and issuance of certificate and special 
plates 

(a) Any manufacturer, transporter or dealer may make appli- 
cation to the department upon the appropriate form for a cer- 
tificate containing a general distinguishing number and for one 
or more pairs of special plates or single special plates as appropri- 
ate to various types of vehicles subject to registration hereunder. 
The applicant shall also submit proof of his status as a bona fide 
manufacturer, transporter or dealer as may reasonably be re- 
quired by the department. 

(b) The department, upon granting any such application, 
shall issue to the applicant a certificate containing the applicant's 
name and address and the general distinguishing number as- 
signed to the applicant. 

57 



(c) The department shall also issue special plates as applied 
for, which shall have displayed thereon the general distinguish- 
ing number assigned to the applicant. Each plate or pair of plates 
so issued shall also contain a number or symbol identifying the 
same from every other plate or pair of plates bearing the same 
general distinguishing number. 

§ 3-603 — Expiration of special plates 

Every special plate issued hereunder shall expire at midnight 
on the 31st day of December of each year, and a new plate or 
plates for the ensuing year may be obtained by the person to 
whom any such expired plate or plates was issued upon applica- 
tion to the department and payment of the fee provided by law. 

§ 3-604 — Manufacturers, transporters and dealers to maintain 
records 

Every manufacturer, transporter or dealer shall keep a written 
record of the vehicles upon which such special plates are used and 
the time during which each set of plates is used on a particular 
vehicle, which record shall be open to inspection by any police 
officer or any officer or employee of the department. 

Article VII — Offenses Against Registration and 

Certificate of Title Laws or Revocation of 

Registration or Certificate of Title 

§ 3-701 — Operation of vehicles without evidences of registration 

No person shall operate, nor shall an owner knowingly permit 
to be operated, upon any highway any vehicle required to be reg- 
istered hereunder unless there shall be attached thereto and dis- 
played thereon when and as required by this chapter a valid regis- 
tration card and registration plate or plates issued therefor by 
the department for the current registration year except as other- 
wise expressly permitted in this chapter. Any violation of this 
section is a misdemeanor. 

§ 3-702 — Operation of vehicle when registration canceled, sus- 
pended or revoked 

No person shall operate, nor shall an owner knowingly permit 

58 



Title and Registration § 3-704 

to be operated, upon any highway, a motor vehicle the registra- 
tion of which has been canceled, suspended or revoked. Any vio- 
lation of this section is a misdemeanor. 

§ 3-703 — Improper use of evidences of registration or certificate 
of title 

No person shall lend to another any certificate of title, regis- 
tration card, registration plate, special plate or permit issued to 
him if the person desiring to borrow the same would not be en- 
titled to the use thereof, nor shall any person knowingly permit 
the use of any of the same by one not entitled thereto, nor shall 
any person display upon a vehicle any registration card, regis- 
tration plate or permit not issued for such vehicle or not other- 
wise lawfully used thereon under this chapter. Any violation of 
this section is a misdemeanor. 

§ 3-704 — Authority of department to suspend or revoke a regis- 
tration or certificate of title 

The department is hereby authorized to suspend or revoke the 
registration of a vehicle or a certificate of title, registration 
card or registration plate, or any nonresident or other permit 
in any of the following events : 

1. When the department is satisfied that such registration or 
that such certificate, card, plate or permit was fraudulently or 
erroneously issued; 

2. When the department determines that a registered vehicle 
is mechanically unfit or unsafe to be operated or moved upon 
the highways; 

3. When a registered vehicle has been dismantled or wrecked; 

4. When the department determines that the required fee has 
not been paid and the same is not paid upon reasonable notice 
and demand ; 

5. When a registration card, registration plate or permit is 
knowingly displayed upon a vehicle other than the one for which 
issued; 

6. When the department determines that the owner has com- 
mitted any offense under this chapter involving the registration 
or the certificate, card, plate or permit to be suspended or re- 
voked; or 

59 



§ 3-705 Uniform Vehicle Code 

7. When the department is so authorized under any other pro- 
vision of law. 

§ 3-705 — Suspending or revoking certificate or special plates of 
a manufacturer, transporter or dealer 

The department is also authorized to suspend or revoke a cer- 
tificate or the special plates issued to a manufacturer, trans- 
porter or dealer upon determining that any said person is not 
lawfully entitled thereto or has made or knowingly permitted 
any illegal use of such plates or has committed fraud in the 
registration of vehicles or failed to give notices of transfers 
when and as required by this chapter. 

§ 3-706 — Owner to return evidences of registration upon can- 
cellation, suspension or revocation 

Whenever the department as authorized hereunder cancels, 
suspends or revokes the registration of a vehicle or a certificate 
of title, registration card or registration plate or plates, or any 
nonresident or other permit or the license of any dealer or 
wrecker, the owner or person in possession of the same shall 
immediately return the evidences of registration, title or license 
so canceled, suspended or revoked to the department. 

Article VIII — Registration and License Fees l2 

§ 3-801 — Registration fees 

The following registration fees shall be paid to the depart- 
ment for the registration of motor vehicles, trailers and semi- 
trailers, subject to registration hereunder. 13 

§ 3-802 — Reduced fees for portion of a year 



12 The revenue provisions of the vehicle statutes vary both as to char- 
acter of fees imposed and amounts. This draft does not suggest what fees 
shall be imposed but includes this article in outline as indicating an ap- 
propriate place wherein registration fees may be incorporated by each 
state upon adopting this act. 

is It is recommended that those states which impose special fees upon 
commercial vehicles should graduate such < fees according to the gross 
weight of such vehicles giving due regard to tire capacity. 

60 



Title and Registration § 3-812 

§ 3-803 — Exemption from registration fees 14 

§ 3-804 — Fees to be paid by manufacturers, transporters and 
dealers 

§ 3-805 — Fees for application for first certificate of title (New, 
1956.) 

§ 3-806 — Fees upon transfer of registration and issuance of cer- 
tificates of title 

§ 3-807 — Fees relating to security interests (New, 1956.) 

§ 3-808 — Seizure and sale of vehicle for nonpayment of fees 

§ 3-809 — Fees for duplicate registration plates, registration 
cards and certificates of title 

§ 3-810 — When fees delinquent — penalties 

If an application, certificate of title or other document (or ar- 
ticle) required to be mailed or delivered to the department under 
any provision of this act is not mailed or delivered to the de- 
partment within 10 days from the time it is required to be 
mailed or delivered, the department shall collect, as a penalty, 
an amount equal to the fee required for the transaction. (New, 
1956.) 

§ 3-811— When fees returnable 

(a) Whenever an application to the department is accom- 
panied by any fee as required by law and such application is re- 
fused or rejected said fee shall be returned to said applicant. 

(b) Whenever the department through error collects any fee 
not required to be paid hereunder the same shall be refunded to 
the person paying the same upon application therefor made 
within six months after the date of such payment. 

§ 3-812 — Disposition of fees 



14 Vehicle statutes generally exempt vehicles owned by the state or po- 
litical subdivision thereof from payment of fees but require that all such 
vehicles shall be registered and display number plates usually bearing a 
distinct symbol. 

61 



CHAPTER 4 

Antitheft Laws (Revised, 1956.) 

§ 4-101 — Exceptions from provisions of this chapter 

This chapter does not apply to the following unless a title or 
registration has been issued on such vehicles under this act: 

1. A vehicle moved solely by animal power; 

2. An implement of husbandry; 

3. Special mobile equipment; 

4. A self-propelled invalid wheel chair or tricycle. 

§ 4-102 — Unauthorized use of a vehicle 

A person not entitled to possession of a vehicle who, without 
the consent of the owner and with intent to deprive him, tem- 
porarily or otherwise, of the vehicle or its possession, takes, uses 
or drives the vehicle is guilty of a (felony) (misdemeanor) 
(felony, but if the deprivation of the owner was for a temporary 
purpose only, unconnected with the commission of or intent to 
commit a crime other than the taking of the vehicle, the offense 
is a misdemeanor). 

§ 4-103 — Receiving or disposing of a vehicle 

A person not entitled to the possession of a vehicle who re- 
ceives, possesses, conceals, sells or disposes of it, knowing it to 
be stolen or converted under circumstances constituting a crime, 
is guilty of a felony. 

§ 4-104 — Damaging or tampering with a vehicle 

(a) A person who, with intent and without right to do so, 
damages a vehicle or damages or removes any of its parts or 
components is guilty of a misdemeanor. 

(b) A person who, without right to do so and with intent to 
commit a crime, tampers with a vehicle, or goes in or on it, or 
works or attempts to work any of its parts or components, or 
sets or attempts to set it in motion, is guilty of a misdemeanor. 

§ 4-105 — Stolen, converted, recovered and unclaimed vehicles 

(a) A peace officer who learns of the theft of a vehicle not 

62 



Antitheft Laws § 4-106 

since recovered, or of the recovery of a vehicle whose theft or 
conversion he knows or has reason to believe has been reported 
to the department, shall forthwith report the theft or recovery 
to the department. 

(b) An owner or a lienholder may report the theft of a ve- 
hicle, or its conversion if a crime, to the department, but the 
department may disregard the report of a conversion unless a 
warrant has been issued for the arrest of a person charged with 
the conversion. A person who has so reported the theft or con- 
version of a vehicle shall, forthwith after learning of its re- 
covery, report the recovery to the department. 

(c) An operator of a place of business for garaging, (repair- 
ing,) parking or storing vehicles for the public, in which a ve- 
hicle remains unclaimed for a period of 30 days, shall, within 
(five) days after the expiration of that period, report the ve- 
hicle as unclaimed to the department- Such report shall be on a 
form prescribed by the department. 

A vehicle left by its owner whose name and address are 
known to the operator or his employee is not considered un- 
claimed. A person who fails to report a vehicle as unclaimed in 
accordance with this subsection forfeits all claims and liens for 
its garaging, parking or storing (and is guilty of a misde- 
meanor punishable by a fine of not more than ($25) for each 
day his failure to report continues). 

(d) The department shall maintain and appropriately index 
cumulative public records of stolen, converted, recovered and 
unclaimed vehicles reported to it pursuant to this section. The 
department may make and distribute weekly lists of such ve- 
hicles so reported to it to peace officers upon request without 
fee and to others for the fee, if any, the department prescribes. 

(e) The department may suspend the registration of a ve- 
hicle whose theft or conversion is reported to it pursuant to 
this section; until the department learns of its recovery or that 
the report of its theft or conversion was erroneous, it shall not 
issue a certificate of title for the vehicle. 

§ 4-106 — False report of theft or conversion 

A person who knowingly makes a false report of the theft 
or conversion of a vehicle to a peace officer or to the department 
is guilty of a misdemeanor. 

63 



§ 4-107 Uniform Vehicle Code 

§ 4-107 — Removed, falsified or unauthorized identification num- 
ber, registration or license plate on vehicle or engine 

(a) A person who willfully removes or falsifies an identifica- 
tion number of a vehicle or an engine for a vehicle is guilty of 
a misdemeanor. 

(b) A person who, willfully and with intent to conceal or 
misrepresent the identity of a vehicle or engine, removes 01 fal- 
sifies an identification number of the vehicle or engine, is guilty 
of a felony. 

(c) A person who buys, receives, possesses, sells or disposes 
of a vehicle or an engine for a vehicle, knowing that an identi- 
fication number of the vehicle or engine has been removed or 
falsified, is guilty of a misdemeanor. 

(d) A person who buys, receives, possesses, sells or disposes 
of a vehicle or an engine for a vehicle, with knowledge that an 
identification number of the vehicle or engine has been removed 
or falsified and with intent to conceal or misrepresent the iden- 
tity of the vehicle or engine, is guilty of a felony. 

(e) A person who removes a (registration) (license) plate 
from a vehicle or affixes to a vehicle a (registration) (license) 
plate not authorized by law for use on it, in either case with in- 
tent to conceal or misrepresent the identity of the vehicle or its 
owner, is guilty of a misdemeanor. 

(f) As used in this section: 

1. "Identification number" includes an identifying number, 
serial number, engine number or other distinguishing number 
or mark, placed on a vehicle or engine by its manufacturer or 
by authority of the department or in accordance with the laws 
of another state or country; 

2. "Remove" includes deface, cover and destroy; 

3. "Falsify" includes alter and forge. 

(g) An identification number may be placed on a vehicle or 
engine by its manufacturer in the regular course of business or 
placed or restored on a vehicle or engine by authority of the 
department without violating this section; an identification 
number so placed or restored is not falsified. 

§ 4-108 — Evidence of criminal intent or knowledge 
In a prosecution for a crime specified in this act, evidence 

64 



Antitheft Laws § 4-111 

that the defendant has committed a prior act or acts of the 
same kind is admissible to prove criminal intent or knowledge, 

§ 4-109 — Principals 

A person who, whether present or absent, aids, abets, in- 
duces, procures or causes the commission of an act which, if 
done directly by him, would be a felony or a misdemeanor un- 
der a provision of this act, is guilty of the same felony or mis- 
demeanor. 

§ 4-110 — Offenses relating to title and registration — felonies 

A person is guilty of a felony who, with fraudulent intent: 

1. Alters, forges or counterfeits a certificate of title, regis- 
tration card or license plate; 

2. Alters or forges an assignment of a certificate of title, or 
an assignment or release of a security interest, on a certificate 
of title or a form the department prescribes; 

3. Has possession of or uses a certificate of title, registration 
card or license plate, knowing it to have been altered, forged or 
counterfeited; or 

4. Uses a false or fictitious name or address, or makes a ma- 
terial false statement, or fails to disclose a security interest, or 
conceals any other material fact, in an application for a certifi- 
cate of title, or for registration. 

§ 4-111 — Offenses relating to title and registration — misde- 
meanors 

A person is guilty of a misdemeanor who : 

1. With fraudulent intent, permits another, not entitled there- 
to, to use or have possession of a certificate of title, registration 
card or license plate; 

2. Willfully fails to mail or deliver a certificate of title or 
application therefor to the department within 10 days after the 
time required by this act; 

3. Willfully fails to deliver to his transferee a certificate of 
title within 10 days after the time required by this act; 

4. Commits a fraud in any application for a title or registra- 
tion; or 

5. Willfully violates any other provision of chapter 3 or 4 of 
this act, except as otherwise provided in this act. 

UVC— 3 65 



CHAPTER 5 
Dealers, Wreckers and Rebuilders 

Article I — Dealers 

§ 5-101 — Dealers must be licensed 

(a) No person, unless licensed so to do by the department 
under the provisions of this chapter, shall carry on or conduct 
the business of a dealer in motor vehicles, trailers or semi- 
trailers of a type subject to registration. 

(b) Application for a dealer's license shall be made upon 
the form prescribed by the department and shall contain the 
name and address of the applicant; and when the applicant is 
a partnership, the name and address of each partner; or when 
the applicant is a corporation, the names of the principal of- 
ficers of the corporation and the state in which incorporated, 
and the place or places where the business is to be conducted, 
and the nature of such business, and such other information 
as may be required by the department. Every such application 
shall be verified by the oath or affirmation of the applicant, if 
an individual, or in the event an applicant is a partnership or 
corporation then by a partner or officer thereof. Every such 
application shall be accompanied by the fee required by law. 
(Section revised, 1956.) 

§ 5-102— Department to issue license certificate 

(a) The department, upon receiving application accompanied 
by the required fee, and when satisfied that the applicant is 
of good character, and so far as can be ascertained has com- 
plied with and will comply with the laws of this State with ref- 
erence to the registration of vehicles and certificates of title and 
the provisions of this chapter, shall issue to the applicant a li- 
cense certificate which shall entitle the licensee to carry on and 
conduct the business of a dealer during the calendar year in 
which the license is issued. Every such license shall expire on 
December 31st of each year, and may be renewed upon appli- 
cation and payment of the fee required by law. 

(b) The department may refuse to issue a license or, after 
written notice to the licensee and a hearing, may cancel a ii- 

66 



Dealers, Wreckers and Rebuilders § 5-201 

cense when satisfied that the applicant for a license or the li- 
censee has failed to comply with the provisions of this chapter. 
(c) Any licensee, before removing any one or more of his 
places of business, or opening any additional place of business, 
shall apply to the department for and obtain a supplemental 
license. (Section revised, 1956.) 

Article II— Used Parts Dealers, Wreckers and Rebuilders 

§ 5-201 — Used parts dealers, wreckers and rebuilders must be 
licensed 

(a) No person shall, except as an incident to the sale or ser- 
vicing of vehicles, carry on or conduct the business of: 

1. Selling used parts of or used accessories for vehicles ; 

2. Wrecking or dismantling vehicles for resale of the parts 

thereof ; or 

3. Rebuilding wrecked or dismantled vehicles ; 

unless licensed to do so by the department under this section. 

(b) Application for a license shall be made on the form the 
department prescribes, containing the name of the applicant, 
the address or addresses where business is to be conducted, the 
kind or kinds of business, enumerated in subsection (a), to be 
conducted, the residence address of the applicant if an individ- 
ual, the names and residence addresses of the partners of the 
applicant if a partnership, the names and residence addresses 
of the principal officers of the applicant and the state of its in- 
corporation if a corporation, and any other information the 
department requires. The application shall be verified by the 
oath or affirmation of the applicant or, if the applicant is a 
partnership or a corporation, by a partner or officer of the ap- 
plicant and shall be accompanied by a fee. (New, 1956.) 

(c) The department shall file each application received by it 
with the required fee and, when satisfied that the applicant, if 
an individual, or each of the partners or principal officers of the 
applicant, if a partnership or corporation, is of good moral char- 
acter and that the applicant, so far as can be ascertained, has 
complied and will comply with the provisions of this section and 
the laws of the State relating to registration of and certificates 
of title of vehicles, shall issue to the applicant a license to carry 
on and conduct the kind or kinds of business, enumerated in 

67 



§ 5-202 UNIFORM VEHICLE (JODE 

subsection (a), specified in the application at the address or 
addresses therein specified, until the (December 31st) next fol- 
lowing the date on or as of which the license is issued. 

§ 5-202- — Suspension and revocation 

The department shall suspend or revoke a license, upon no- 
tice and reasonable opportunity to be heard, if it finds : 

1. The license was fraudulently procured or erroneously is- 
sued; 

2. The applicant, or any partner or principal officer of the 
applicant, if a partnership or a corporation, has failed to com- 
ply with the provisions of this section and the laws of the State 
relating to registration of and certificates of title of vehicles. 
(New, 1956.) 

§ 5-203 — Licensee's records 

Every licensee shall maintain for (three) years, in the form 
the department prescribes, a record of: 

1. Every vehicle or used part, accessory, body, chassis or en- 
gine of or for a vehicle received or acquired by him, its descrip- 
tion and identifying number, the date of its receipt or acquisi- 
tion, and the name and address of the person from whom re- 
ceived or acquired ; 

2. Every vehicle or vehicle body, chassis or engine disposed 
of by him, its description and identifying number, the date of 
its disposition, and the name and address of the person to whom 
disposed ; and 

3. Every vehicle wrecked or dismantled by him, and the date 
of its wrecking or dismantling. Every such record shall be open 
to inspection by any representative of the department or police 
officer during reasonable business hours. (Revised, 1956.) 



68 



CHAPTER 6 
Drivers' Licenses * 

Article I — Issuance of Licenses, Expiration and 
Renewal (Revised, 1968.) 2 

§ 6-101 — Drivers must be licensed 

(a) No person, except those hereinafter expressly exempted, 
shall drive any motor vehicle 3 upon a highway in this State 
unless such person has a valid driver's license under the pro- 
visions of this chapter for the type or class of vehicle being 
driven. 

(b) No person, except those hereinafter expressly exempted, 
shall steer or, while within the passenger compartment of such 
vehicle, exercise any degree of physical control of a vehicle being 
towed by a motor vehicle upon a highway in this State unless 
such person has a valid driver's license under the provisions 
of this chapter for the type or class of vehicle being towed. 

(c) No person shall receive a driver's license unless and un- 
til he surrenders to the department all valid licenses in his pos- 
session issued to him by this or any other jurisdiction. All sur- 



1 Prior to 1968, chapter 6 provided for the issuance of operators' li- 
censes and chauffeurs' licenses. This distinction was discontinued in 1968 
in favor of licensure based on the type or general class of vehicles to be 
driven by the licensee. The elimination of operators' and chauffeurs' li- 
censes from the Code necessitated the revision of many sections in chap- 
ter 6 and some sections in other chapters of the Uniform Vehicle Code, 

2 States adopting the revised article I may find it desirable to delay the 
effective date to allow sufficient time to prepare new driver licensing forms 
or for employment and training of additional personnel to administer the 
chapter. See § 19-107 for one form of provision that could be used to post- 
pone the effective date of a revised driver licensing law. It is also sug- 
gested that each state consider adopting a law providing that all opera- 
tors' and chauffeurs' licenses issued prior to the effective date of the re- 
vised chapter 6 shall remain valid until their normal date of expiration or 
the dates of expiration shown on such license cards, subject to de- licens- 
ing procedures under article II, of course. After the effective date of any 
revision, each operator and chauffeur applying for renewal will then be 
subject to renewal examinations under § 6-115. 

a Attention is directed to the fact that this section referring to any 
person driving "any motor vehicle" is sufficiently broad by reason of the 
definition of motor vehicle in § 1-134 to appiy to any person driving 
any type of motor vehicle, including any motorcycle, motor-driven cycle, 
any motor scooter or bicycle with motor attached, and to any person driv- 
ing or operating a trackless trolley coach and other more commonly recog- 
nized types of motor vehicles. Thus, all of the provisions of this chapter 
apply to any person driving a motor vehicle. 

69 



§ b-IUZ UNIFORM VEHICLE CODE 

rendered licenses issued by another jurisdiction shall be returned 
thereto, together with information that the person is licensed 
in this State. No person shall be permitted to have more than 
one valid driver's license at any time. 4 

(d) Any person licensed as a driver hereunder may exercise 
the privilege thereby granted upon all streets and highways in 
this State and shall not be required to obtain any other license 
to exercise such privilege by any county, municipal or local board, 
or body having authority to adopt local police regulations. (SEC- 
TION REVISED, 1968.) 

§ 6-102 — What persons are exempt from license 

The following persons are exempt from license hereunder: 

1. Any employee of the United States Government while op- 
erating a motor vehicle owned by or leased to the United States 
Government and being operated on official business; (Revised, 
1952.) 

2. A nonresident who is at least 16 years of age and who has 
in his immediate possession a valid license issued to him in his 
home state or country may operate a motor vehicle in this State ; 
(Revised, 1968.) 

3. Any nonresident who is at least 18 years of age, whose 
home state or country does not require the licensing of driv- 



4 The "one license concept" expressed in subsection (c) means that each 
driver shall possess only one valid license, and that license is to be issued 
by the jurisdiction in which he resides. It contemplates that a driver may 
not possess license cards issued by two or more jurisdictions at the same 
time. 

Further, the limitation of any person to one license indicates that every 
person has but one privilege to drive and that no matter how many dif- 
ferent types or classes of vehicles a licensee has been qualified to drive in 
his home state, all types and classes will be noted on one license card. The 
issuance of one license card to a person for a motorcycle, another card for 
a passenger car, and another for a tractor-semitrailer combination is not 
recommended because of the inconvenience and enforcement difficulties 
that would result. Some latitude should be provided administratively to 
accommodate situations where a person is licensed to drive one type of ve- 
hicle (such as a passenger car) and wants to learn to operate an addi- 
tional type (such as a motorcycle or a large tractor-semitrailer combina- 
tion). Preferably, the license card held by such a person should be en- 
dorsed to indicate his additional status as a learner. If this is not practi- 
cal, then the applicant could be allowed to retain his license and at the 
same time be issued a separate instruction permit or he could be required 
to surrender his license in exchange for an instruction permit covering 
the motorcycle or combination which would clearly state his present quali- 
fication to full driving privileges in a passenger car. 

70 



Drivers' Licenses § 6-103 

ers, may operate a motor vehicle for a period of not more than 
90 days in any calendar year, if the motor vehicle so operated 
is duly registered in the home state or country of such non- 
resident; (Revised, 1968.) 

4. A nonresident on active duty in the Armed Forces of the 
United States who has a valid license issued by his home state 
and such nonresident's spouse or dependent son or daughter who 
has a valid license issued by such person's home state; (New, 
1968.) 

5. Any person on active duty in the Armed Forces of the 
United States who has in his immediate possession a valid li- 
cense issued in a foreign country by the Armed Forces of the 
United States may operate a motor vehicle in this State for a 
period of not more than 45 days from the date of his return 
to the United States. (New, 1968.) 

§ 6-103 — Persons not to be licensed 

(a) Minimum age requirements. 5 — The department shall not 
issue any driver's license to any person who is under the age of 
18 years, except that : 

1. The department may issue a license to any person who is at 
least 16 years of age and who presents evidence that he has 
satisfactorily completed a driver education course approved by 
the (State board of education) or a similar course meeting stan- 
dards of the department and the (State board of education) ; 6 

2. The department may issue a restricted license to any per- 
son who is at least 15 years of age under § 6-113 ; 

3. The department may issue an instruction permit to any per- 
son who is at least 15 years of age under § 6-105 (a) or under 
§ 6-105 (c); 

4. The department may issue an instruction permit to any 
person who is at least 16 years of age under § 6-105 (b) . 



s It is recognized that the desirable minimum age limit for drivers in a 
particular state may depend very largely upon the accident records of 
minors, the hazards upon the highways, and other conditions in the state, 
and it is recommended that these factors be carefully considered in deter- 
mining such minimum age and from time to time thereafter to determine 
whether any change should be made in the established minimum age. 

6 Some states may wish to delay the effective date of this subsection to 
allow sufficient time for driver education courses to be made available to 
all students. 

71 



§ 6-104 Uniform Vehicle Code 

(b) Disqualifications. — The department shall not issue any 
driver's license to, nor renew the driver's license of, any per- 
son: 

1. Whose license has been suspended during such suspension, 
nor to any person whose license has been revoked, except as pro- 
vided in §§ 6-208 and 6-209 ; 

2. Whose license is currently under suspension or revocation 
in any other state upon grounds which would authorize the sus- 
pension or revocation of a license under this act ; 

3. Who is an habitual drunkard, or is an habitual user of 
narcotic drugs, or is an habitual user of any other drug to a 
degree which renders him incapable of safely driving a motor 
vehicle ; 

4. Who has previously been adjudged to be afflicted with or 
suffering from any mental disability or disease and who has 
not at the time of application been restored to competency by 
the methods provided by law ; 

5. Who is required by this chapter to take an examination, 
unless such person shall have successfully passed such examina- 
tion; 

6. Who is required under the laws of this State to deposit 
proof of financial responsibility and who has not deposited such 
proof ; 

7. When the commissioner has good cause to believe that such 
person by reason of physical or mental disability would not be 
able to operate a motor vehicle with safety upon the highways. 
(Section revised, 1968.) 

§ 6-104 — Classes of licenses 

(a) The department upon issuing a driver's license shall in- 
dicate thereon the type or general class of vehicles the licensee 
may drive. 

(b) The department shall establish such qualifications as it 
believes reasonably necessary for the safe operation of the vari- 
ous types, sizes or combinations of vehicles and shall appropri- 
ately examine each applicant to determine his qualification ac- 
cording to the type or general class of license applied for. 

(c) No person who is under the age of 21 years shall drive 
any school bus transporting school children or any motor vehicle 

72 



Drivers' Licenses § 6-105 

when in use for the transportation of persons for compensation 
nor in either event until he has been licensed for either such 
purpose and the license so indicates. The department shall not 
issue a license for either such purpose unless the applicant has 
had at least one year of driving experience prior thereto and the 
department is fully satisfied as to the applicant's good character, 
competency and fitness to be so employed. (Section revised, 
1968.) 

§ 6-105 — Instruction permits and temporary licenses 

(a) Any person who is at least 15 years of age may apply 
to the department for an instruction permit. The department 
may in its discretion, after the applicant has successfully passed 
all parts of the examination other than the driving test, issue 
to the applicant an instruction permit which shall entitle the 
applicant while having such permit in his immediate possession 
to drive a specified type or class of motor vehicle upon the pub- 
lic highways for a period of six months when accompanied by a 
person at least 21 years of age who has been licensed as a driver 
for the type or class of vehicle being used for at least one year, 
who is fit and capable of exercising control over the vehicle and 
who is occupying a seat beside the driver. Any such instruction 
permit may be renewed or a new permit issued for additional 
periods of six months. This subsection does not apply to instruc- 
tion permits for the operation of motorcycles. 

(b) Any person who is at least 16 years of age may apply to 
the department for a motorcycle instruction permit. The depart- 
ment may in its discretion, after the applicant has successfully 
passed all parts of the examination other than the driving test, 
issue to the applicant an instruction permit which shall entitle 
the applicant while having such permit in his immediate posses- 
sion to drive a motorcycle upon the public highways for a period 
of six months under the immediate supervision of a person at 
least 21 years of age who has been licensed to operate motor- 
cycles for at least one year. Any such instruction permit may 
be renewed or a new permit issued for additional periods of six 
months. 

(c) The department upon receiving proper application may in 
its discretion issue a restricted instruction permit effective for 
a school year or more restricted period to an applicant who is 

73 



at least 15 years of age and who is enrolled in a driver educa- 
tion program which includes practice driving and which is ap- 
proved by the (State board of education) or the department. 
Such instruction permit shall entitle the permittee when he has 
such permit in his immediate possession to operate a specified 
type or class of motor vehicle only on a designated highway or 
within a designated area but only when an approved instructor 
is occupying a seat beside the permittee, or in the event the per- 
mittee is operating a motorcycle, only when under the immedi- 
ate supervision of an approved instructor. 

(d) The department may in its discretion issue a temporary 
driver's permit to an applicant for a driver's license permitting 
him to operate a specified type or class of motor vehicle while 
the department is completing its investigation and determination 
of all facts relative to such applicant's eligibility to receive a 
driver's license. Such permit must be in his immediate possession 
while operating a motor vehicle, and it shall be invalid when the 
applicant's license has been issued or for good cause has been 
refused. (Section revised, 1968.) 

§ 6-106 — Application for license or instruction permit 

(a) Every application for an instruction permit or for a driv- 
er's license shall be made upon a form furnished by the depart- 
ment. Every application shall be accompanied by the proper fee 
and payment of such fee shall entitle the applicant to not more 
than three attempts to pass the examination within a period of 
six months from the date of application. (Revised, 1968.) 

(b) Every said application shall state the full name, date and 
place of birth, sex and residence address of the applicant, and 
briefly describe the applicant, and shall state whether the ap- 
plicant has theretofore been licensed as a driver and, if so, when 
and by what state or country, and whether any such license has 
ever been suspended or revoked, or whether an application has 
ever been refused, and, if so, the date of and reason for such 
suspension, revocation or refusal, and such other information 
as the department may require to determine the applicant's iden- 
tity, competency and eligibility. (Revised, 1968.) 

(c) Whenever application is received from a person previ- 
ously licensed in another jurisdiction, the department shall re- 
quest a copy of such driver's record from such other jurisdic- 

74 



Drivers' Licenses § 6-108 

tion. When received, the driving record shall become a part of 
the driver's record in this State with the same force and effect 
as though entered on the driver's record in this State in the 
original instance. (Revised, 1962.) 

(d) Whenever the department receives request for a driving 
record from another licensing jurisdiction the record shall be 
forwarded without charge. (Revised, 1962.) 

§ 6-107 — Applications of minors 

(a) The application of any person under the age of 18 years 
for an instruction permit or driver's license shall be signed and 
verified before a person authorized to administer oaths by the 
father, mother or guardian, or in the event there is no parent or 
guardian, then by another responsible adult who is willing to 
assume the obligation imposed under this act upon a person 
signing the application of a minor. (Revised, 1968.) 

(b) Any negligence or willful misconduct of a minor under the 
age of 18 years when driving a motor vehicle upon a highway 
shall be imputed to the person who has signed the application 
of such minor for a permit or license, which person shall be 
jointly and severally liable with such minor for any damages 
caused by such negligence or willful misconduct (except as 
otherwise provided in the next succeeding paragraph) . 

(c) In the event a minor deposits or there is deposited upon 
his behalf proof of financial responsibility in respect to the op- 
eration of a motor vehicle owned by him, or if not the owner of 
a motor vehicle, then with respect to the operation of any mo- 
tor vehicle, in form and in amounts as required under the mo- 
tor vehicle financial responsibility laws of this State, then the 
department may accept the application of such minor when 
signed by one parent or guardian of such minor, and while such 
proof is maintained such parent or guardian shall not be sub- 
ject to the liability imposed under the preceding paragraph of 
this section. 7 

§ 6-108 — Release from liability 

Any person who has signed the application of a minor for a 



i Paragraph (c) is suitable for adoption in those states which adopt a 
motor vehicle financial responsibility law. 

75 



§ 6-109 Uniform Vehicle Code 

license may thereafter file with the department a verified writ- 
ten request that the license of said minor so granted be canceled. 
Thereupon the department shall cancel the license of said minor 
and tha person who signed the application of such minor shall 
be relieved from the liability imposed under this act by reason 
of having signed such application on account of any subsequent 
negligence or willful misconduct of such minor in operating a mo- 
tor vehicle. 

§ 6-109 — Cancellation of license upon death of person signing 
minor's application 

The department upon receipt of satisfactory evidence of the 
death of the person who signed the application of a minor for 
a license shall cancel such license and shall not issue a new li- 
cense until such time as a new application, duly signed and 
verified, is made as required by this chapter. This provision shall 
not apply in the event the minor has attained the age of 18 
years* 

§ 6-110 — Examination of applicants 

(a) The department shall examine every applicant for a driv- 
er's license. Such examination shall include a test of the appli- 
cant's eyesight, his ability to read and understand official traffic- 
control devices, his knowledge of safe driving practices and the 
traffic laws of this State, and shall include an actual demon- 
stration of ability to exercise ordinary and reasonable control in 
the operation of a motor vehicle of the type or general class of 
vehicles he desires a license to drive. The examination may also 
include such further physical and mental examination as the de- 
partment finds necessary to determine the applicant's fitness to 
operate a motor vehicle safely upon the highways. 

(b) The department shall make provision for giving an exam- 
ination either in the county where the applicant resides or at 
a place adjacent thereto reasonably convenient to the applicant 
within not more than 30 days from the date the application is 
received. (SECTION REVISED, 1968.) 

§ 6-111 — Licenses issued to drivers 

(a) The department shall upon payment of the required fee 
issue to every applicant qualifying therefor a driver's license 

76 



Drivers' Licenses § 6-113 

indicating the type or general class of vehicles the licensee may 
drive, which license shall bear thereon a distinguishing number 
assigned to the licensee, the full name, date of birth, residence 
address, and a brief description (and a photograph) of the li- 
censee, and either a facsimile of the signature of the licensee 
or a space upon which the licensee shall write his usual signa- 
ture with pen and ink immediately upon receipt of the license. 
No license shall be valid until it has been so signed by the li- 
censee. 

(b) Whenever the department issues an original license to a 
person under the age of 21 years such license shall be designated 
and clearly marked as a "provisional license." Upon renewal, 
the department may for reasonable cause as shown by its rec- 
ords designate the renewal of the license as provisional, other- 
wise a license in usual form shall be issued subject to other pro- 
visions of this chapter. (Section revised, 1968.) 

§ 6-112— License to be carried and exhibited on demand 

Every licensee shall have his driver's license in his immedi- 
ate possession at all times when operating a motor vehicle and 
shall display the same upon demand of a magistrate or a police 
officer. However, no person charged with violating this section 
shall be convicted if he produces in court a driver's license there- 
tofore issued to him and valid at the time of his arrest. 

For the purposes of this section, "display" means the manual 
surrender of his license certificate into the hands of the demand- 
ing officer for his inspection thereof. (Revised, 1968.) 

§ 6-113 — Restricted licenses 

(a) The department upon issuing a driver's license shall have 
authority whenever good cause appears to impose restrictions 
suitable to the licensee's driving ability with respect to special 
mechanical control devices required on a motor vehicle which 
the licensee may operate or such other restrictions applicable to 
the licensee as the department may determine to be appropriate 
to assure the safe operation of a motor vehicle by the licensee. 

(Revised, 1968.) 

(b) The department may either issue a special restricted li- 
cense or may set forth such restrictions upon the usual license 
form. 

77 



§ 6-114 Uniform Vehicle Code 

(c) The department may upon receiving satisfactory evidence 
of any violation of the restrictions of such license suspend or 
revoke the same but the licensee shall be entitled to a hearing as 
upon a suspension or revocation under this chapter. 

(d) It is a misdemeanor for any person to operate a motor 
vehicle in any manner in violation of the restrictions imposed in 
a restricted license issued to him. 

§ 6-114 — Duplicate permit or license 

In the event that an instruction permit or a driver's license 
issued under the provisions of this chapter is lost or destroyed, 
the person to whom the same was issued may (upon payment of 
the required fee) obtain a duplicate, or substitute thereof, upon 
furnishing proof satisfactory to the department that such permit 
or license has been lost or destroyed. (Revised, 1968.) 

§ 6-115 — Expiration and renewal of license; re-examination re- 
quired 

(a) Every driver's license shall expire on the licensee's birth- 
date in the (second, third, fourth) year following the issuance 
of such license. Every such license shall be renewable on or be- 
fore its expiration upon application, payment of the required fee, 
and satisfactory completion of the examination required or au- 
thorized by subsection (b) . 

(b) The department shall require every person applying for 
renewal of a driver's license to take and successfully pass a test 
of his eyesight and knowledge of the traffic laws of this State. 
The department may require any applicant to take and success- 
fully pass such additional tests as the department may find rea- 
sonably necessary to determine his qualification according to the 
type or general class of license applied for and such examination 
may include any or all of the other tests required or authorized 
upon original application by § 6-110. s 



s Depending on the duration of licenses in the enacting state under sub- 
section (a), subsection (b) might be modified accordingly. For instance, 
where licenses must be renewed every two years, a state enacting subsec- 
tion (b) may wish to modify the first sentence by requiring vision and 
rules of the road tests every four years; i.e. on every second renewal. 
In such instances, however, the department should be granted discretionary 
authority to require any or all tests every two years by the addition of a 
third sentence to that effect. 

78 



Drivers' Licenses § 6-117 

(c) The department may defer the expiration of the license of 
a licensee who is on active duty in the Armed Forces of the 
United States for a period not in excess of (here insert maximum 
period authorized) years, upon such terms and conditions as 
it may prescribe. The department may similarly defer the ex- 
piration of the license of the spouse or dependent son or daughter 
of such serviceman, if such person is residing with the service- 
man. (Section revised, 1968.) 

§ 6-116— Notice of change of address or name 

Whenever any person after applying for or receiving a driv- 
er's license shall move from the address named in such applica- 
tion or in the license issued to him or when the name of a li- 
censee is changed by marriage or otherwise such person shall 
within 10 days thereafter notify the department in writing of 
his old and new addresses or of such former and new names and 
of the number of any license then held by him. (Revised, 1968.) 

§ 6-117 — Records to be kept by the department 

(a) The department shall file every application for a license 
received by it and shall maintain suitable indexes containing, in 
alphabetical order: 

1. All applications denied and on each thereof note the reasons 
for such denial ; 

2. All applications granted ; and 

3. The name of every licensee whose license has been sus- 
pended or revoked by the department and after each such name 
note the reasons for such action. 

(b) The department shall also file all accident reports and ab- 
stracts of court records of convictions received by it under the 
laws of this State and in connection therewith maintain conve- 
nient records or make suitable notations in order that an individ- 
ual record of each licensee showing the convictions of such li- 
censee and the traffic accidents in which he has been involved 
shall be readily ascertainable and available for the consideration 
of the department upon any application for renewal of license 
and at other suitable times. 9 



o This is believed most desirable if the license provisions of this chapter 
are to serve the purpose intended and afford opportunity to refuse re- 

79 



§ 6-118 Uniform Vehicle Code 

§ 6-118 — Medical advisory boaitf 

(a) There shall be a medical advisory board consisting of 
members appointed by the commissioner with the as- 
sistance of the (State department of public health) . 10 

(b) The board shall advise the commissioner on medical 
criteria and vision standards relating to the licensing of drivers 
under the provisions of this chapter. 

(c) The department, having cause to believe that a licensed 
driver or applicant may not be physically or mentally qualified to 
be licensed, may obtain the advice of the board. The board may 
formulate its advice from records and reports or may cause an 
examination and report to be made by one or more members of 
the board or any other qualified person it may designate. The 
licensed driver or applicant may cause a written report to be 
forwarded to the board by a physician of his choice and it shall 
be given due consideration by the board. 

(d) Members of the board and other persons making exami- 
nations shall not be held liable for their opinions and recommen- 
dations presented pursuant to subsection (c) . 

(e) Reports received or made by the board, or its members, 
for the purpose of assisting the department in determining 
whether a person is qualified to be licensed are for the confiden- 
tial use of the board or the department and may not be di- 
vulged to any person or used as evidence in any trial except that 
the reports may be admitted in proceedings under § 6-206 (c) 
and § 6-212, and any person conducting an examination pur- 
suant to subsection (c) may be compelled to testify concerning 
his observations and findings in such proceedings. 11 (New SEC- 
TION, 1968.) 



newal of license and to suspend or revoke the licenses of those responsible 
for traffic accidents or frequently convicted of traffic violations. In this 
connection, it is very important that the state adopt as part of its motor 
vehicle laws those provisions contained in chapter 10 requiring reports of 
traffic accidents. 

i° It is suggested that the board have members whose medical and other 
specialties are known to relate to driving abilities, such as an internist, 
vision specialist, orthopedic surgeon, neurologist and other medical author- 
ities. 

u A state enacting this section may wish to consider requiring the 
board to convene at stated intervals or at the request of the commissioner 
and providing compensation for members of the board. 

80 



Drivers' Licenses § 6-203 

Article II — Cancellation, Suspension or Revocation 

of Licenses 

§ 6-201 — Authority of department to cancel license 

The department is hereby authorized to cancel any driver's li- 
cense upon determining that the licensee was not entitled to the 
issuance thereof hereunder or that said licensee failed to give the 
required or correct information in his application. (Revised, 
1968.) 

§ 6-202 — Suspending privileges of nonresidents; reporting con- 
victions, suspensions and revocations 

(a) The privilege of driving a motor vehicle on the highways 
of this State given to a nonresident hereunder shall be subject to 
suspension or revocation by the department in like manner and 
for like cause as a driver's license issued hereunder may be sus- 
pended or revoked. (Revised, 1968.) 

(b) The department is further authorized, upon receiving a 
record of the conviction in this State of a nonresident driver of 
a motor vehicle of any offense, to forward a certified copy of such 
record to the motor vehicle administrator in the state wherein 
the person so convicted is a resident. (Revised, 1968.) 

(c) When a nonresident's operating privilege is suspended or 
revoked, the department shall forward a certified copy of the 
record of such action to the motor vehicle administrator in the 
state wherein such person resides. (New, 1968.) 

§ 6-203 — Suspending resident's license based upon conduct in 
another state 

(a) The department is authorized to suspend or revoke the 
license of any resident of this State or the privilege of a non- 
resident to drive a motor vehicle in this State upon receiving 
notice of the conviction of such person in another state of an 
offense therein which, if committed in this State, would be 
grounds for the suspension or revocation of the license of a 
driver. (Revised, 1968.) 

(b) The department may give such effect to conduct of a res- 
ident in another state as is provided by the laws of this State 
had such conduct occurred in this State. (New, 1968.) 

81 



§ 6-204 Uniform Vehicle Code 

§ 6-204 — When court to forward license to department and re- 
port convictions 

(a) Whenever any person is convicted of any offense for which 
this act makes mandatory the revocation of the license of such 
person by the department, the court in which such conviction is 
had shall require the surrender to it of any driver's license then 
held by the person so convicted and the court shall thereupon 
forward the same together with a record of such conviction to 
the department. 12 

(b) Every court having jurisdiction over offenses committed 
under this act, or any other act of this State or municipal ordi- 
nance adopted by a local authority regulating the operation of 
motor vehicles on highways, shall forward to the department 
within 10 days a record of the conviction of any person in said 
court for a violation of any said laws other than regulations gov- 
erning standing or parking, and may recommend the suspen- 
sion of the driver's license of the person so convicted. 

(c) For the purposes of this chapter the term "conviction" 
shall mean a final conviction. Also, for the purposes of this chap- 
ter an unvacated forfeiture of bail or collateral deposited to se- 
cure a defendant's appearance in court, a plea of nolo contendere 
accepted by the court, the payment of a fine, a plea of guilty or 
a finding of guilt on a traffic violation charge, shall be equivalent 
to a conviction, regardless of whether the penalty is rebated, 
suspended or probated. (Section revised, 1968.) 

§ 6-205 — Mandatory revocation of license by department 

The department shall forthwith revoke the license of any 
driver upon receiving a record of such driver's conviction of 
any of the following offenses : 

1. Manslaughter (or homicide by vehicle) resulting from the 
operation of a motor vehicle ; 

2. Driving or being in actual physical control of a motor ve- 
hicle while under the influence of intoxicating liquor ; 

3. Driving a motor vehicle while an habitual user or under the 
influence of any narcotic drug or while under the influence of 



12 This paragraph is desirable as a means to carry out mandatory revo- 
cation as hereinafter provided. 

82 



Drivers' Licenses § 6-205.1 

any other drug to a degree which renders him incapable of safely- 
driving a motor vehicle ; 

4. Any felony in the commission of which a motor vehicle is 
used ; 

5. Failure to stop, render aid, or identify himself as required 
by § 10-102 in the event of a motor vehicle accident result- 
ing in the death or personal injury of another; 

6. Perjury or the making of a false affidavit or statement un- 
der oath to the department under this act or under any other law 
relating to the ownership or operation of motor vehicles ; 

7. Unauthorized use of a motor vehicle belonging to another 
which act does not amount to a felony. 13 (Section revised, 
1968.) 

§ 6-205.1 — Revocation of license in event of refusal to submit to 
chemical tests 14 

(a) Any person who operates a motor vehicle upon the public 
highways of this State shall be deemed to have given consent, 
subject to the provisions of § 11-902, to a chemical test or 
tests of his blood, breath, or urine for the purpose of deter- 
mining the alcoholic content of his blood if arrested for any 
offense arising out of acts alleged to have been committed while 
the person was driving or in actual physical control of a motor 
vehicle while under the influence of intoxicating liquor. The 
test or tests shall be administered at the direction of a law en- 
forcement officer having reasonable grounds to believe the per- 
son to have been driving or in actual physical control of a motor 
vehicle upon the public highways of this State while under the 
influence of intoxicating liquor. The law enforcement agency by 
which such officer is employed shall designate which of the 
aforesaid tests shall be administered. 

(b) Any person who is dead, unconscious or who is otherwise 
in a condition rendering him incapable of refusal, shall be 
deemed not to have withdrawn the consent provided by para- 



13 Where the offenses above enumerated are defined in the traffic and 
motor vehicle laws or criminal code of the state, it would be sufficient in 
the above section to refer by number to the pertinent sections of those 
laws or code without specifically describing such offenses in the above sec- 
tion. 

14 Generally known as the "implied consent law." A state contemplating 
the enactment of this section should refer also to §§ 11-902, 11-902.1, 
6-208 and 1-155. 

83 



§ 6-206 Uniform Vehicle Code 

graph (a) of this section and the test or tests may be admin- 
istered, subject to the provisions of § 11-902. 

(c) If a person under arrest refuses upon the request of a law 
enforcement officer to submit to a chemical test designated by 
the law enforcement agency as provided in paragraph (a) of 
this section, none shall be given, but the department, upon the 
receipt of a sworn report of the law enforcement officer that he 
had reasonable grounds to believe the arrested person had been 
driving or was in actual physical control of a motor vehicle upon 
the public highways of this State while under the influence of 
intoxicating liquor and that the person had refused to submit to 
the test upon the request of the law enforcement officer, shall re- 
voke his license subject to review as hereinafter provided. 

(d) Upon revoking the license, as hereinbefore in this sec- 
tion directed, the department shall immediately notify the per- 
son in writing and upon his request shall afford him an oppor- 
tunity for a hearing in the same manner and under the same 
conditions as is provided in § 6-206 (c) for notification and 
hearings in the cases of discretionary suspension of licenses, ex- 
cept that the scope of such a hearing for the purposes of this 
section shall cover the issues of whether a law enforcement offi- 
cer had reasonable grounds to believe the person had been driv- 
ing or was in actual physical control of a motor vehicle upon the 
public highways of this State while under the influence of intoxi- 
cating liquor, whether the person was placed under arrest, and 
whether he refused to submit to the test upon request of the 
officer. Whether the person was informed that his privilege to 
drive would be revoked if he refused to submit to the test shall 
not be an issue. The department shall order that the revocation 
either be rescinded or sustained. 

(e) If the revocation is sustained after such a hearing, the 
person whose license has been revoked, under the provisions of 
this section, shall have the right to file a petition in the appro- 
priate court to review the final order of revocation by the de- 
partment in the same manner and under the same conditions as 
is provided in § 6-212 in the cases of discretionary revocations 
and suspensions. (New section, 1962; Revised, 1968.) 

§ 6-206 — Authority of department to suspend or revoke license 

(a) The department is hereby authorized to suspend the li- 

84 



Drivers' Licenses § 6-206 

cense of a driver without preliminary hearing upon a showing 
by its records or other sufficient evidence that the licensee : 

1. Has committed an offense for which mandatory revocation 
of license is required upon conviction ; 

2. Has been convicted with such frequency of serious offenses 
against traffic regulations governing the movement of vehicles as 
to indicate a disrespect for traffic laws and a disregard for the 
safety of other persons on the highways ; 

3. Is an habitually reckless or negligent driver of a motor ve- 
hicle, such fact being established by the point system in subsec- 
tion (b) , by a record of accidents, or by other evidence ; 

4. Is incompetent to drive a motor vehicle ; 

5. Has permitted an unlawful or fraudulent use of such li- 
cense; 

6. Has committed an offense in another state which if com- 
mitted in this State would be grounds for suspension or revoca- 
tion; 

7. Has been convicted of fleeing or attempting to elude a police 
officer; or 

8. Has been convicted of racing on the highways. (REVISED, 
1968.) 

(b) For the purpose of identifying habitually reckless or 
negligent drivers and habitual or frequent violators of traffic 
regulations governing the movement of vehicles, the department 
shall adopt regulations establishing a uniform system assigning 
demerit points for convictions of violations of chapter 11 of this 
act or of ordinances adopted by local authorities regulating the 
operation of motor vehicles. The regulations shall include a desig- 
nated level of point accumulation which so identifies drivers. 15 
The department may assess points for convictions in other states 
of offenses which, if committed in this State, would be grounds 
for such assessment. Notice of each assessment of points may 



is In formulating- the administrative point system authorized by this 
section, each department is urged to consider, in the interest of interstate 
uniformity, authorizing* suspension for an accumulation of 12 or more 
points as a result of offenses committed during any consecutive 12-month 
period or 18 or more points as a result of offenses committed during any 
24-month period; assigning six points for convictions of reckless driving 
(willful and wanton disregard for the safety of persons or property, as in 
§ 11-901) and for convictions of speeding when the licensee drove at least 
20 miles per hour over the lawful limit; four points for convictions of 
relatively serious offenses; and three points for less serious offenses. 

85 



§ 6-207 UNIFUKM V&mui^ \jKjviu 

be given, but notice is required when the point accumulation 

reaches percent of the number at which suspension is 

authorized. 16 No points shall be assessed for violating a provi- 
sion of this act or municipal ordinance regulating standing, 
parking, equipment, size or weight. 17 In case of the conviction 
of a licensee of two or more traffic violations committed on a 
single occasion, such licensee shall be assessed points for one 
offense only and if the offenses involved have different point 
values, such licensee shall be assessed for the offense having the 
greater point value. The department is authorized to suspend 
the license of a driver, with or without preliminary hearing, 
when his driving record identifies him as an habitually reckless 
or negligent driver or as an habitual or frequent violator under 
this subsection. (New, 1968.) 

(c) Upon suspending the license of any person as hereinbe- 
fore in this section authorized, the department shall immediately 
notify the licensee in writing and upon his request shall afford 
him an opportunity for a hearing as early as practicable within 
not to exceed 20 days after receipt of such request in the county 
wherein the licensee resides unless the department and the li- 
censee agree that such hearing may be held in some other county. 
Upon such hearing the commissioner or his duly authorized agent 
may administer oaths and may issue subpoenas for the atten- 
dance of witnesses and the production of relevant books and 
papers and may require a re-examination of the licensee. Upon 
such hearing the department shall either rescind its order of 
suspension or, good cause appearing therefor, may continue, 
modify or extend the suspension of such license or revoke such 
license. (Revised, 1968.) 

§ 6-207 — Department may require re-examination 

The department, having good cause to believe that a licensed 
driver is incompetent or otherwise not qualified to be licensed, 
may upon written notice of at least five days to the licensee re- 



16 It is suggested that a percentage low enough to give the driver op- 
portunity to protest any erroneous entry and to improve his driving habits 
prior to any suspension be specified. Fifty percent might be appropriate. 

17 In addition, it is suggested that no points be assessed for violations 
by pedestrians, passengers or bicycle riders, or for violations of provisions 
relating to the preservation of the condition of traffic-control devices or 
the highway. 

86 



Drivers' Licenses § 6-209 

quire him to submit to an examination. Upon the conclusion of 
such examination, the department shall take action as may be 
appropriate and may suspend or revoke the license of such per- 
son or permit him to retain such license, or may issue a license 
subject to restrictions as permitted under § 6-113 or restric- 
tions as to the type or class of vehicles that may be driven. 
Refusal or neglect of the licensee to submit to such examination 
shall be ground for suspension or revocation of his license. (Re- 
vised, 1968.) 

§ 6-208 — Period of revocation 

(a) Unless the revocation was for a cause which has been 
removed, any person whose license or privilege to drive a motor 
vehicle on the public highways has been revoked shall not be 
eligible to apply for a new license nor restoration of his non- 
resident's operating privilege until the expiration of: 

1. Six months from the date on which the revoked license was 
surrendered to and received by the department or from such 
other date as shall be determined by the department in cases of 
revocation for refusal to submit to a chemical test under the pro- 
visions of § 6-205.1; 

2. One year from the date on which the license was surren- 
dered to a court under § 6-204 ; 

3. One year from the date on which the revoked license was 
surrendered to and received by the department ; 

4. Or, in all other revocation cases, one year commencing on 
a date determined by the department. 

(b) The department shall not issue a new license nor restore 
a person's revoked nonresident's operating privilege unless and 
until it is satisfied after investigation of the character, habits 
and driving ability of such person that it will be safe to grant 
the privilege of driving a motor vehicle on the public highways. 
(Section revised, 1968.) 

§ 6-209 — Period of suspension 

(a) The department shall not suspend a driver's license or 
privilege to drive a motor vehicle on the public highways for 
a period of more than one year, except as permitted under § 
6-303. (Repositioned, 1968.) 

87 



(b) At the end of the period of suspension a license surren- 
dered to the department under § 6-210 shall be returned to 
the licensee. (New, 1968.) 

§ 6-210 — Surrender and return of license 

(a) The department upon canceling, suspending or revoking 
a license shall require that such license shall be surrendered to 
and be retained by the department. (Revised and repositioned, 
1968.) 

(b) Any person whose license has been canceled, suspended 
or revoked shall immediately return his license to the depart- 
ment. (New, 1968.) 

§ 6-211 — No operation under foreign license during suspension 
or revocation in this State 

Any resident or nonresident whose driver's license or privilege 
to operate a motor vehicle in this State has been suspended or 
revoked as provided in this act shall not operate a motor vehicle 
in this State under a license or permit issued by any other juris- 
diction or otherwise during such suspension or after such revo- 
cation until a new license is obtained when and as permitted 
under this chapter. (Revised and renumbered, 1968.) 

§ 6-212 — Right of appeal to court 

Any person denied a license or whose license has been can- 
celed, suspended or revoked by the department except where such 
cancellation or revocation is mandatory under the provisions of 
this act shall have the right to file a petition within 30 days 
thereafter for a hearing in the matter in (a court of record) 
in the county wherein such person shall reside, or in the case 
of cancellation, suspension or revocation of a nonresident's op- 
erating privilege in the county in which the main office of the de- 
partment is located, and such court is hereby vested with juris- 
diction and it shall be its duty to set the matter for hearing upon 
30 days' written notice to the commissioner, and thereupon to 
take testimony and examine into the facts of the case and to de- 
termine whether the petitioner is entitled to a license or is sub- 
ject to suspension, cancellation or revocation of license under the 
provisions of this chapter. (Revised, 1962; renumbered, 1968.) 

88 



Drivers' Licenses § 6-303 

Article III — Violation of License Provisions 

§ 6-301 — Unlawful use of license 

It is a misdemeanor for any person : 

1. To display or cause or permit to be displayed or have in his 
possession any canceled, revoked, suspended, fictitious or fraud- 
ulently altered driver's license ; 

2. To lend his driver's license to any other person or know- 
ingly permit the use thereof by another; 

3. To display or represent as one's own any driver's license 
not issued to him ; 

4. To fail or refuse to surrender to the department upon law- 
ful demand any driver's license which has been suspended, re- 
voked or canceled ; 

5. To use a false or fictitious name in any application for a 
driver's license or to knowingly make a false statement or to 
knowingly conceal a material fact or otherwise commit a fraud 
in any such application ; 

6. To permit any unlawful use of a driver's license issued to 
him ; or 

7. To do any act forbidden or fail to perform any act required 
by this chapter. (Section revised, 1968.) 

§ 6-302 — Making false affidavit perjury 

Any person who makes any false affidavit, or knowingly swears 
or affirms falsely to any matter or thing required by the terms 
of this chapter to be sworn to or affirmed, is guilty of perjury 
and upon conviction shall be punishable by fine or imprisonment 
as other persons committing perjury are punishable. 

§ 6-303 — Driving while license suspended or revoked 

(a) Any person who drives a motor vehicle on any public 
highway of this State at a time when his privilege so to do is 
suspended or revoked shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and up- 
on conviction shall be punished by imprisonment for not less than 
two days nor more than six months and there may be imposed 
in addition thereto a fine of not more than $500. (Revised, 
1962.) 

89 



§ 6-304 Uniform Vehicle Code 

(b) The department upon receiving a record of the conviction 
of any person under this section upon a charge of driving a ve- 
hicle while the license of such person was suspended shall ex- 
tend the period of such suspension for an additional like period 
if the prior suspension was imposed under § 6-206, and if the 
suspension was imposed under any other provision of this act 
the department may impose an additional suspension for a pe- 
riod of not more than one year from the date the person would 
otherwise have been eligible to be licensed. If the conviction 
was upon a charge of driving while a license was revoked the 
department shall not issue a new license for an additional period 
of one year from and after the date such person would otherwise 
have been entitled to apply for a new license. (Revised, 1968.) 

§ 6-304 — Permitting unauthorized minor to drive 

No person shall cause or knowingly permit his child or ward 
under the age of 18 years to drive a motor vehicle upon any high- 
way when such minor is not authorized hereunder or in viola- 
tion of any of the provisions of this chapter. 

§ 6-305 — Permitting unlicensed person to drive 

No person shall authorize or knowingly permit a motor vehicle 
owned by him or under his control to be driven upon any high- 
way by any person who is not authorized hereunder or who is 
not licensed for the type or class of vehicles to be driven or in 
violation of any of the provisions of this chapter. (REVISED, 
1968.) 

Article IV — Commercial Driver Training Schools 
(New, 1968.) 

§ 6-401 — License required 

No person shall operate a commercial driver training school 
or act as an instructor unless licensed to do so by the depart- 
ment under the provisions of this article. 

§ 6-402— Definitions 

As used in this article : 

(a) "Commercial driver training school" or "school" means 
any business or nonprofit enterprise for the education and train- 

90 



Drivers' Licenses § 6-405 

ing of persons, either practically or theoretically, or both, in the 
driving of motor vehicles, for which a consideration or tuition 
is charged. 

(b) "Instructor" means any person, whether acting for him- 
self as operator of a school or acting for any such school for 
compensation, who teaches, conducts classes of, gives demon- 
strations to, or supervises practice of, persons in the driving 
of motor vehicles. 

§ 6-403 — Exemptions 

Any driver education course or training which is approved by 
the (State board of education) or given at an accredited college 
or university is exempt from the provisions of this article, but 
an instructor employed by such a school or institution is exempt 
only to the extent his activities are as agent of the school or 
institution. 18 

§ 6-404 — Issuance and expiration of licenses; fees 

(a) The department shall issue a school or instructor license 
to an applicant who has complied with this article and regula- 
tions adopted by the commissioner. All licenses shall expire (on 
the last day of each calendar year) . 

(b) Each application for an original or renewal school license 
shall be accompanied by a fee of dollars, and each ap- 
plication for an original or renewal instructor license shall be 

accompanied by a fee of dollars. Such fees shall not be 

refunded in the event any license is refused, suspended or re- 
voked. 

§ 6-405 — Authority of commissioner to adopt regulations 

(a) The commissioner shall adopt regulations necessary to 
carry out the provisions of this article. 

(b) The regulations shall state the requirements for a school 
license, including requirements concerning manner and form of 



is If driver education courses or training at private high schools are not 
subject to approval by the state board of education or if such courses or 
training are given ^ at institutions that are not accredited, the enacting 
jurisdiction may wish to consider expanding this section to exempt such 
schools or institutions. 

91 



§ 6-406 Uniform Vehicle Code 

application, location, place of business, facilities, records, equip- 
ment, courses and standards of instruction, instructors, previous 
records of the school and instructors, financial statements, sched- 
ule of fees and charges, character and reputation of the opera- 
tors and instructors, vehicle equipment and condition, inspection 
during reasonable business hours, insurance or bonds in such 
sum and with such provisions as the commissioner deems neces- 
sary, and such other matters as the commissioner may prescribe 
for the protection of the public. 

(c) The regulations shall state the requirements for an in- 
structor's license, including requirements concerning manner and 
form of application, moral character, reputation, physical condi- 
tion, knowledge of the courses of instruction, traffic laws, and 
safety principles and practices, driving record, driving ability, 
previous personal and employment record, and such other mat- 
ters as the commissioner may prescribe for the protection of the 
public. 

§ 6-406 — Refusal, suspension or revocation of license 

(a) The department may refuse to issue or renew, or may 
suspend or revoke a license issued under this article in any case 
where it finds the applicant or licensee has violated or failed to 
comply with any of the provisions of this chapter or the regu- 
lations adopted by the commissioner. 

(b) Upon suspending, revoking, or refusing to issue or renew 
a license, the department shall immediately notify the applicant 
or licensee stating the reasons for such action and affording 
reasonable opportunity for a hearing. No such suspension or 
revocation shall become effective until the licensee has been af- 
forded a reasonable opportunity for a hearing. Upon the con- 
clusion of such hearing, the department shall take such action as 
may be appropriate. 

(c) A suspended or revoked license shall be returned immedi- 
ately to the department by the licensee. 

§ 6-407— Penalties 

Any person who violates any of the provisions of this article 
or regulations adopted by the commissioner shall be guilty of a 
misdemeanor and, upon conviction, shall be punished as pro- 
vided in § 17-101. 

92 



CHAPTER 7 
Financial Responsibility 
Article I — Administration 
§ 7-101 — Commissioner to administer chapter 

(a) The commissioner shall administer and enforce the pro- 
visions of this chapter and may make rules and regulations 
necessary for its administration. 

(b) The commissioner shall receive and consider any per- 
tinent information upon request of persons aggrieved by his 
orders or acts under any of the provisions of this chapter. 

(c) The commissioner shall prescribe and provide suitable 
forms requisite or deemed necessary for the purposes of this 
chapter. 

§ 7-102— Court review 1 

Any order or act of the commissioner under the provisions 

of this chapter shall be sub j ect to review ( here insert 

language indicating scope of the review) by (appeal) (writ of 

certiorari) to (the court) at the instance of any party 

in interest. The court shall determine whether the filing of the 
(appeal) (petition for such writ) shall operate as a stay of 
any such order or act of the commissioner and the court shall 
summarily hear the matter. The court may, in disposing of the 
issue before it, modify, affirm or reverse the order or act of 
the commissioner in whole or in part. 

§ 7-103 — Department to furnish operating record 2 

The department shall upon request furnish any person a cer- 



1 Section 7-102 should be omitted in those states where the existing law 
provides for some method of judicial review of administrative orders 
which would be applicable to orders or acts of the commissioner under this 
law.^ In states where existing statutes providing judicial review of ad- 
ministrative orders may be interpreted to apply only to administrative 
action authorized by statutes existing at the time of enactment of such 
administrative review act, § 7-102 should be amended to provide for the 
application of such judicial review statute to this act. In those states 
where no proceeding for court review is provided, the text of § 7-102 
should be so drafted as to be consistent with constitutional and other re- 
quirements in the particular state. 

2 Section 7-103 may be omitted in those states where the existing law 
provides for furnishing the same information. 

93 



§ 7-201 UNIFORM VEHICLE UUJJU 

tified abstract of the operating record of any person subject to 
the provisions of this chapter, which abstract shall include 
enumeration of any motor vehicle accidents in which such per- 
son has been involved and reference to any convictions of said 
person for violation of the motor vehicle laws as reported to 
the department, and a record of any vehicles registered in the 
name of such person. The department shall collect for each ab- 
stract the sum of $ 



Article II — Security Following Accident 

§ 7-201— Application of article II 

The provisions of this chapter, requiring deposit of security 
and suspensions for failure to deposit security, subject to cer- 
tain exemptions, shall apply to the driver and owner of any 
vehicle of a type subject to registration under the motor ve- 
hicle laws of this State which is in any manner involved in an 
accident within this State, which accident has resulted in bod- 
ily injury to or death of any person or damage to the prop- 
erty of any one person in excess of $100. 

§ 7-202 — Department to determine amount of security required 
— notices 

(a) The department, not less than 20 days after receipt of 
a report of an accident as described in the preceding section, 
shall determine the amount of security which shall be sufficient 
in its judgment to satisfy any judgment or judgments for dam- 
ages resulting from such accident as may be recovered against 
each driver or owner. Such determination shall not be made with 
respect to drivers or owners who are exempt under succeeding 
sections of this chapter from the requirements as to security and 
suspension. 

(b) The department shall determine the amount of security 
deposit required of any person upon the basis of the reports or 
other information submitted. In the event a person involved 
in an accident as described in this chapter fails to make a re- 
port or submit information indicating the extent of his injuries 
or the damage to his property within 50 days after the accident 
and the department does not have sufficient information on 
which to base an evaluation of such injuries or damage, then 

94 



Financial Responsibility § 7-203 

the department after reasonable notice to such person, if it is 
possible to give such notice, otherwise without such notice, shall 
not require any deposit of security for the benefit or protection 
of such person. 

(c) The department within 50 days after receipt of report of 
any accident referred to herein and upon determining the 
amount of security to be required of any person involved in such 
accident or to be required of the owner of any vehicle involved 
in such accident shall give written notice to every such person 
of the amount of security required to be deposited by him and 
that an order of suspension will be made as hereinafter pro- 
vided upon the expiration of 10 days after the sending of such 
notice unless within said time security be deposited as required 
by said notice. 

§ 7-203 — Exceptions to requirement of security 

The requirements as to security and suspension in this arti- 
cle shall not apply : 

1. To the driver or owner if the owner had in effect at the 
time of the accident an automobile liability policy or bond with 
respect to the vehicle involved in the accident, except that a 
driver shall not be exempt under this paragraph if at the time 
of the accident the vehicle was being operated without the own- 
er's permission, express or implied ; 

2. To the driver, if not the owner of the vehicle involved in 
the accident, if there was in effect at the time of the accident 
an automobile liability policy or bond with respect to his driving 
of vehicles not owned by him; 

3. To a driver or owner whose liability for damages resulting 
from the accident is, in the judgment of the department, cov- 
ered by any other form of liability insurance policy or bond ; 

4. To any person qualifying as a self -insurer under § 7-503 or 
to any person operating a vehicle for such self -insurer ; 

5. To the driver or the owner of a vehicle involved in an ac- 
cident wherein no injury or damage was caused to the person 
or property of anyone other than such driver or owner ; 

6. To the driver or owner of a vehicle which at the time of 
the accident was parked, unless such vehicle was parked at a 
place where parking was at the time of the accident prohibited 
under any applicable law or ordinance; 

95 



KJ J.'NJ.J.' V/J.VJ.YJ. T uiiiv^uju www 



7. To the owner of a vehicle if at the time of the accident 
the vehicle was being operated without his permission, express 
or implied, or was parked by a person who had been operating 
such vehicle without such permission ; 

8. To the owner of a vehicle involved in an accident if at the 
time of the accident such vehicle was owned by or leased to the 
United States, this State or any political subdivision of this 
State or a municipality thereof, or to the driver of such vehicle 
if operating such vehicle with permission ; or 

9. To the driver or the owner of a vehicle in the event at 
the time of the accident the vehicle was being operated by or 
under the direction of a police officer who, in the performance of 
his duties, shall have assumed custody of such vehicle. 

§ 7-204 — Requirements as to policy or bond 

(a) No policy or bond shall be effective under § 7-203 unless 
issued by an insurance company or surety company authorized 
to do business in this State, except as provided in subdivision 
(b) of this section, nor unless such policy or bond is subject, 
if the accident has resulted in bodily injury or death, to a limit, 
exclusive of interest and costs, of not less than $10,000 because 
of bodily injury to or death of one person in any one accident 
and, subject to said limit for one person, to a limit of not less 
than $20,000 because of bodily injury to or death of two or 
more persons in any one accident, and if the accident has re- 
sulted in injury to, or destruction of, property to a limit of not 
less than $5,000 because of injury to or destruction of property 
of others in any one accident. (Amounts increased, 1956.) 

(b) No policy or bond shall be effective under § 7-203 with 
respect to any vehicle which was not registered in this State 
or was a vehicle which was registered elsewhere than in this 
State at the effective date of the policy or bond or the most 
recent renewal thereof, unless the insurance company or surety 
company issuing such policy or bond is authorized to do busi- 
ness in this State, or if said company is not authorized to do 
business in this State, unless it shall execute a power of attor- 
ney anithorizing the commissioner to accept service on its behalf 
of notice or process in any action upon such policy or bond aris- 
ing out of such accident. 

(c) The department may rely upon the accuracy of the in- 

96 



Financial Responsibility § 7-207 

formation in a required report of an accident as to the existence 
of insurance or a bond unless and until the department has rea- 
son to believe that the information is erroneous. 

§ 7-205 — Form and amount of security 

(a) The security required under this chapter shall be in such 
form and in such amount as the department may require, but in 
no case in excess of the limits specified in § 7-204 in reference 
to the acceptable limits of a policy or bond. 

(b) Every depositor of security shall designate in writing 
every person in whose name such deposit is made and may at 
any time change such designation, but any single deposit of se- 
curity shall be applicable only on behalf of persons required to 
furnish security because of the same accident. 

§ 7-206— Failure to deposit security— suspensions 

In the event that any person required to deposit security un- 
der this chapter fails to deposit such security within 10 days 
after the department has sent the notice as hereinbefore pro- 
vided, the department shall thereupon suspend : 

1. The license of each driver in any manner involved in the 
accident ; 

2. The registrations of all vehicles owned by the owner of each 
vehicle of a type subject to registration under the laws of this 
State involved in such accident ; 

3. If the driver is a nonresident, the privilege of operating 
within this State a vehicle of a type subject to registration un- 
der the laws of this State ; 

4. If such owner is a nonresident, the privilege of such owner 
to operate or permit the operation within this State of a vehicle 
of a type subject to registration under the laws of this State. 

Such suspensions shall be made in respect to persons required 
by the department to deposit security who fail to deposit such 
security, except as otherwise provided under succeeding sections 
of this chapter. 

§ 7-207— Release from liability 

(a) A person shall be relieved from the requirement for de- 
posit of security for the benefit or protection of another person 

UVC— 4 97 



§ 7-208 Uniform vehicle uode 

injured or damaged in the accident in the event he is released 
from liability by such other person. 

(b) A covenant not to sue shall relieve the parties thereto as 
to each other from the security requirements of this chapter. 

(c) In the event the department has evaluated the injuries 
or damage to any minor in an amount not more than $200 the 
department may accept, for the purposes of this article only, 
evidence of a release from liability executed by a natural guard- 
ian or a legal guardian on behalf of such minor without the 
approval of any court or judge. 

§ 7-208 — Adjudication of nonliability 

A person shall be relieved from the requirement for deposit 
of security in respect to a claim for injury or damage arising out 
of the accident in the event such person has been finally ad- 
judicated not to be liable in respect to such claim. 

§ 7-209 — Agreements for payment of damages 

(a) Any two or more of the persons involved in or affected 
by an accident as described in § 7-201 may at any time enter 
into a written agreement for the payment of an agreed amount 
with respect to all claims of any of such persons because of 
bodily injury to or death or property damage arising from such 
accident, which agreement may provide for payment in install- 
ments, and may file a signed copy thereof with the department. 

(b) The department, to the extent provided by any such writ- 
ten agreement filed with it, shall not require the deposit of se- 
curity and shall terminate any prior order of suspension, or, 
if security has previously been deposited, the department shall 
immediately return such security to the depositor or his personal 
representative. 

(c) In the event of a default in any payment under such 
agreement and upon notice of such default the department shall 
take action suspending the license or registration of such per- 
son in default as would be appropriate in the event of failure 
of such person to deposit security when required under this 
chapter. 

(d) Such suspension shall remain in effect and such license 
or registration shall not be restored unless and until: 

98 



Financial Responsibility § 7-212 

1. Security is deposited as required under this chapter in such 
amount as the department may then determine ; or 

2. When, following any such default and suspension, the per- 
son in default has paid the balance of the agreed amount ; or 

3. One year has elapsed following the effective date of such 
suspension and evidence satisfactory to the department has been 
filed with it that during such period no action at law upon such 
agreement has been instituted and is pending. 

§ 7-210 — Payment upon judgment 

The payment of a judgment arising out of an accident or the 
payment upon such judgment of an amount equal to the max- 
imum amount which could be required for deposit under this ar- 
ticle shall, for the purposes of this article, release the judgment 
debtor from the liability evidenced by such judgment. 

§ 7-211 — Termination of security requirement 

The department, if satisfied as to the existence of any fact 
which under §§ 7-207, 7-208, 7-209 or 7-210 would entitle a per- 
son to be relieved from the security requirements of this chap- 
ter, shall not require the deposit of security by the person so re- 
lieved from such requirement and shall terminate any prior or- 
der of suspension in respect to such person, or if security has 
previously been deposited by such person, the department shall 
immediately return such deposit to such person or to his per- 
sonal representative. 

§ 7-212 — Duration of suspension 

Unless a suspension is terminated under other provisions of 
this chapter, any order of suspension by the department under 
this chapter shall remain in effect and no license shall be re- 
newed for or issued to any person whose license is so suspended 
and no registration shall be renewed for or issued to any per- 
son whose vehicle registration is so suspended until: 

1. Such person shall deposit or there shall be deposited on his 
behalf the security required under this chapter ; or 

2. One year shall have elapsed following the date of sueh sus- 
pension and evidence satisfactory to the department has been 
filed with it that during such period no action for damages aris- 

99 



§ 7-213 Uniform Vehicle Code 

ing out of the accident resulting in such suspension has been in- 
stituted* 

An affidavit of the applicant that no action at law for damages 
arising out of the accident has been filed against him or, it filed, 
that it is not still pending shall be prima facie evidence ot that 
fact. The department may take whatever steps are necessary to 
verify the statement set forth in any said affidavit. 

§ 7-213 — Application to nonresidents, unlicensed drivers, unreg- 
istered vehicles and accidents in other states 

(a) In case the driver or the owner of a vehicle of a type sub- 
ject to registration under the laws of this State involved in an 
accident within this State has no license or registration in this 
State, then such driver shall not be allowed a license, nor shall 
such owner be allowed to register any vehicle in this State, until 
he has complied with the requirements of this chapter to the 
same extent that would be necessary if, at the time of the acci- 
dent, he had held a license or been the owner of a vehicle regis- 
tered in this State, 

(b) When a nonresident's operating privilege is suspended 
pursuant to § 7-206, the department shall transmit a certified 
copy of the record of such action to the official in charge of the 
issuance of licenses and registration certificates in the state in 
which such nonresident resides, if the law of such other state 
provides for action in relation thereto similar to that provided 
for in subsection (c) of this section. 

(c) Upon receipt of such certification that the operating privi- 
lege of a resident of this State has been suspended or revoked in 
any such other state pursuant to a law providing for its suspen- 
sion or revocation for failure to deposit security for the payment 
of judgments arising out of a motor vehicle accident, under cir- 
cumstances which would require the department to suspend a 
nonresident's operating privilege had the accident occurred in 
this State, the department shall suspend the license of such resi- 
dent if he was the driver, and all of his registrations if lie was 
the owner of a motor vehicle involved in such accident, Such 
suspension shall continue until such resident furnishes evidence 
of his compliance with the law of such other state relating to the 
deposit of such security. 

100 



Financial Responsibility § 7-217 

§ 7-214— Authority of department to decrease amount of se- 
curity 

The department may reduce the amount of security ordered in 
any case within six months after the date of the accident if in its 
judgment the amount ordered is excessive. In case the security 
originally ordered has been deposited, the excess deposit over the 
reduced amount ordered shall be returned to the depositor or his 
personal representative forthwith. 

§ 7-215 — Correction of action of department 

Whenever the department has taken any action or has failed 
to take any action under this chapter by reason of having re- 
ceived erroneous information or by reason of having received 
no information, then upon receiving correct information within 
one year after the date of an accident the department shall take 
appropriate action to carry out the purposes and effect of this 
chapter. The foregoing shall not, however, be deemed to require 
the department to re-evaluate the amount of any deposit re- 
quired under this article. 

§ 7-216 — Custody of security 

The department shall place any security deposited with it under 
this chapter in the custody of the (State treasurer) . 

§ 7-217 — Disposition of security 

(a) Such security shall be applicable and available only; 

1. For the payment of any settlement agreement covering any 
claim arising out of the accident upon instruction of the person 
who made the deposit ; or 

2. For the payment of a judgment or judgments, rendered 
against the person required to make the deposit, for damages 
arising out of the accident in an action at law begun not later 
than one year after the deposit of such security, or within one 
year after the date of deposit of any security following failure to 
make payments under an agreement to pay. 

■(b) Every distribution of funds from the security deposits 
shall be subject to the limits of the department's evaluation on 
behalf of a claimant. 

101 



§ 7-218 UNIFORM VEHICLE CODE 

§ 7-218— Return of deposit 

Upon the expiration of one year from the date of any deposit 
of security any security remaining on deposit shall be returned to 
the person who made such deposit or to his personal representa- 
tive if an affidavit or other evidence satisfactory to the depart- 
ment has been tiled with it : 

1. That no action for damages arising out of the accident for 
which deposit was made is pending against any person on whose 
behalf the deposit was made ; and 

2. That there does not exist any unpaid judgment rendered 
against any such person in such an action. 

The foregoing provisions of this section shall not be construed 
to limit the return of any deposit of security under any other 
provision of this chapter authorizing such return. 

§ 7-219 — Matters not to be evidence in civil suits 

The report required following an accident, the action taken by 
the department pursuant to this chapter, the findings, if any, of 
the department upon which such action is based, and the security 
filed as provided in this chapter, shall not be referred to in any 
way, and shall not be any evidence of the negligence or due care 
of either party, at the trial of any action at law to recover dam- 
ages. 

Article III — Proof of Financial Responsibility for the 

Future 

§ 7-301 — Application of article III 

The provisions of this chapter requiring the deposit of proof 
of financial responsibility for the future, subject to certain ex- 
emptions, shall apply with respect to persons who have been con- 
victed of or forfeited bail for certain offenses under motor vehi- 
cle laws or who have failed to pay judgments upon causes of 
action arising out of ownership, maintenance or use of vehicles 
of a type subject to registration under the laws of this State. 



102 



Financial Responsibility § 7-303 

§ 7-302— Meaning of "proof of financial responsibility for the fu- 
ture" 

The term "proof of financial responsibility for the future" as 
used in this chapter shall mean : Proof of ability to respond in 
damages for liability, on account of accidents occurring subse- 
quent to the effective date of said proof, arising out of the owner- 
ship, maintenance or use of a vehicle of a type subject to registra- 
tion under the laws of this State, in the amount of $10,000 
because of bodily injury to or death of one person in any one ac- 
cident, and, subject to said limit for one person, in the amount of 
$20,000 because of bodily injury to or death of two or more per- 
sons in any one accident, and in the amount of $5,000 because of 
injury to or destruction of property of others in any one accident. 
Wherever used in this chapter the terms "proof of financial re- 
sponsibility" or "proof" shall be synonymous with the term 
"proof of financial responsibility for the future." (AMOUNTS in- 
creased, 1956.) 

§ 7-303— Meaning of "judgment" and "state" 

The following words and phrases when used in this chapter 
shall, for the purpose of this article, have the meanings respec- 
tively ascribed to them in this section. 

(a) The term "judgment" shall mean: Any judgment which 
shall have become final by expiration without appeal of the time 
within which an appeal might have been perfected, or by final 
affirmation on appeal, rendered by a court of competent jurisdic- 
tion of any state or of the United States, upon a cause of action 
arising out of the ownership, maintenance or use of any vehicle 
of a type subject to registration under the laws of this State, for 
damages, including damages for care and loss of services, because 
of bodily injury to or death of any person, or for damages because 
of injury to or destruction of property, including the loss of use 
thereof, or upon a cause of action on an agreement of settlement 
for such damages. 

(b) The term "state" shall mean: Any state, territory, or pos- 
session of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Com- 
monwealth of Puerto Rico, or any province of Canada. (REVISED, 
1968.) 

103 



§ 7-304 — Proof required upon certain convictions 3 

Whenever, under any law of this State, the license of any per- 
son is suspended or revoked by reason of a conviction or a for- 
feiture of bail, the department shall suspend the registration of 
all vehicles registered in the name of such person as owner, ex- 
cept that (a) if such owner has previously given or shall immedi- 
ately give and thereafter maintains proof of financial responsi- 
bility for the future with respect to all such vehicles registered 
by such person as the owner, the department shall not suspend 
such registration unless otherwise required by law ; (b) if a con- 
viction arose out of the operation, with permission, of a vehicle 
owned by or leased to the United States, this State or any political 
subdivision of this State or a municipality thereof, the depart- 
ment shall suspend or revoke such license only with respect to 
the operation of vehicles not so owned or leased and shall not sus- 
pend the registration of any vehicle so owned or leased. 

§ 7-305 — Suspension until proof furnished 

The suspension or revocation hereinbefore required shall re- 
main in effect and the department shall not issue to such person 
any new or renewal of license or register or reregister in the 
name of such person as owner any such vehicle until permitted 
under the motor vehicle laws of this State, and not then unless 
and until such person shall give and thereafter maintain proof 
of financial responsibility for the future. 

§ 7-306 — Action in respect to unlicensed person 

If a person has no license, but by final order or judgment is con- 
victed of or forfeits any bail or collateral deposited to secure an 
appearance for trial for any offense requiring the suspension or 
revocation of license, or for driving a motor vehicle upon the high- 
ways without being licensed to do so, or for driving an unregis- 
tered vehicle upon the highways, no license shall be thereafter 
issued to such person and no such vehicle shall continue to be 
registered or thereafter be registered in the name of such person 



3 This section should be read in connection with, and presupposes the 
enactment of, §§ 6-203, 6-205 and 6-206 which require or authorize revo- 
cation of license in the event of certain serious offenses against the mo- 
tor vehicle laws. 

104 



Financial Responsibility § 7-311 

as owner unless he shall give and thereafter maintain proof of 
financial responsibility for the future. 

§ 7-307 — Action in respect to nonresidents 

Whenever the department suspends or revokes a nonresident's 
operating privilege by reason of a conviction or forfeiture of bail, 
such privilege shall remain so suspended or revoked unless such 
person shall have previously given or shall immediately give and 
thereafter maintain proof of financial responsibility for the fu- 
ture. 

§ 7-308 — When courts to report nonpayment of judgments 

Whenever any person fails within 30 days to satisfy any judg- 
ment, then upon the written request of the judgment creditor or 
his attorney it shall be the duty of the clerk of the court, or of 
the judge of a court which has no clerk, in which any such judg- 
ment is rendered within this State to forward to the department 
immediately upon such request a certified copy of such judgment. 

§ 7-309 — Further action with respect to nonresidents 

If the defendant named in any certified copy of a judgment re- 
ported to the department is a nonresident, the department shall 
transmit a certified copy of the judgment to the official in charge 
of the issuance of licenses and registrations of the state of which 
the defendant is a resident. 

§ 7-310— Suspension for nonpayment of judgments 

The department upon receipt of a certified copy of a judgment 
and a certificate of facts relative to such judgment, on a form 
provided by the department, shall forthwith suspend the license 
and registration and any nonresident's operating privilege of any 
person against whom such judgment was rendered, except as 
hereinafter otherwise provided in this chapter. 

§ 7-311 — Exception in relation to government vehicles 

The provisions of § 7-310 shall not apply with respect to any 
such judgment arising out of an accident caused by the ownership 
or operation, with permission, of a vehicle owned or leased to the 

105 



§ 7-312 UNIFORM VEHICLE UODE 

United States, this State or any political subdivision of this State 
or a municipality thereof. 

§ 7-312 — Exception when consent granted by judgment creditor 

If the judgment creditor consents in writing, in such form as 
the department may prescribe, that the judgment debtor be al- 
lowed license and registration or nonresident's operating privi- 
lege, the same may be allowed by the department, in its discre- 
tion, for six months from the date of such consent and thereafter 
until such consent is revoked in writing, notwithstanding default 
in the payment of such judgment, or of any installments thereof 
prescribed in § 7-317, provided the judgment debtor furnishes 
proof of financial responsibility. 

§ 7-313 — Exception when insurer liable 

No license, registration or nonresident's operating privilege of 
any person shall be suspended under the provisions of this chap- 
ter if the department shall find that an insurer was obligated to 
pay the judgment upon which suspension is based, at least to the 
extent and for the amounts required in this chapter, but has not 
paid such judgment for any reason. A finding by the department 
that an insurer is obligated to pay a judgment shall not be bind- 
ing upon such insurer and shall have no legal effect whatever 
except for the purpose of administering this section. Whenever 
in any judicial proceedings it shall be determined by any final 
judgment, decree or order that an insurer is not obligated to pay 
any such judgment, the department, notwithstanding any con- 
trary finding theretofore made by it, shall forthwith suspend the 
license and registration and any nonresident's operating privilege 
of any person against whom such judgment was rendered, as pro- 
vided in § 7-310. 

§ 7-314 — Suspension to continue until judgments paid and proof 
given 

Such license, registration and nonresident's operating privilege 
shall remain so suspended and shall not be renewed, nor shall any 
such license or registration be thereafter issued in the name of 
such person, including any such person not previously licensed, 

106 



Financial Responsibility § 7-317 

unless and until every such judgment is stayed, satisfied in full 
or to the extent hereinafter provided and until the said person 
gives proof of financial responsibility subject to the exemptions 
stated in §§ 7-312, 7-313 and 7-317. 

§ 7-315 — Discharge in bankruptcy 

A discharge in bankruptcy following the rendering of any such 
judgment shall not relieve the judgment debtor from any of the 
requirements of this chapter. 

§ 7-316 — Payments sufficient to satisfy requirements 

(a) Judgments herein referred to shall, for the purpose of this 
chapter only, be deemed satisfied : 

1. When $10,000 has been credited upon any judgment or judg- 
ments rendered in excess of that amount because of bodily in- 
jury to or death of one person as the result of any one accident; 
or 

2. When, subject to such limit of $10,000 because of bodily 
injury to or death of one person, the sum of $20,000 has been 
credited upon any judgment or judgments rendered in excess of 
that amount because of bodily injury to or death of two or more 
persons as the result of any one accident ; or 

3. When $5,000 has been credited upon any judgment or judg- 
ments rendered in excess of that amount because of injury to or 
destruction of property of others as a result of any one accident. 

(b) Provided, however, payments made in settlements of any 
claims because of bodily injury, death or property damage aris- 
ing from such accident shall be credited in reduction of the 
amounts provided for in this section. (Amounts increased, 
1956.) 

§ 7-317 — Installment payment of judgments — default 

(a) A judgment debtor upon due notice to the judgment credi- 
tor may apply to the court in which such judgment was renderd 
for the privilege of paying such judgment in installments and the 
court, in its discretion and without prejudice to any other legal 
remedies which the judgment creditor may have, may so order 
and fix the amounts and times of payment of the installments. 

107 



§ 7-318 Uniform Vehicle Code 

(b) The department shall not suspend a license, registration or 
nonresidents operating privilege, and shall restore any license, 
registration or nonresident's operating privilege suspended fol- 
lowing nonpayment of a judgment, when the judgment debtor 
gives proof of financial responsibility and obtains such an order 
permitting the payment of such judgment in installments, and 
while the payment of any said installments is not in default. 

§ 7-318 — Action if breach of agreement 

In the event the judgment debtor fails to pay any installment 
as specified by such order, then upon notice of such default, the 
department shall forthwith suspend the license, registration or 
nonresident's operating privilege of the judgment debtor until 
such judgment is satisfied, as provided in this chapter. 

§ 7-319 — Proof to be furnished for each registered vehicle 

No vehicle shall be or continue to be registered in the name of 
any person required to file proof of financial responsibility for the 
future unless such proof shall be furnished for such vehicle. 

§ 7-320- — Alternate methods of giving proof 

Proof of financial responsibility when required under this chap- 
ter, with respect to such a vehicle or with respect to a person who 
is not the owner of such a vehicle, may be given by filing: 

1. A certificate of insurance as provided in § 7-321 or § 7-322; 

2. A bond as provided in § 7-327 ; 

3. A certificate of deposit of money or securities as provided 
in §7-330; or 

4. A certificate of self -insurance, as provided in § 7-503, sup- 
plemented by an agreement by the self-insurer that, with respect 
to accidents occurring while the certificate is in force, he will pay 
the same amounts that an insurer would have been obliged to pay 
under an owner's motor vehicle liability policy if it had issued 
such a policy to said self-insurer. 

§ 7-321 — Certificate of insurance as proof 

Proof of -financial responsibility for the future may.be fur- 
nished by filing with the department the written certificate of any 

108 



Financial Responsibility § 7-324 

insurance carrier duly authorized to do business in this State 
certifying that there is in effect a motor vehicle liability policy 
for the benefit of the person required to furnish proof of finan- 
cial responsibility. Such certificate shall give the effective date 
of such motor vehicle liability policy, which date shall be the 
same as the effective date of the certificate, and shall designate 
by explicit description or by appropriate reference all vehicles 
covered thereby, unless the policy is issued to a person who is not 
the owner of a motor vehicle. 

§ 7-322— Certificate furnished by nonresident as proof 

A nonresident may give proof of financial responsibility by fil- 
ing with the department a written certificate or certificates of an 
insurance carrier authorized to transact business in the state in 
which the vehicle, or vehicles, owned by such nonresident is regis- 
tered, or in the state in which such nonresident resides, if he does 
not own a vehicle, provided such certificate otherwise conforms 
with the provisions of this chapter, and the department shall ac- 
cept the same upon condition that said insurance carrier complies 
with the following provisions with respect to the policies so certi- 
fied: 

1. Said insurance carrier shall execute a power of attorney au- 
thorizing the commissioner to accept service on its behalf of no- 
tice or process in any action arising out of a motor vehicle acci- 
dent in this State; 

2. Said insurance carrier shall agree in writing that such poli- 
cies shall be deemed to conform with the laws of this State relat- 
ing to the terms' of motor vehicle liability policies issued therein. 

§ 7-323 — Default by' nonresident, insurer 

If any insurance carrier not authorized to transact business 
in this State, which has qualified to furnish proof of financial 
responsibility, defaults in any said undertakings or agreements, 
the department shall not thereafter accept as proof any certifi- 
cate of said carrier whether theretofore filed or thereafter ten- 
dered as proof, so long as such default continues. 

§ 7-324— "Motor vehicle liability policy" defined 

(a) Certification. — A "motor vehicle liability policy" as said 

109i; 



§ 7-324 Uniform Vehicle Code 

term is used in this chapter shall mean an "owner's policy" or 
an "operator's policy" of liability insurance, certified as pro- 
vided in § 7-321 or § 7-322 as proof of financial responsibility for 
the future, and issued, except as otherwise provided in § 7-322, 
by an insurance carrier duly authorized to transact business in 
this State, to or for the benefit of the person named therein as 
insured. 

(b) Owner's policy.— Such owner's policy of liability insur- 
ance: 

1. Shall designate by explicit description or by appropriate 
reference all vehicles with respect to which coverage is thereby 
to be granted ; and 

2. Shall insure the person named therein and any other per- 
son, as insured, using any such vehicle or vehicles with the 
express or implied permission of such named insured, against 
loss from the liability imposed by law for damages arising out 
of the ownership, maintenance or use of such vehicle or ve- 
hicles within the United States or Canada, subject to limits 
exclusive of interest and costs, with respect to each such ve- 
hicle, as follows: $10,000 because of bodily injury to or death 
of one person in any one accident and, subject to said limit for 
one person, $20,000 because of bodily injury to or death of two 
or more persons in any one accident, and $5,000 because of in- 
jury to or destruction of property of others in any one accident. 

(Amounts increased, 1956.) 

(c) Operator's policy. — Such operator's policy of liability in- 
surance shall insure the person named as insured therein 
against loss from the liability imposed upon him by law for 
damages arising out of the use by him of any motor vehicle not 
owned by him, within the same territorial limits and subject 
to the same limits of liability as are set forth above with re- 
spect to an owner's policy of liability insurance. 

(d) Required statements in policies. — Such motor vehicle li- 
ability policy shall state the name and address of the named 
insured, the coverage afforded by the policy, the premium 
charged therefor, the policy period and the limits of liability, 
and shall contain an agreement or be endorsed that insurance 
is provided thereunder in accordance with the coverage defined 
in this chapter as respects bodily injury and death or property 
damage, or both, and is subject to all the provisions of this 
chapter. 

110 



Financial Responsibility § 7-324 

(e) Policy need not insure workmen's compensation, etc. — 
Such motor vehicle liability policy need not insure any liability 
under any workmen's compensation law nor any liability on ac- 
count of bodily injury to or death of an employee of the insured 
while engaged in the employment, other than domestic, of the 
insured, or while engaged in the operation, maintenance or re- 
pair of any such vehicle nor any liability for damage to prop- 
erty owned by, rented to, in charge of or transported by the 
insured. 

(f) Provisions incorporated in policy. — Every motor vehicle 
liability policy shall be subject to the following provisions which 
need not be contained therein : 

1. The liability of the insurance carrier with respect to the 
insurance required by this chapter shall become absolute when- 
ever injury or damage covered by said motor vehicle liability 
policy occurs; said policy may not be canceled or annulled as 
to such liability by any agreement between the insurance car- 
rier and the insured after the occurrence of the injury or dam- 
age ; no statement made by the insured or on his behalf and no 
violation of said policy shall defeat or void said policy. 

2. The satisfaction by the insured of a judgment for such 
injury or damage shall not be a condition precedent to the right 
or duty of the insurance carrier to make payment on account of 
such injury or damage. 

3. The insurance carrier shall have the right to settle any 
claim covered by the policy, and if such settlement is made in 
good faith, the amount thereof shall be deductible from the 
limits of liability specified in subdivision 2 of subsection (b) 
of this section. 

4. The policy, the written application therefor, if any, and 
any rider or endorsement which does not conflict with the pro- 
visions of this chapter shall constitute the entire contract be- 
tween the parties. 

(g) Excess or additional coverage. — Any policy which grants 
the coverage required for a motor vehicle liability policy may 
also grant any lawful coverage in excess of or in addition to the 
coverage specified for a motor vehicle liability policy and such 
excess or additional coverage shall not be subject to the provi- 
sions of this chapter. With respect to a policy which grants 
such excess or additional coverage the term "motor vehicle li- 

111 



§ 7-325 UNIFORM VEHICLE UODE 

ability policy" shall apply only to that part of the coverage 
which is required by this section. 

(h) Rei?nbursement provision permitted. — Any motor ve- 
hicle liability policy may provide that the insured shall reim- 
burse the insurance carrier for any payment the insurance car- 
rier would not have been obligated to make under the terms of 
the policy except for the provisions of this chapter. 

(i) Proration of insurance permitted. — Any motor vehicle 
liability policy may provide for the prorating of the insurance 
thereunder with other valid and collectible insurance. 

(j) Multiple policies. — The requirements for a motor ve- 
hicle liability policy may be fulfilled by the policies of one or 
more insurance carrier which policies together meet such re- 
quirements. 

(k) Binders.— Any binder issued pending the issuance of a 
motor vehicle liability policy shall be deemed to fulfill the re- 
quirements for such a policy. 

§ 7-325— Notice of cancellation or termination of certified policy 

When an insurance carrier has certified a motor vehicle lia- 
bility policy under § 7-321 or § 7-322 the insurance so certified 
shall not be canceled or terminated until at least 10 days aftei 
a notice of cancellation or termination of the insurance so cer- 
tified shall be filed in the department, except that such a policy 
subsequently procured and certified shall, on the effective date 
of its certification, terminate the insurance previously certified 
with respect to any vehicle designated in both certificates. 

§ 7-326 — Chapter not to affect other policies 

(a) This chapter shall not be held to apply to or affect poli- 
cies of automobile insurance against liability which may now or 
hereafter be required by any other law of this State, and such 
policies, if they contain an agreement or are endorsed to con- 
form with the requirements of this chapter, may be certified as 
proof of financial responsibility under this chapter. 

(b) This chapter shall not be held to apply to or affect poli- 
cies insuring solely the insured named in the policy against lia- 
bility resulting from the maintenance or use by persons in the 
insured's employ or on his behalf of vehicles not owned by the 
insured. 

112 



Financial Responsibility § 7-329 

§ 7-327— Bond as proof 

Proof of financial responsibility may be evidenced by the 
bond of a surety company duly authorized to transact business 
within this State, or a bond with at least two individual sure- 
ties each owning real estate within this State, and together 
having equities equal in value to at least twice the amount of 
the bond, which real estate shall be scheduled in the bond ap- 
proved by a judge of a court of record, which said bond shall 
be conditioned for payment of the amounts specified in § 7-302. 
Such bond shall be filed with the department and shall not be 
cancellable except after 10 days written notice to the depart- 
ment. 

§ 7-328— When bond shall constitute a Hen 

Such bond shall constitute a lien in favor of the State upon 
the real estate so scheduled of any surety, which lien shall exist 
in favor of any holder of a final judgment against the person 
who has filed such bond, for damages, including damages for 
care and loss of services, because of bodily injury to or death 
of any person, or for damage because of injury to or destruc- 
tion of property, including the loss of use thereof, resulting 
from the ownership, maintenance, use or operation of a vehicle 
of a type subject to registration under the laws of this State 
after such bond was filed, upon the filing of notice to that effect 
by the department in the office of the proper clerk or court of 
the county or city where such real estate shall be located. 

(Here add provisions, in conformity with local practice, to regulate the 
recording of such liens.) 

§ 7-329— Action on bond 

If such a judgment, rendered against the principal on such 

bond, shall not be satisfied within 30 days after it has become 

final, the judgment creditor may, for his own use and benefit 

and at his sole expense, bring an action or actions in the name 

of the State against the company or persons executing such 

bond, including an action or proceeding to foreclose any lien 

that may exist upon the real estate of a person who has executed 

such bond. 

(Here add provisions, in conformity with local practice, to fix the pro- 
cedure for foreclosure of such liens.) 

113 



§ 7-330 Uniform vehicle code 

§ 7-330 — Money or securities as proof 

Proof of financial responsibility may be evidenced by the cer- 
tificate of the (State treasurer) that the person named therein 
has deposited with him $25,000 in cash, or securities such as 
may legally be purchased by savings banks or for trust funds 
of a market value of $25,000. The (State treasurer) shall not 
accept any such deposit and issue a certificate therefor and the 
department shall not accept such certificate unless accompanied 
by evidence that there are no unsatisfied judgments of any 
character against the depositor in the county where the deposi- 
tor resides. (Amounts increased, 1956.) 

§ 7-331 — Application of deposit 

Such deposit shall be held by the (State treasurer) to satisfy, 
in accordance with the provisions of this chapter, any execution 
on a judgment issued against such person making the deposit, 
for damages, including damages for care and loss of services, 
because of bodily injury to or death of any person, or for dam- 
ages because of injury to or destruction of property, including 
the loss of use thereof, resulting from the ownership, mainte- 
nance, use or operation of a vehicle of a type subject to regis- 
tration under the laws of this State after such deposit was 
made. Money or securities so deposited shall not be subject to 
attachment or execution unless such attachment or execution 
shall arise out of a suit for damages as aforesaid. 

§ 7-332 — Owner may give proof for others 

The owner of a motor vehicle may give proof of financial 
responsibility on behalf of his employee or a member of his 
immediate family or household in lieu of the furnishing of proof 
by any said person. The furnishing of such proof shall permit 
such person to operate only a motor vehicle covered by such 
proof. The department shall endorse appropriate restrictions on 
the face of the license held by such person, or may issue a new 
license containing such restrictions. 

§ 7-333— Substitution of proof 

The department shall consent to the cancellation of any bond 
or certificate of insurance or the department shall direct and 

114 



Financial Responsibility § 7-335 

the (State treasurer) shall return any money or securities to 
the person entitled thereto upon the substitution and acceptance 
of other adequate proof of financial responsibility pursuant to 
this chapter. 

§ 7-334 — Other proof may be required 

Whenever any proof of financial responsibility filed under the 
provisions of this chapter no longer fulfills the purposes for 
which required, the department shall, for the purpose of this 
chapter, require other proof as required by this chapter and 
shall suspend the license and registration pending the filing of 
such other proof. 

§ 7-335 — Duration of proof — when proof may be canceled or 
returned 

(a) The department shall upon request consent to the im- 
mediate cancellation of any bond or certificate of insurance, or 
the department shall direct and the (State treasurer) shall re- 
turn to the person entitled thereto any money or securities de- 
posited pursuant to this chapter as proof of financial respon- 
sibility, or the department shall waive the requirement of filing 
proof, in any of the following events : 

1. At any time after three years from the date such proof 
was required when, during the three-year period preceding the 
request, the department has not received record of a conviction 
or a forfeiture of bail which would require or permit the sus- 
pension or revocation of the license or registration of the per- 
son by or for whom such proof was furnished ; or 

2. In the event of the death of the person on whose behalf 
such proof was filed or the permanent incapacity of such person 
to operate a motor vehicle; or 

3. In the event the person who has given proof surrenders 
his license and registration to the department. 

(b) Provided, however, that the department shall not con- 
sent to the cancellation of any bond or the return of any money 
or securities in the event any action for damages upon a liabil- 
ity covered by such proof is then pending or any judgment upon 
any such liability is then unsatisfied, or in the event the person 
who has filed such bond or deposited such money or securities 
has within one year immediately preceding such request been 

115 



§ 7-401 Uniform Vehicle Code 

involved as a driver or owner in any motor vehicle accident 
resulting in injury or damage to the person or property of 
others. An affidavit of the applicant as to the nonexistence of 
such facts, or that he has been released from all of his liability, 
or has been finally adjudicated not to be liable, for such in- 
jury or damage, shall be sufficient evidence thereof in the ab- 
sence of evidence to the contrary in the records of the depart- 
ment. 

(c) Whenever any person whose proof has been canceled or 
returned under subdivision 3 of this section applies for a li- 
cense or registration within a period of three years from the 
date proof was originally required, any such application shall 
be refused, unless the applicant shall re-establish such proof for 
the remainder of such three-year period. 

Article IV — Violation of Provisions of Chapter 7 

§ 7-401— Transfer of registration to defeat purpose of act pro- 
hibited 

(a) If an owner's registration has been suspended hereun- 
der, such registration shall not be transferred nor the vehicle 
in respect to which such registration was issued be registered 
in any other name until the department is satisfied that such 
transfer of registration is proposed in good faith and not for 
the purpose or with the effect of defeating the purposes of 
this chapter. 

(b) Nothing in this section shall in any way affect the rights 
of any lienholder (, -conditional vendor, chattel mortgagee or 
lessor) of such a vehicle registered in the name of another as 
owner who becomes subject to the provisions of this chapter. 
(Revised, 1968.) 

(c) The department shall suspend the registration of any ve- 
hicle transferred in violation of the provisions of this section. 

§ 7-402— Surrender of license and registration 

(a) Any person whose license or registration shall have been 
suspended under any provision of this chapter, or whose policy 
of insurance or bond, when required under this chapter, shall 
have been canceled or terminated, shall immediately upon lawful 

116 



Financial Responsibility § 7-501 

demand, or notice under § 2-314, return his license and regis- 
tration to the department. (Revised, 1968.) 

(b) Any person willfully failing to return license or registra- 
tion as required in paragraph (a) of this section shall be fined 
not more than $500 or imprisoned not to exceed 30 days, or both. 

§ 7-403— Forged proof 

Any person who shall forge, or, without authority, sign any 
evidence of proof of financial responsibility for the future, or 
who files or offers for filing any such evidence of proof knowing 
or having reason to believe that it is forged or signed without 
authority, shall be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned for 
not more than one year, or both. 

Article V — Miscellaneous Provisions Relating to 
Financial Responsibility 

Optional § 7-501 — Assigned risk plans A 

After consultation with the insurance companies authorized to 
issue automobile liability policies in this State, the (insurance 
commissioner) 5 shall approve a reasonable plan or plans, fair 
to the insurers and equitable to their policyholders, for the 
apportionment among such companies of applicants for such 
policies and for motor vehicle liability policies who are in good 
faith entitled to but are unable to procure such policies through 
ordinary methods. When any such plan has been approved, all 
such insurance companies shall subscribe thereto and participate 
therein. Any applicant for any such policy, any person insured 
under any such plan, and any insurance company affected, may 
appeal to the (insurance commissioner) 5 from any ruling or 
decision of the manager or committee designated to operate such 
plan. Any order or act of the (insurance commissioner) 5 under 

the provisions of this section shall be subject to review 

(here insert language indicating scope of the review) by 



4 This optional section is included so that it might be available when- 
ever some provision of this kind, whether mandatory or voluntary, may 
be considered necessary or desirable in the enacting state. In states where 
such a provision would be considered more appropriately a part of the 
Insurance Code this section should be omitted. 

5 Insert proper title of state officer in charge of the administration of 
the general insurance laws. 

117 



8 t-ov£ UNIFORM VEHICLE (JODE 

(appeal) (writ of certiorari) to (the court) 6 

at the instance of any party in interest. The court shall deter- 
mine whether the filing of the (appeal) (; (petition for such 
writ) « shall operate as a stay of any such order or act of the 
(insurance commissioner) * and the court shall summarily hear 
the matter. The court may, in disposing of the issue before it, 
modify, affirm or reverse the order or act of the (insurance 
commissioner) 5 i n whole or in part. 

§ 7-502 — Exception in relation to vehicles insured under other 
laws 

Except for §§ 10-107 (a) and 7-332, the provisions of this 
chapter shall not apply with respect to any vehicle which is 
subject to the requirements of (insert reference to provisions 
of the existing law requiring insurance or other security on cer- 
tain types of vehicles) . 

§ 7-503— Self-insurers 

(a) Any person in whose name more than 25 vehicles are 
registered in this State may qualify as a self-insurer by obtain- 
ing a certificate of self-insurance issued by the department as 
provided in subsection (b) of this section. 

(b) The department may, in its discretion, upon the applica- 
tion of such a person, issue a certificate of self-insurance when 
it is satisfied that such person is possessed and will continue 
to be possessed of ability to pay judgment obtained against such 
person. Such certificate may be issued authorizing a person to 
act as a self-insurer for either property damage or bodily in- 
jury, or both. 

(c) Upon not less than five days' notice and a hearing pur- 
suant to such notice, the department may upon reasonable 
grounds cancel a certificate of self -insurance. Failure to pay any 
judgment within 30 days after such judgment shall have become 
final shall constitute a reasonable ground for the cancellation 
of a certificate of self-insurance. 

§ 7-504 — Past application of chapter 

This chapter shall not apply with respect to any accident, or 



6 Consideration should be given to the practice and procedure in each 

state. 

118 



Financial Responsibility § 7-505 

judgment arising therefrom, or violation of the motor vehicle 
laws of this State, occurring prior to the effective date of this 
chapter. 

§ 7-505 — Chapter not to prevent other process 

Nothing in this chapter shall be construed as preventing the 
plaintiff in any action at law from relying for relief upon the 
other processes provided by law. 



119 



CHAPTER 8 
Owners of For-Rent Vehicles 

§ 8-101 — Owner of for-rent motor vehicle to give proof of fi- 
nancial responsibility 

(a) It shall be unlawful for the owner of any motor vehicle 
engaged in the business of renting motor vehicles without 
drivers to rent a motor vehicle without a driver otherwise than 
as a part of a bona fide transaction involving the sale of such 
motor vehicle, unless he has previously notified the department 
of the intention to so rent such vehicle and has given proof of 
financial responsibility, and the department shall not register 
any such vehicle unless and until the owner gives proof of finan- 
cial responsibility either as provided in this section or in the 
alternative, as provided in § 8-102. The department shall cancel 
the registration of any motor vehicle rented without a driver 
whenever the department ascertains that the owner has failed 
or is unable to give and maintain such proof of financial respon- 
sibility. 

(b) Such owner shall submit to the commissioner evidence 
that there has been issued to him by an insurance carrier autho- 
rized to do business in this State a public liability insurance 
policy or policies covering each such motor vehicle so rented in 
the amounts as hereinafter stated and insuring every person 
operating such vehicle under a rental agreement or operating 
the vehicle with the express or implied permission of the owner 
against loss from the liability imposed by law upon such person 
arising out of the operation of said vehicle in the amount of 
$10,000 for bodily injury to or death of one person and subject 
to said limit as respects bodily injury to or death of any one 
person the amount of $20,000 on account of bodily injury to or 
death of more than one person in any one accident and $5,000 
for damage to property of others in any one accident. (Amounts 
INCREASED, 1956.) 

(c) The owner shall maintain such policy or policies in full 
force and effect during all times that he is engaged in the busi- 
ness of renting any motor vehicle without a driver unless said 
owner shall have given proof of financial responsibility as pro- 
vided in § 8-102. 

120 



Owners of For-Rent Vehicles § 8-102 

(d) Said policy or policies need not cover any liability in- 
curred by the renter of any vehicle to any passenger in such 
vehicle. 

(e) When any suit or action is brought against the owner of 
a for-rent motor vehicle upon a liability under this act, it shall 
be the duty of the judge of the court before whom the case is 
pending to cause a preliminary hearing to be had in the absence 
of the jury for the purpose of determining whether the owner 
has obtained and there is in full force and effect a policy or 
policies of insurance covering the person operating the vehicle 
under a rental agreement in the limits above mentioned. When 
it appears that the owner has obtained such policy or policies 
and that the same are in full force and effect, the judge or 
magistrate before whom such action is pending shall dismiss the 
action as to the owner of the motor vehicle. 

(f ) Whenever the owner of a motor vehicle rents such vehicle 
without a driver to another it shall be unlawful for the latter to 
permit any other person to operate such vehicle without the 
permission of the owner. 

(g) Any person who violates any of the provisions of this 
section shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and upon conviction 
shall be punished by a fine of not more than $500 or by imprison- 
ment for not more than six months or by both such fine and 
imprisonment. 

§ 8-102— Owner of for-rent vehicle liable when no policy ob- 
tained 

(a) In the event the owner of a for-rent motor vehicle has 
not given proof of financial responsibility as provided in § 8-101, 
then the commissioner shall not register any motor vehicle 
owned by such person and rented, or intended to be rented, to 
another unless such owner shall demonstrate, to the satisfaction 
of the commissioner, his financial ability to respond in damages 
as follows : 

1. If he applies for registration of one motor vehicle, in the 
sum of at least $10,000 for any one person injured or killed and 
in the sum of $20,000 for any number more than one injured or 
killed in any one accident. 

2. If he applies for the registration of more than one motor 
vehicle, then in the foregoing sums for one motor vehicle and 

121 



§ 8-103 Uniform Vehicle Code 

$10,000 additional for each motor vehicle in excess of one, but 
it shall be sufficient for the owner to demonstrate ability to 
respond in damages in the sum of $100,000 for any number of 
motor vehicles. (Amounts in paragraphs 1 and 2 increased, 
1956.) 

(b) The department shall cancel the registration of any motor 
vehicle rented without a driver whenever the department ascer- 
tains that the owner has failed or is unable to comply with the 
requirements of this section. 

(c) Any owner of a for-rent motor vehicle who has given 
proof of financial responsibility under this section or who in vio- 
lation of this act has failed to give proof of financial responsi- 
bility shall be jointly and severally liable with any person 
operating such vehicle for any damages caused by the negligence 
of any person operating the vehicle by or with the permission 
of the owner, except that the foregoing provision shall not con- 
fer any right of action upon any passenger in any such rented 
vehicle as against the owner, 

(d) Nothing in this section shall be construed to prevent an 
owner from making defense in any such action upon the ground 
of comparative or contributory negligence to the extent to which 
such defense is allowed in other cases. 

§ 8-103 — Renting motor vehicle to another 

(a) No person shall rent a motor vehicle to any other person 
unless the latter person is then duly licensed as required under 
this act or, in the case of a nonresident, then duly licensed under 
the laws of the state or country of his residence except a non- 
resident whose home state or country does not require that an 
operator be licensed. 

(b) No person shall rent a motor vehicle to another until he 
has inspected the license of the person to whom the vehicle is to 
be rented and compared and verified the signature thereon with 
the signature of such person written in his presence. (Revised, 
1968.) 

(c) Every person renting a motor vehicle to another shall 
keep a record of the registration number of the motor vehicle so 
rented, the name and address of the person to whom the vehicle 

122 



Owners of For-Rent Vehicles § 8-103 

is rented, the number of the license of said latter person and 
the date and place when and where said license was issued. Such 
record shall be open to inspection by any police officer or officer 
or employee of the department. 



123 



CHAPTER 9 
Civil Liability 

Article I— Liability of Government Agencies 

§ 9-101 — Liability of State, counties, municipalities and other 

public corporations 

(a) This State and every county, incorporated city, town or 
village and every other public corporation within this State 
shall be liable for civil damages on account of bodily injury 
to or death of any person or damage to property resulting from 
the operation of a motor vehicle by any officer, agent or employee 
of such public entity or corporation when acting within the 
scope of his office, agency or employment to the same extent 
that liability is imposed by law on such operator. The liability 
of any said public entity or corporation and its officers, agent or 
employee shall be joint and several. 

(b) Any person having a claim against any such public en- 
tity or corporation under this section may present the same to 
such public entity or corporation in the same manner as other 
claims are presented and if thereupon such claim is not acted 
upon within 30 days after said presentation or is rejected in 
whole or in part, then said person may sue such public entity or 
corporation in a court of competent jurisdiction in the manner 
prescribed by law for the commencement and maintenance of 
such a suit against a private individual. 

(c) Any such public entity or corporation may insure against 
the liability imposed by this section in any insurance carrier 
duly authorized to transact business in this State and the pre- 
mium for such insurance shall be a proper charge against the 
general fund of such public entity or corporation. 

Article II — Imputing Negligence and Liability to Guests 

§ 9-201 — Imputing negligence or willful misconduct of operator 
to owner 

(a) Any negligence or willful misconduct of a person operat- 
ing a motor vehicle with the express or implied permission of 
the owner shall be imputed to said owner for all purposes of 
civil damages and said owner shall be liable for civil damages 

124 



Civil Liability § 9-202 

caused by such negligence or willful misconduct to the extent 
that liability is imposed by law on such operator subject to the 
limit in amount of $10,000 for bodily injury to or death of one 
person in any one accident and, subject to said limit as to one 
person, the amount of $20,000 for bodily injury to or death of 
all persons as a result of any one accident and $5,000 for dam- 
age to property of others as a result of any one accident. 
(Amounts increased. 1956.) 

(b) The foregoing limits as to liability shall not apply with 
respect to the liability of an owner for the negligence or willful 
misconduct of an agent or servant operating a motor vehicle 
in the scope of his employment. 

(c) This section shall not impose liability upon the owner of 
a motor vehicle when the same is being operated by the keeper 
of a garage, repair shop or service station or by the employees 
of such keeper in the course of storing, servicing or repairing 
such vehicle or when the same is being operated by any bailee, 
pledgee, mortgagee or other lienholder of such vehicle. 

(d) An owner so subject to liability under this section may 
settle and pay any bona fide claims for damages under this 
section, whether reduced to judgment or not, and to that ex- 
tent discharge the liability imposed upon him under this sec- 
tion. 

(e) An owner so subject to liability under this section shall 
be subrogated to all bona fide claims for damages reduced to 
judgment to the extent that he has paid or discharged the same 
and upon such subrogation may recover from such operator the 
total amount so paid by him. 

(f ) This section shall not be deemed to relieve the operator 
of a motor vehicle from any liability imposed upon him by law. 

§ 9-202— Liability for bodily injury to or death of guest 

No guest riding in or upon any vehicle without giving com- 
pensation for such ride or riding in or upon any vehicle while 
engaged in a joint enterprise with the owner or driver of such 
vehicle shall have, nor shall any other person have, any right 
of action for civil damages against the driver of such vehicle, 
or against any other person legally liable for the conduct of 
such driver, on account of bodily injury to or the death of 
such guest during such ride, unless the plaintiff in any such 

125 



§ 9-301 Uniform Vehicle Code 

action establishes that such injury or death proximately re- 
sulted from the intoxication or willful misconduct of said 
driver. 1 

Article III — Process on Nonresident 
§ 9-301 — Service of process on nonresident 

(a) The acceptance by a nonresident of any right or privi- 
lege conferred upon him by the laws of this State to operate a 
motor vehicle within this State, or the operation by a nonresi- 
dent or his duly authorized agent or employee of a motor ve- 
hicle within this State, or in the event such nonresident is the 
owner of a motor vehicle, then also the operation of such vehicle 
within this State by any person with such owner's express or 
implied permission shall be deemed equivalent to an appoint- 
ment by such nonresident of the commissioner or his succcessor 
in office to be his true and lawful attorney upon whom may be 
served all lawful processes in any action or proceeding against 
said nonresident growing out of any accident or collision re- 
sulting from the operation of a motor vehicle upon any highway 
or elsewhere throughout this State by said owner or other per- 
son as above mentioned. (Revised, 1968.) 

(b) Said operation of a motor vehicle within this State shall 
be signification of the agreement of said nonresident that any 
such process against him which is served in the manner herein 
provided shall be of the same legal force and validity as if 
served on said nonresident personally, (Revised, 1968.) 

(c) Service of such process shall be made by leaving a copy 
of the summons and complaint with a fee of $2 with the com- 
missioner or in his office and such service shall be sufficient 
service on said nonresident subject to compliance with the 
other provisions of this section. The plaintiff shall likewise and 
at the same time file with the commissioner or in his office a 
bond in the sum of $500 with sureties to be approved by the 
commissioner, conditioned that upon the failure of the plain- 
tiff to prevail in the action said plaintiff shall reimburse the de- 
fendant for the expenses necessarily incurred by him in defend- 
ing the action in this State. 



i This section would not be valid in those states where the state con- 
stitution creates a right of action based upon negligence. 

126 



Civil Liability § 9-301 

(d) The plaintiff or his attorney shall forthwith send a no- 
tice of such service and a copy of the summons and complaint 
by registered mail to the defendant or in the alternative such 
notice and copy of the summons and complaint may be served 
personally upon the defendant wherever found outside of this 
State by any duly constituted public officer qualified to serve 
like process of and in the state or in the jurisdiction where 
such personal service is made. 

(e) Proof of compliance with subsection (d) hereof shall be 
made in the event of service by mail by affidavit of said plaintiff 
or his attorney, showing said mailing, to which shall be at- 
tached the return receipt of the United States post office bear- 
ing the signature of said defendant, which affidavit and receipt 
shall be appended to the original summons, which shall be filed 
with the court from out of which such summons issued within 
the time allowed by law for the return of such summons, or in 
the event of personal service outside this State by the return 
of any duly constituted public officer, qualified to serve like pro- 
cess of and in the state or jurisdiction where the defendant is 
found, showing such service to have been made at least 15 days 
before the return day of the process, which return shall be so 
appended to the original summons, which shall be so filed as 
aforesaid. 

(f ) The court in which the action is pending may order such 
continuance as may be necessary to afford the defendant a rea- 
sonable opportunity to defend the action. 

(g) The commissioner shall keep a record of all processes so 
served upon him, which record shall show the day and hour of 
service. 2 

(h) The provisions of this section shall also apply to any 
resident who departs from this State subsequent to an accident 

or collision and remains absent for days continuously, 

whether such absence is intended to be temporary or permanent. 
(New, 1968.) 



2 The validity of the above method of service has been sustained by the 
Supreme Court of the United States in Hess v. Pawloski, 274 U.S. 352 
(1927). 



127 



CHAPTER 10 

Accidents and Accident Reports 

§ 10-101™— Provisions of chapter apply throughout State 

The provisions of this chapter shall apply upon highways and 
elsewhere throughout the State, 

§ 10-102 — Accidents involving death or personal injury 

(a) The driver of any vehicle involved in an accident result- 
ing in injury to or death of any person shall immediately stop 
such vehicle at the scene of such accident or as close thereto 
as possible but shall then forthwith return to and in every event 
shall remain at the scene of the accident until he has fulfilled 
the requirements of § 10-104. Every such stop shall be made 
without obstructing traffic more than is necessary. 

(b) Any person failing to stop or to comply with said require- 
ments under such circumstances shall, upon conviction, be pun- 
ished by imprisonment for not less than 30 days nor more than 
one year or by fine of not less than $100 nor more than $5,000, 
or by both such fine and imprisonment. 

(c) The commissioner shall revoke the license or permit to 
drive and any nonresident operating privilege of the person so 
convicted. 

§ 10-103 — Accidents involving damage to vehicle or property 

The driver of any vehicle involved in an accident resulting 
only in damage to a vehicle or other property which is driven or 
attended by any person shall immediately stop such vehicle at 
the scene of such accident or as close thereto as possible, but 
shall forthwith return to and in every event shall remain at the 
scene of such accident until he has fulfilled the requirements 
of § 10-104. Every such stop shall be made without obstructing 
traffic more than is necessary. Any person failing to stop or 
comply with said requirements under such circumstances shall 
be guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction, shall be pun- 
ished as provided in § 17-101. (Revised, 1962.) 

§ 10-104 — Duty to give information and render aid 

(a) The driver of any vehicle involved in an accident re- 

128 



Accidents and Accident Eeports § 10-105 

suiting in injury to or death of any person or damage to any 
vehicle or other property which is driven or attended by any 
person shall give his name, address and the registration num- 
ber of the vehicle he is driving, and shall upon request and if 
available exhibit his license or permit to drive to any person in- 
jured in such accident or to the driver or occupant of or person 
attending any vehicle or other property damaged in such ac- 
cident and shall give such information and upon request exhibit 
such license or permit to any police officer at the scene of the 
accident or who is investigating the accident and shall render 
to any person injured in such accident reasonable assistance, in- 
cluding the carrying, or the making of arrangements for the 
carrying, of such person to a physician, surgeon, or hospital for 
medical or surgical treatment if it is apparent that such treat- 
ment is necessary, or if such carrying is requested by the in- 
jured person. 

(b) In the event that none of the persons specified are in 
condition to receive the information to which they otherwise 
would be entitled under subdivision (a) of this section, and no 
police officer is present, the driver of any vehicle involved in 
such accident after fulfilling all other requirements of § 10-102 
and subdivision (a) of this section, insofar as possible on his 
part to be performed, shall forthwith report such accident to 
the nearest office of a duly authorized police authority and sub- 
mit thereto the information specified in subdivision (a) of this 
section. (Section revised, 1962.) 

§ 10-105— Duty upon damaging unattended vehicle or other 

property 

The driver of any vehicle which collides with or is involved in 
an accident with any vehicle or other property which is unat- 
tended resulting in any damage to such other vehicle or prop- 
erty shall immediately stop and shall then and there either locate 
and notify the operator or owner of such vehicle or other prop- 
erty of his name, address and the registration number of the 
vehicle he is driving or shall attach securely in a conspicuous 
place in or on such vehicle or other property a written notice 
giving his name, address and the registration number of the 
vehicle he is driving and shall without unnecessary delay notify 
the nearest office of a duly authorized police authority. Every 

UVC-5 129 



§ 10-106 Uniform Vehicle Code 

such stop shall be made without obstructing traffic more than is 
necessary. (Revised, 1968.) 

§ 10-106 — Immediate notice of accident 

(a) The driver of a vehicle involved in an accident resulting 
in injury to or death of any person or total damage to all prop- 
erty to an apparent extent of $100 or more shall immediately by 
the quickest means of communication give notice of such acci- 
dent to the nearest office of a duly authorized police authority. 
(Revised, 1968.) 

(b) Whenever the driver of a vehicle is physically incapable 
of giving an immediate notice of an accident as required in sub- 
section (a) and there was another occupant in the vehicle at the 
time of the accident capable of doing so, such occupant shall 
make or cause to be given the notice not given by the driver. 
(Revised, 1962.) 

§ 10-107 — Written report of accident by drivers or owners 

(a) The driver of a vehicle which is in any manner involved 
in an accident resulting in bodily injury to or death of any 
person or total damage to all property to an apparent extent 
of ($25, $50, $100) or more shall, within 10 days after such ac- 
cident, forward a written report of such accident to the depart- 
ment. (Revised, 1968.) 

(b) The department may require any driver of a vehicle in- 
volved in an accident of which written report must be made as 
provided in this section to file supplemental written reports 
whenever the original report is insufficient in the opinion of 
the department. 

(c) A written accident report is not required under this chap- 
ter from any person who is physically incapable of making a 
report during the period of such incapacity. 

(d) Whenever the driver is physically incapable of making a 
written report of an accident as required in this section and such 
driver is not the owner of the vehicle, then the owner of the 
vehicle involved in such accident shall within 10 days after the 
accident make such report not made by the driver. (REVISED, 
1968.) 

(e) All written reports required in this section to be for- 
warded to the department by drivers or owners of vehicles in- 

130 



Accidents and Accident Reports § 10-110 

volved in accidents shall be without prejudice to the individual 
so reporting and shall be for the confidential use of the depart- 
ment or other State agencies having use for the records for 
accident prevention purposes, except that the department may 
disclose the identity of a person involved in an accident when 
such identity is not otherwise known or when such person de- 
nies his presence at such accident. 

(f) No written reports forwarded under the provisions of 
this section shall be used as evidence in any trial, civil or crim- 
inal, arising out of an accident except that the department shall 
furnish upon demand of any party to such trial, or upon demand 
of any court, a certificate showing that a specified accident re- 
port has or has not been made to the department in compli- 
ance with law, and, if such report has been made, the date, time 
and location of the accident, the names and addresses of the 
drivers, the owners of the vehicles involved, and the investigat- 
ing officers. The reports may be used as evidence when neces- 
sary to prosecute charges filed in connection with a violation 
of § 10-108. (Section revised, 1962.) 

§ 10-108— False reports 

Any person who gives information in oral or written reports 
as required in this chapter knowing or having reason to believe 
that such information is false shall be fined, upon conviction, 
not more than $1,000, or imprisoned for not more than one year, 
or both. (Revised, 1962.) 

§ 10-109 — Suspension and penalty for failure to report 

The commissioner shall suspend the license or permit to drive 
and any nonresident operating privileges of any person failing 
to report an accident as herein provided until such report has 
been filed, and the commissioner may extend such suspension 
not to exceed 30 days. Any person who shall fail to make a writ- 
ten report as required in this chapter and who shall fail to file 
such report with the department within the time prescribed 
shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and upon conviction shall be 
punished as provided in § 17-101. (Revised, 1962.) 

§ 10-110 — State bureau of vital statistics to report 

The state bureau of vital statistics (or other state agency 

131 



§ 10-111 Uniform Vehicle Code 

keeping records of deaths) shall on or before the 10th day of 
each month report in writing to the department the death of 
any person resulting from a vehicle accident, giving the time 
and place of the accident and the circumstances relating there- 
to. (Revised, 1962.) 

§ 10-111 — Garages to report 

The person in charge of any garage or repair shop to which 
is brought any motor vehicle which shows evidence of having 
been involved in an accident of which written report must be 
made by the driver thereof as provided in § 10-107, or struck 
by any bullet, shall report to the local police department if such 
garage is located within a municipality, otherwise to the office 
of the county sheriff or the nearest office of the (State highway 
patrol, State police), within 24 hours after such motor vehicle 
is received by the garage or repair shop, giving the identifying 
number, registration number, and the name and address of the 
owner or driver of such vehicle. (Revised, 1968.) 

§ 10-112— Police to report 

(a) Every law enforcement officer who investigates a vehicle 
accident of which report must be made as required in this chap- 
ter, or who otherwise prepares a written report as a result of an 
investigation either at the time of and at the scene of the ac- 
cident or thereafter by interviewing the participants or wit- 
nesses, shall forward a written report of such accident to the 
department within 10 days after his investigation of the acci- 
dent. 

(b) Such written reports required to be forwarded by law en- 
enforcement officers and the information contained therein shall 
not be privileged or held confidential. (SECTION REVISED, 1968.) 

§ 10-113 — Accident report forms 

(a) The department shall prepare and upon request supply 
to police departments, sheriffs, and other appropriate agencies 
or individuals, forms for written accident reports as required 
in this chapter and in chapter 7, suitable with respect to the 
persons required to make such reports and the purposes to be 
served. The written reports shall call for sufficiently detailed 

132 



Accidents and Accident Reports § 10-115 

information to disclose with reference to a vehicle accident the 
cause, conditions then existing and the persons and vehicles in- 
volved. 

(b) Every accident report required to be made in writing 
shall be made on the appropriate form approved by the de- 
partment and shall contain all the information required therein 
unless not available. (Section revised, 1962.) 

§ 10-114 — Department to tabulate and analyze accident reports 

The department shall tabulate and may analyze ail accident 
reports received in compliance with this chapter and shall pub- 
lish annually, or at more frequent intervals, statistical infor- 
mation based thereon as to the number and circumstances of 
vehicle accidents. (Revised, 1962.) 

§ 10-115— Any focal authority may require accident reports 

Any local authority may by ordinance require that the driver 
of a vehicle involved in an accident, or the owner of such vehi- 
cle, shall also file with the designated municipal department a 
written report of such accident or a copy of any report herein 
required to be filed with the department on accidents occurring 
within their jurisdiction. All such reports shall be for the con- 
fidential use of the municipal department and subject to the 
provisions of § 10-107 of this act. (Revised, 1968.) 



133 



CHAPTER 11 
Rules of the Road 

Article I — Obedience to and Effect of Traffic Laws 

§ 11-101 — Provisions of chapter refer to vehicles upon the high- 
ways — exceptions 

The provisions of this chapter relating to the operation of ve- 
hicles refer exclusively to the operation of vehicles upon high- 
ways except: 

1. Where a different place is specifically referred to in a given 
section. 

2. The provisions of article IX and chapter 10 shall apply upon 
highways and elsewhere throughout the State. 

§ 11-102 — Required obedience to traffic laws 

It is unlawful and, unless otherwise declared in this chapter 
with respect to particular offenses, it is a misdemeanor for any 
person to do any act forbidden or fail to perform any act required 
in this chapter. 

§ 11-103 — Obedience to police officers 

No person shall willfully fail or refuse to comply with any law- 
ful order or direction of any police officer invested by law with 
authority to direct, control or regulate traffic. 

§ 11-104 — Persons ridiir^ animals or drivirp- animal-drawn vehi- 
cles 

Every person riding an animal or driving any animal-drawn 
vehicle upon a roadway shall be granted all of the rights and shall 
be subject to all of the duties applicable to the driver of a vehicle 
by this chapter, except those provisions of this chapter which by 
their very nature can have no application. 

§ 11-105 — Persons working on highways — exceptions 

Unless specifically made applicable, the provisions of this chap- 
ter except those contained in article IX hereof shall not apply to 
persons, teams, motor vehicles and other equipment while actu- 

134 



Rules of the Road § 11-201 

ally engaged in work upon the surface of a highway but shall ap- 
ply to such persons and vehicles when traveling to or from such 
work. 

§ H-106 — Authorized emergency vehicles 

(a) The driver of an authorized emergency vehicle, when re- 
sponding to an emergency call or when in the pursuit of an actual 
or suspected violator of the law or when responding to but not up- 
on returning from a lire alarm, may exercise the privileges set 
forth in this section, but subject to the conditions herein stated. 

(b) The driver of an authorized emergency vehicle may: 

1. Park or stand, irrespective of the provisions of this chapter; 

2. Proceed past a red or stop signal or stop sign, but only after 
slowing down as may be necessary for safe operation ; 

3. Exceed the maximum speed limits so long as he does not 
endanger life or property ; (Revised, 1956.) 

4. Disregard regulations governing direction of movement or 
turning in specified directions. 

(c) The exemptions herein granted to an authorized emer- 
gency vehicle shall apply only when such vehicle is making use 
of an audible signal meeting the requirements of § 12-401 (d) and 
visual signals meeting the requirements of § 12-218 of this act, 
except that an authorized emergency vehicle operated as a police 
vehicle need not be equipped with or display a red light visible 
from in front of the vehicle. (Revised, 1968.) 

(d) The foregoing provisions shall not relieve the driver of an 
authorized emergency vehicle from the duty to drive with due 
regard for the safety of all persons, nor shall such provisions pro- 
tect the driver from the consequences of his reckless disregard 
for the safety of others. 

Article II — Traffic Signs, Signals and Markings 

§ 11-201 — Obedience to and required traffic-control devices 

(a) The driver of any vehicle shall obey the instructions of any 
official traffic-control device applicable thereto placed in accor- 
dance with the provisions of this act, unless otherwise directed by 
a police officer, subject to the exceptions granted the driver of 
an authorized emergency vehicle in this act. (Revised, 1968.) 

135 



§ 11-202 UNIFORM VEHICLE UODE 

(b) No provision of this act for which official traffic-control de- 
vices are required shall be enforced against an alleged violator if 
at the time and place of the alleged violation an official device is 
not in proper position and sufficiently legible to be seen by an or- 
dinarily observant person. Whenever a particular section does not 
state that official traffic-control devices are required, such section 
shall be effective even though no devices are erected or in place. 
(Revised, 1968.) 

(c) Whenever official traffic-control devices are placed in posi- 
tion approximately conforming to the requirements of this act, 
such devices shall be presumed to have been so placed by the of- 
ficial act or direction of lawful authority, unless the contrary 
shall be established by competent evidence. (New, 1982,) 

(d) Any official traffic-control device placed pursuant to the 
provisions of this act and purporting to conform to the lawful re- 
quirements pertaining to such devices shall be presumed to com- 
ply with the requirements of this act, unless the contrary shall 
be established by competent evidence. (New, 1962.) 

§ 11-202— Traffic-control signal legend 

Whenever traffic is controlled by traffic-control signals exhibit- 
ing different colored lights, or colored lighted arrows, succes- 
sively one at a time or in combination, only the colors Green. 
Ked and Yellow shall be used, except for special pedestrian sig- 
nals carrying a word legend, and said lights shall indicate and ap- 
ply to drivers of vehicles and pedestrians as follows : 

(a) Green indication 

1. Vehicular traffic facing a circular green signal may proceed 
straight through or turn right or left unless a sign at such place 
prohibits either such turn. But vehicular traffic, including vehi- 
cles turning right or left, shall yield the right of way to other 
vehicles and to pedestrians lawfully within the intersection or an 
adjacent crosswalk at the time such signal is exhibited. 

2. Vehicular traffic facing a green arrow signal, shown alone 
or in combination with another indication, may cautiously enter 
the intersection only to make the movement indicated by such 
arrow, or such other movement as is permitted by other indica- 
tions shown at the same time. Such vehicular traffic shall yield 

136 



Rules of the Road § 11-202 

the right of way to pedestrians lawfully within an adjacent cross- 
walk and to other traffic lawfully using the intersection. 1 

3. Unless otherwise directed by a pedestrian-control signal, as 
provided in § 11-203, pedestrians facing any green signal, except 
when the sole green signal is a turn arrow, may proceed across 
the roadway within any marked or unmarked crosswalk. 

(b) Steady yellow indication 2 

1. Vehicular traffic facing a steady yellow signal is thereby 
warned that the related green movement is being terminated or 
that a red indication will be exhibited immediately thereafter 
when vehicular traffic shall not enter the intersection. 

2. Pedestrians facing a steady yellow signal, unless otherwise 
directed by a pedestrian-control signal as provided in § 11-203, are 
thereby advised that there is insufficient time to cross the road- 
way before a red indication is shown and no pedestrian shall then 
start to cross the roadway. 

(c) Steady red indication 

1. Vehicular traffic facing a steady red signal alone shall stop 
at a clearly marked stop line, but if none, before entering the 
crosswalk on the near side of the intersection, or if none, then 
before entering the intersection and shall remain standing until 
an indication to proceed is shown except as provided in subsec- 
tion (c)2. (Revised, 1968.) 

2. When a sign is in place permitting a turn, vehicular traffic 
facing a steady red signal may cautiously enter the intersection 
to make the turn indicated by such sign after stopping as re- 
quired by subsection (c)l. Such vehicular traffic shall yield the 
right of way to pedestrians lawfully within an adjacent cross- 
walk and to other traffic lawfully using the intersection. (New, 
1968.) 

3. Unless otherwise directed by a pedestrian-control signal as 
provided in § 11-203, pedestrians facing a steady red signal alone 
shall not enter the roadway. (Renumbered, 1968.) 



1 It is recommended that the display of a turning green arrow alone or 
with another indication should indicate that during this display the turn- 
ing movement is not interfered with by oncoming traffic, which simul- 
taneously should face a red signal. 

2 It is recommended that the color yellow be used only before red. If 
yellow is used following the red, traffic facing the signal has a tendency 
to start before the green signal appears, causing interference with cross 
traffic clearing the intersection. 

137 



§ 11-203 Uniform Vehicle Code 

(d) In the event an official traffic-control signal is erected and 
maintained at a place other than an intersection, the provisions 
of this section shall be applicable except as to those provisions 
which by their nature can have no application. Any stop required 
shall be made at a sign or marking on the pavement indicating 
where the stop shall be made, but in the absence of any such sign 
or marking the stop shall be made at the signal. (SECTION 
REVISED, 1962.) 

§ 11-203 — Pedestrian-control signals 

Whenever special pedestrian-control signals exhibiting the 
words "Walk" or "Don't Walk" are in place such signals shall 
indicate as follows : 3 

(a) Walk. — Pedestrians facing such signal may proceed across 
the roadway in the direction of the signal and shall be given the 
right of way by the drivers of all vehicles. 

(b) Don't Walk. — No pedestrian shall start to cross the road- 
way in the direction of such signal, but any pedestrian who has 
partially completed his crossing on the "Walk" signal shall pro- 
ceed to a sidewalk or safety island while the "Don't Walk" signal 
is showing. (Section revised, 1962.) 

§ 11-204 — Flashing signals 

(a) Whenever an illuminated flashing red or yellow signal is 
used in a traffic sign or signal it shall require obedience by ve- 
hicular traffic as follows : 

1. Flashing red (stop signal). — When a red lens is illuminated 
with rapid intermittent flashes, drivers of vehicles shall stop at 
a clearly marked stop line, but if none, before entering the cross- 
walk on the near side of the intersection, or if none, then at the 
point nearest the intersecting roadway where the driver has a 
view of approaching traffic on the intersecting roadway before 
entering the intersection, and the right to proceed shall be sub- 
ject to the rules applicable after making a stop at a stop sign. 
(Revised, 1968.) 

2. Flashing yelloiv (caution signal). — When a yellow lens is 



3 In states where pedestrian-control signals using the "Wait" legend 
are still in use, authorization for them should be continued in the law 
until they are replaced by signals using the "Don't Walk" legend. 

138 



Rules of the Road § 11-206 

illuminated with rapid intermittent flashes, drivers of vehicles 
may proceed through the intersection or past such signal only 
with caution. 

(b) This section shall not apply at railroad grade crossings. 
Conduct of drivers of vehicles approaching railroad grade cross- 
ings shall be governed by the rules as set forth in § 11-701 of this 
act. (Paragraph (b) added, 1952.) 

§ 11-204.1 — Lane-direction-control signals 

When lane-direction-control signals are placed over the indivi- 
dual lanes of a street or highway, vehicular traffic may travel in 
any lane over which a green signal is shown, but shall not enter 
or travel in any lane over which a red signal is shown. (New, 
1962.) 

§ 11-205 — Display of unauthorized signs, signals or markings 

(a) No person shall place, maintain or display upon or in view 
of any highway any unauthorized sign, signal, marking or de- 
vice which purports to be or is an imitation of or resembles an 
official traffic-control device or railroad sign or signal, or which 
attempts to direct the movement of traffic, or which hides from 
view or interferes with the effectiveness of an official traffic-con- 
trol device or any railroad sign or signal. 

(b) No person shall place or maintain nor shall any public au- 
thority permit upon any highway any traffic sign or signal bear- 
ing thereon any commercial advertising. 

(c) This section shall not be deemed to prohibit the erection 
upon private property adjacent to highways of signs giving use- 
ful directional information and of a type that cannot be mistaken 
for official signs. 

(d) Every such prohibited sign, signal or marking is hereby 
declared to be a public nuisance and the authority having juris- 
diction over the highway is hereby empowered to remove the 
same or cause it to be removed without notice. 

§ 11-206 — Interference with official traffic-control devices or rail- 
road signs or signals 

No person shall, without lawful authority, attempt to or in fact 

139 



§ 11-301 Uniform Vehicle Code 

alter, deface, injure, knock down or remove any official traffic-con- 
trol device or any railroad sign or signal or any inscription, shield 
or insignia thereon, or any other part thereof. 

Article III— Driving on Right Side of Roadway- 
Overtaking and Passing — Use of Roadway 

§ 11-301 — Drive on right side of roadway — exceptions 

(a) Upon all roadways of sufficient width a vehicle shall be 
driven upon the right half of the roadway, except as follows: 

1. When overtaking and passing another vehicle proceeding 
in the same direction under the rules governing such movement; 

2. When an obstruction exists making it necessary to drive 
to the left of the center of the highway; provided, any person 
so doing shall yield the right of way to all vehicles traveling in 
the proper direction upon the unobstructed portion of the high- 
way within such distance as to constitute an immediate hazard; 
(Revised, 1962.) 

3. Upon a roadway divided into three marked lanes for traf- 
fic under the rules applicable thereon; or 

4. Upon a roadway restricted to one-way traffic. (Revised, 
1968.) 

(b) Upon all roadways any vehicle proceeding at less than 
the normal speed of traffic at the time and place and under the 
conditions then existing shall be driven in the right-hand lane 
then available for traffic, or as close as practicable to the right- 
hand curb or edge of the roadway, except when overtaking 
and passing another vehicle proceeding in the same direction 
or when preparing for a left turn at an intersection or into a 
private road or driveway. 

(c) Upon any roadway having four or more lanes for mov- 
ing traffic and providing for two-way movement of traffic, no 
vehicle shall be driven to the left of the center line of the road- 
way, except when authorized by official traffic-control devices 
designating certain lanes to the left side of the center of the 
roadway for use by traffic not otherwise permitted to use such 
lanes, or except as permitted under subsection (a) 2 hereof. 
However, this subsection shall not be construed as prohibiting 
the crossing of the center line in making a left turn into or 
from an alley, private road or driveway. (Revised, 1968.) 

140 



Rules of the Road § 11-304 

§ 11-302 — Passing vehicles proceeding in opposite directions 

Drivers of vehicles proceeding in opposite directions shall 
pass each other to the right, and upon roadways having width 
for not more than one line of traffic in each direction each driver 
shall give to the other at least one-half of the main-traveled 
portion of the roadway as nearly as possible. 

§ 11-303 — Overtaking a vehicle on the left 

The following rules shall govern the overtaking and passing 
of vehicles proceeding in the same direction, subject to those 
limitations, exceptions and special rules hereinafter stated: 

(a) The driver of a vehicle overtaking another vehicle pro- 
ceeding in the same direction shall pass to the left thereof at a 
safe distance and shall not again drive to the right side of the 
roadway until safely clear of the overtaken vehicle. 

(b) Except when overtaking and passing on the right is per- 
mitted, the driver of an overtaken vehicle shall give way to the 
right in favor of the overtaking vehicle on audible signal and 
shall not increase the speed of his vehicle until completely 
passed by the overtaking vehicle. 

§ 11-304 — When overtaking on the right is permitted 

(a) The driver of a vehicle may overtake and pass upon the 
right of another vehicle only under the following conditions : 

1. When the vehicle overtaken is making or about to make a 
left turn; 

2. Upon a street or highway with unobstructed pavement not 
occupied by parked vehicles of sufficient width for two or more 
lines of moving vehicles in each direction ; 

3. Upon a one-way street, or upon any roadway on which 
traffic is restricted to one direction of movement, where the 
roadway is free from obstructions and of sufficient width for 
two or more lines of moving vehicles. 

(b) The driver of a vehicle may overtake and pass another 
vehicle upon the right only under conditions permitting such 
movement in safety. In no event shall such movement be made 
by driving off the pavement or main-traveled portion of the 
roadway. 

141 



§ 11-305 UNIFUKM Vtt±ilUL,r, \_jvvrj 

§ 11-305 — Limitations on overtaking on the left 

No vehicle shall be driven to the left side of the center of 
the roadway in overtaking and passing another vehicle proceed- 
ing in the same direction unless authorized by the provisions of 
this article and unless such left side is clearly visible and is 
free of oncoming traffic for a sufficient distance ahead to per- 
mit such overtaking and passing to be completely made without 
interfering with the operation of any vehicle approaching from 
the opposite direction or any vehicle overtaken. In every event 
the overtaking vehicle must return to an authorized lane of 
travel as soon as practicable and in the event the passing move- 
ment involves the use of a lane authorized for vehicles ap- 
proaching from the opposite direction, before coming within 
200 feet of any approaching vehicle. (Revised, 1962.) 

§ 11-306 — Further limitations on driving on left of center of 
roadway 

(a) No vehicle shall be driven on the left side of the road- 
way under the following conditions: 

1. When approaching or upon the crest of a grade or a curve 
in the highway where the driver's view is obstructed within 
such distance as to create a hazard in the event another vehicle 
might approach from the opposite direction; 

2. When approaching within 100 feet of or traversing any 
intersection or railroad grade crossing; 

3. When the view is obstructed upon approaching within 100 
feet of any bridge, viaduct or tunnel. 

(b) The foregoing limitations shall not apply upon a one- 
way roadway, nor under the conditions described in § 11- 
301 (a) 2, nor to the driver of a vehicle turning left into or from 
an alley, private road or driveway. (Section revised, 1968.) 

§ 11-307 — No-passing zones 

(a) The (State highway commission) and local authorities 
are hereby authorized to determine those portions of any high- 
way under their respective jurisdictions where overtaking and 
passing or driving to the left of the roadway would be espe- 
cially hazardous and may by appropriate signs or markings on 
the roadway indicate the beginning and end of such zones and 

142 



Rules of the Road § 11-309 

when such signs or markings are in place and clearly visible to 
an ordinarily observant person every driver of a vehicle shall 
obey the directions thereof. (Revised, 1968.) 

(b) Where signs or markings are in place to define a no- 
passing zone as set forth in paragraph (a) no driver shall at 
any time drive on the left side of the roadway within such no- 
passing zone or on the left side of any pavement striping de- 
signed to mark such no-passing zone throughout its Length. 
(New, 1956.) 

(c) This section does not apply under the conditions de- 
scribed in § 11-301 (a) 2, nor to the driver of a vehicle turning 
left into or from an alley, private road or driveway. (New, 
1968.) 

§ 11-308 — One-way roadways and rotary traffic islands 

(a) The (State highway commission) and local authorities 
with respect to highways under their respective jurisdictions 
may designate any highway, roadway, part of a roadway or 
specific lanes upon which vehicular traffic shall proceed in one 
direction at all or such times as shall be indicated by official 
traffic-control devices. (Revised, 1968.) 

(b) Upon a roadway so designated for one-way traffic, a ve- 
hicle shall be driven only in the direction designated at all or 
such times as shall be indicated by official traffic-control de- 
vices. (Revised, 1968.) 

(c) A vehicle passing around a rotary traffic island shall be 
driven only to the right of such island. 

§ 11-309 — Driving on roadways laned for traffic 

Whenever any roadway has been divided into two or more 
clearly marked lanes for traffic the following rules in addition 
to all others consistent herewith shall apply. 

(a) A vehicle shall be driven as nearly as practicable en- 
tirely within a single lane and shall not be moved from such 
lane until the driver has first ascertained that such movement 
can be made with safety. 

(b) Upon a roadway which is divided into three lanes and 
provides for two-way movement of traffic, a vehicle shall not 
be driven in the center lane except when overtaking and pass- 

143 



§ J.I-3JLU UNIFORM VEHICLE CODE 

ing another vehicle traveling in the same direction when such 
center lane is clear of traffic within a safe distance, or in prepa- 
ration for making a left turn or where such center lane is at 
the time allocated exclusively to traffic moving in the same di- 
rection that the vehicle is proceeding and such allocation is 
designated by official traffic-control devices. (Revised, 1962.) 

(c) Official traffic-control devices may be erected directing 
specified traffic to use a designated lane or designating those 
lanes to be used by traffic moving in a particular direction re- 
gardless of the center of the roadway and drivers of vehicles 
shall obey the directions of every such device. (Revised, 1962.) 

(d) Official traffic-control devices may be installed prohibit- 
ing the changing of lanes on sections of roadway and drivers 
of vehicles shall obey the directions of every such device. (New, 
1962.) 

§ 11-310— Following too closely 

(a) The driver of a motor vehicle shall not follow another 
vehicle more closely than is reasonable and prudent, having due 
regard for the speed of such vehicles and the traffic upon and 
the condition of the highway. 

(b) The driver of any motor vehicle drawing another vehicle 
when traveling upon a roadway outside of a business or resi- 
dence district and which is following another motor truck or 
motor vehicle drawing another vehicle shall, whenever condi- 
tions permit, leave sufficient space so that an overtaking ve- 
hicle may enter and occupy such space without danger, except 
that this shall not prevent a motor truck or motor vehicle draw- 
ing another vehicle from overtaking and passing any like ve- 
hicle or other vehicle. 

(c) Motor vehicles being driven upon any roadway outside 
of a business or residence district in a caravan or motorcade 
whether or not towing other vehicles shall be so operated as to 
allow sufficient space between each such vehicle or combination 
of vehicles so as to enable any other vehicle to enter and occupy 
such space without danger. This provision shall not apply to 
funeral processions. 

§ 11-311— Driving on divided highways 

Whenever any highway has been divided into two or more 

144 



Rules of the Road § 11-401 

roadways by leaving an intervening space or by a physical bar- 
rier or clearly indicated dividing section so constructed as to 
impede vehicular traffic, every vehicle shall be driven only upon 
the right-hand roadway unless directed or permitted to use an- 
other roadway by official traffic-control devices or police offi- 
cers. No vehicle shall be driven over, across or within any such 
dividing space, barrier or section, except through an opening 
in such physical barrier or dividing section or space or at a 
cross-over or intersection as established, unless specifically pro- 
hibited by public authority. (Revised, 1962.) 

§ 11-312— -Restricted access 

No person shall drive a vehicle onto or from any controlled- 
access roadway except at such entrances and exits as are estab- 
lished by public authority. 

§ 11-313— Restrictions on use of controlled-access roadway 

(a) The (State highway commission) by resolution or order 
entered in its minutes, and local authorities by ordinance, may 
regulate or prohibit the use of any controlled-access roadway 
(or highway) within their respective jurisdictions by any class 
or kind of traffic which is found to be incompatible with the 
normal and safe movement of traffic. 

(b) The (State highway commission) or the local authority 
adopting any such prohibition shall erect and maintain official 
traffic-control devices on the controlled-access highway on 
which such prohibitions are applicable and when in place no 
person shall disobey the restrictions stated on such devices. 
(Section revised, 1968.) 

Article IV— Right of Way 

§ 11-401 — Vehicle approaching or entering intersection 

(a) When two vehicles approach or enter an intersection 
from different highways at approximately the same time, the 
driver of the vehicle on the left shall yield the right of way to 
the vehicle on the right. 

(b) The right of way rule declared in paragraph (a) is mod- 
ified at through highways and otherwise as stated in this chap- 
ter. (Section revised, 1968.) 

145 



§ I1-4U^ UNIFORM VEHICLE CODE 

§ 11-402— Vehicle turning left 

The driver of a vehicle intending to turn to the left within an 
intersection or into an alley, private road or driveway shall 
yield the right of way to any vehicle approaching from the op- 
posite direction which is within the intersection or so close 
thereto as to constitute an immediate hazard. (Revised, 1962.) 

§ 11-403 — Vehicle entering stop or yield intersection 

(a) Preferential right of way at an intersection may be indi- 
cated by stop signs or yield signs as authorized in § 15-109 of 
this act. 

(b) Except when directed to proceed by a police officer or 
traffic-control signal, every driver of a vehicle approaching a 
stop intersection indicated by a stop sign shall stop at a clearly 
marked stop line, but if none, before entering the crosswalk on 
the near side of the intersection, or, if none, then at the point 
nearest the intersecting roadway where the driver has a view of 
approaching traffic on the intersecting roadway before entering 
the intersection. After having stopped, the driver shall yield the 
right of way to any vehicle which has entered the intersection 
from another highway or which is approaching so closely on said 
highway as to constitute an immediate hazard during the time 
when such driver is moving across or within the intersection. 

(c) The driver of a vehicle approaching a yield sign shall in 
obedience to such sign slow down to a speed reasonable for the 
existing conditions and, if required for safety to stop, shall stop 
at a clearly marked stop line, but if none, before entering the 
crosswalk on the near side of the intersection, or, if none, then 
at the point nearest the intersecting roadway where the driver 
has a view of approaching traffic on the intersecting roadway. 
After slowing or stopping, the driver shall yield the right of 
way to any vehicle in the intersection or approaching on another 
highway so closely as to constitute an immediate hazard during 
the time such driver is moving across or within the intersection. 
Provided, however, that if such a driver is involved in a collision 
with a vehicle in the intersection, after driving past a yield sign 
without stopping, such collision shall be deemed prima facie 
evidence of his failure to yield right of way. (Section revised, 
1968.) 

146 



Rules of the Road § 11-501 

§ 11-404 — Vehicle entering highway from private road or drive- 
way 

The driver of a vehicle about to enter or cross a highway from 
an alley, building, private road or driveway shall yield the right 
of way to all vehicles approaching on the highway to be entered. 

(Revised, 1968.) 

§ 11-405 — Operation of vehicles (and streetcars) on approach of 
authorized emergency vehicles 

(a) Upon the immediate approach of an authorized emer- 
gency vehicle making use of an audible signal meeting the re- 
quirements of § 12-401 (d) and visual signals meeting the re- 
quirements of § 12-218 of this act, or of a police vehicle properly 
and lawfully making use of an audible signal only: (REVISED, 
1968.) 

1. The driver of every other vehicle shall yield the right of 
way and shall immediately drive to a position parallel to, and as 
close as possible to, the right-hand edge or curb of the roadway 
clear of any intersection and shall stop and remain in such 
position until the authorized emergency vehicle has passed, 
except when otherwise directed by a police officer. 

2. Upon the approach of an authorized emergency vehicle, as 
above stated, the motorman of every streetcar shall immediately 
stop such car clear of any intersection and keep it in such 
position until the authorized emergency vehicle has passed, 
except when otherwise directed by a police officer. 4 

(b) This section shall not operate to relieve the driver of an 
authorized emergency vehicle from the duty to drive with due 
regard for the safety of all persons using the highway. 

Article V— Pedestrians' Rights and Duties 

§ 11-501 — Pedestrian obedience to traffic-control devices and 
traffic regulations 

(a) A pedestrian shall obey the instructions of any official 
traffic-control device specifically applicable to him, unless other- 
wise directed by a police officer. (New, 1968.) 



4 Subparagraph (a) 2 should be omitted in states where no streetcars 
are in operation. 

147 



8 ±±-OV£ UJNIFUKM V£HI(JLrtt UODE 

(b) Pedestrians shall be subject to traffic and pedestrian- 
control signals as provided in §§ 11-202 and 11-203. (Revised, 
1968.) 

(c) At all other places, pedestrians shall be accorded the privi- 
leges and shall be subject to the restrictions stated in this chap- 
ter. 

§ 11-502 — Pedestrians' right of way in crosswalks 

(a) When traffic-control signals are not in place or not in 
operation the driver of a vehicle shall yield the right of way, 
slowing down or stopping if need be to so yield, to a pedestrian 
crossing the roadway within a crosswalk when the pedestrian is 
upon the half of the roadway upon which the vehicle is travel- 
ing, or when the pedestrian is approaching so closely from the 
opposite half of the roadway as to be in danger. 

(b) No pedestrian shall suddenly leave a curb or other place 
of safety and walk or run into the path of a vehicle which is so 
close that it is impossible for the driver to yield. 

(c) Paragraph (a) shall not apply under the conditions stated 
in§ 11-503 (b). 

(d) Whenever any vehicle is stopped at a marked crosswalk 
or at any unmarked crosswalk at an intersection to permit a 
pedestrian to cross the roadway, the driver of any other vehicle 
approaching from the rear shall not overtake and pass such 
stopped vehicle. 

§ 11-503 — Crossing- at other than crosswalks 

(a) Every pedestrian crossing a roadway at any point other 
than within a marked crosswalk or within an unmarked cross- 
walk at an intersection shall yield the right of way to all vehicles 
upon the roadway. 

(b) Any pedestrian crossing a roadway at a point where a 
pedestrian tunnel or overhead pedestrian crossing has been pro- 
vided shall yield the right of way to all vehicles upon the road- 
way. 

(c) Between adjacent intersections at which traffic-control 
signals are in operation pedestrians shall not cross at any place 
except in a marked crosswalk, 

(d) No pedestrian shall cross a roadway intersection diag- 

148 



Rules of the Road § 11-508 

onally unless authorized by official traffic-control devices ; and, 
when authorized to cross diagonally, pedestrians shall cross only 
in accordance with the official traffic-control devices pertaining 
to such crossing movements. (New, 1962.) 

§ 11-504 — Drivers to exercise due care 

Notwithstanding other provisions of this chapter, every driver 
of a vehicle shall exercise due care to avoid colliding with any 
pedestrian upon any roadway and shall give warning by sounding 
the horn when necessary and shall exercise proper precaution 
upon observing any child or any obviously confused or incapaci- 
tated person upon a roadway. (Revised, 1968.) 

§ 11-505 — Pedestrians to use right half of crosswalks 

Pedestrians shall move, whenever practicable, upon the right 
half of crosswalks. 

§ 11-506 — Pedestrians on roadways 

(a) Where sidewalks are provided it shall be unlawful for 
any pedestrian to walk along and upon an adjacent roadway. 

(b) Where sidewalks are not provided any pedestrian walk- 
ing along and upon a highway shall, when practicable, walk only 
on the left side of the roadway or its shoulder facing traffic 
which may approach from the opposite direction, 

§ 11-507 — Pedestrians soliciting rides or business 

(a) No person shall stand in a roadway for the purpose of 
soliciting a ride. 

(b) No person shall stand on a highway for the purpose of 
soliciting employment, business, or contributions from the occu- 
pant of any vehicle. 

(c) No person shall stand on or in proximity to a street or 
highway for the purpose of soliciting the watching or guarding 
of any vehicle while parked or about to be parked on a street or 
highway. (Section revised, 1968.) 

§ 11-508 — Driving through safety zone prohibited 

No vehicle shall at any time be driven through or within a 
safety zone. (Repositioned, 1962.) 

149 



§ 11-509 Uniform Vehicle Code 

§ 11-509— Pedestrians' right of way on sidewalks 

The driver of a vehicle emerging from or entering an alley, 
building, private road or driveway shall yield the right of way to 
any pedestrian approaching on any sidewalk extending across 
such alley, building entrance, road or driveway. (New, 1968.) 

Article VI — Turning and Starting and Signals 
on Stopping and Turning 

§ 11-601 — Required position and method of turning at intersec- 
tions 

The driver of a vehicle intending to turn at an intersection 
shall do so as follows : 

(a) Right turns. — Both the approach for a right turn and a 
right turn shall be made as close as practicable to the right-hand 
curb or edge of the roadway. 

(b) Left turns. — The driver of a vehicle intending to turn 
left at any intersection shall approach the intersection in the 
extreme left-hand lane lawfully available to traffic moving in the 
direction of travel of such vehicle, and, after entering the inter- 
section, the left turn shall be made so as to leave the intersection 
in a lane lawfully available to traffic moving in such direction 
upon the roadway being entered. Whenever practicable the left 
turn shall be made in that portion of the intersection to the left 
of the center of the intersection. 

(c) The state highway commission and local authorities in 
their respective jurisdictions may cause official traffic-control 
devices to be placed within or adjacent to intersections and there- 
by require and direct that a different course from that specified 
in this section be traveled by vehicles turning at an intersection, 
and when such devices are so placed no driver of a vehicle shall 
turn a vehicle at an intersection other than as directed and 
required by such devices. 5 (Section revised, 1968.) 

§ 11-602 — Turning on curve or crest of grade prohibited 

No vehicle shall be turned so as to proceed in the opposite di- 



5 In view of the fact that there are many intersections, including T in- 
tersections, where large numbers of vehicles turn left, the state highway 
commission, local authorities and police officers should permit and direct 
vehicles to turn left in two lines at such intersections. 

150 



Rules of the Road § 11-605 

rection upon any curve, or upon the approach to or near the crest 
of a grade, where such vehicle cannot be seen by the driver of 
any other vehicle approaching from either direction within 500 

feet. 

§ 11-603 — Starting parked vehicle 

No person shall start a vehicle which is stopped, standing or 
parked unless and until such movement can be made with rea- 
sonable safety. 

§ 11-604 — Turning movements and required signals 

(a) No person shall turn a vehicle at an intersection unless 
the vehicle is in proper position upon the roadway as required 
in § 11-601, or turn a vehicle to enter a private road or driveway, 
or otherwise turn a vehicle from a direct course or move right or 
left upon a roadway unless and until such movement can be 
made with reasonable safety. No person shall so turn any vehicle 
without giving an appropriate signal in the manner hereinafter 
provided. (Revised, 1962.) 

(b) A signal of intention to turn right or left when required 
shall be given continuously during not less than the last 100 
feet traveled by the vehicle before turning. 

(c) No person shall stop or suddenly decrease the speed of a 
vehicle without first giving an appropriate signal in the manner 
provided herein to the driver of any vehicle immediately to the 
rear when there is opportunity to give such signal. 

(d) The signals provided for in § 11-605 (b) shall be used to 
indicate an intention to turn, change lanes, or start from a 
parked position and shall not be flashed on one side only on a 
parked or disabled vehicle, or flashed as a courtesy or "do pass" 
signal to operators of other vehicles approaching from the rear. 
(New, 1962.) 

§ 11-605 — Signals by hand and arm or signal lamps 

(a) Any stop or turn signal when required herein shall be 
given either by means of the hand and arm or by signal lamps, 
except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b). 

(b) Any motor vehicle in use on a highway shall be equipped 
with, and required signal shall be given by, signal lamps when 

151 



§ 11-606 Uniform Vehicle Code 

the distance from the center of the top of the steering post to 
the left outside limit of the body, cab or load of such motor 
vehicle exceeds 24 inches, or when the distance from the center 
of the top of the steering post to the rear limit of the body or 
load thereof exceeds 14 feet. The latter measurement shall apply 
to any single vehicle, also to any combination of vehicles. (Sec- 
tion REVISED, 1956.) 

§ 11-606 — Method of giving hand-and-arm signals 

All signals herein required given by hand and arm shall be 
given from the left side of the vehicle in the following manner 
and such signals shall indicate as follows : 

1. Left turn. — Hand and arm extended horizontally. 

2. Eight turn, — Hand and arm extended upward. 

3. Stop or decrease speed. — Hand and arm extended down- 
ward. 

Article VII — Special Stops Required 

§ 11-701— Obedience to signal indicating approach of train 

(a) Whenever any person driving a vehicle approaches a rail- 
road grade crossing under any of the circumstances stated in 
this section, the driver of such vehicle shall stop within 50 feet 
but not less than 15 feet from the nearest rail of such railroad, 
and shall not proceed until he can do so safely. The foregoing 
requirements shall apply when : 

1. A clearly visible electric or mechanical signal device gives 
warning of the immediate approach of a railroad train ; 

2. A crossing gate is lowered or when a human flagman gives 
or continues to give a signal of the approach or passage of a 
railroad train ; 

3. A railroad train approaching within approximately 1,500 
feet of the highway crossing emits a signal audible from such 
distance and such railroad train, by reason of its speed or near- 
ness to such crossing, is an immediate hazard ; 

4. An approaching railroad train is plainly visible and is in 
hazardous proximity to such crossing. 

(b) No person shall drive any vehicle through, around or 
under any crossing gate or barrier at a railroad crossing while 
such gate or barrier is closed or is being opened or closed. 

152 



Rules of the Road § 11-704 

§ 11-702 — All vehicles must stop at certain railroad grade cross- 
ings 

The (State highway commission) and local authorities with 
the approval of the (State highway commission) are hereby au- 
thorized to designate particularly dangerous highway grade 
crossings of railroads and to erect stop signs thereat. When such 
stop signs are erected the driver of any vehicle shall stop within 
50 feet but not less than 15 feet from the nearest rail of such 
railroad and shall proceed only upon exercising due care. 

§ 11-703 — Certain vehicles must stop at all railroad grade cross- 
ings 

(a) The driver of any motor vehicle carrying passengers for 
hire, or of any school bus carrying any school child, or of any 
vehicle carrying explosive substances or flammable liquids as a 
cargo or part of a cargo, before crossing at grade any track or 
tracks of a railroad, shall stop such vehicle within 50 feet but 
not less than 15 feet from the nearest rail of such railroad and 
while so stopped shall listen and look in both directions along 
such track for any approaching train, and for signals indicating 
the approach of a train, except as hereinafter provided, and 
shall not proceed until he can do so safely. After stopping as 
required herein and upon proceeding when it is safe to do so the 
driver of any said vehicle shall cross only in such gear of the 
vehicle that there will be no necessity for changing gears while 
traversing such crossing and the driver shall not shift gears 
while crossing the track or tracks. 

(b) No stop need be made at any such crossing where a po- 
lice officer or a traffic-control signal directs traffic to proceed. 

(c) This section shall not apply at street-railway grade cross- 
ings within a business or residence district. 

§ 11-704— Moving heavy equipment at railroad grade crossings 

(a) No person shall operate or move any crawler-type trac- 
tor, steam shovel, derrick, roller, or any equipment or structure 
having a normal operating speed of 10 or less miles per hour or 
a vertical body or load clearance of less than one-half inch per 
foot of the distance between any two adjacent axles or in any 
event of less than nine inches, measured above the level surface 

153 



§ xx-i\JO ursiirujtuvi vi^niuijiii uuuiii 

of a roadway, upon or across any tracks at a railroad grade 
crossing without first complying with this section. 

(b) Notice of any such intended crossing shall be given to a 
station agent of such railroad and a reasonable time be given 
to such railroad to provide proper protection at such crossing. 

(c) Before making any such crossing the person operating 
or moving any such vehicle or equipment shall first stop the 
same not less than 15 feet nor more than 50 feet from the near- 
est rail of such railroad and while so stopped shall listen and 
look in both directions along such track for any approaching 
train and for signals indicating the approach of a train, and 
shall not proceed until the crossing can be made safely. 

(d) No such crossing shall be made when warning is given 
by automatic signal or crossing gates or a flagman or otherwise 
of the immediate approach of a railroad train or car. If a flag- 
man is provided by the railroad, movement over the crossing 
shall be under his direction. 

§ 11-705 — Emerging from alley, driveway or building 

The driver of a vehicle emerging from an alley, building, 
private road or driveway within a business or residence dis- 
trict shall stop such vehicle immediately prior to driving onto a 
sidewalk or onto the sidewalk area extending across such alley, 
building entrance, road or driveway, or in the event there is 
no sidewalk area, shall stop at the point nearest the street to 
be entered where the driver has a view of approaching traffic 
thereon. (Revised and renumbered, 1968.) 

§ 11-706 — Overtaking and passing school bus 

(a) The driver of a vehicle upon a highway outside of a bus- 
iness or residence district upon meeting or overtaking from 
either direction any school bus which has stopped on the high- 
way for the purpose of receiving or discharging any school chil- 
dren shall stop the vehicle before reaching such school bus when 
there is in operation on said school bus a visual signal as speci- 
fied in § 12-218 and said driver shall not proceed until such 
school bus resumes motion or is signaled by the school bus 
driver to proceed or the visual signals are no longer actuated. 

(b) Every bus used for the transportation of school children 

154 



Rules of the Road § 11-801.1 

shall bear upon the front and rear thereof plainly visible signs 
containing the words "SCHOOL BUS" in letters not less than 
eight inches in height, and in addition shall be equipped with 
visual signals meeting the requirements of § 12-218 of this act, 
which shall be actuated by the driver of said school bus when- 
ever but only whenever such vehicle is stopped on the highway 
outside of a business or residence district for the purpose of 
receiving or discharging school children. (Revised, 1962.) 

(c) When a school bus is being operated upon a highway for 
purposes other than the actual transportation of children either 
to or from school, all markings thereon indicating "school bus" 
shall be covered or concealed. 

(d) The driver of a vehicle upon a highway with separate 
roadways need not stop upon meeting or passing a school bus 
which is on a different roadway or when upon a controlled-ac- 
cess highway and the school bus is stopped in a loading zone 
which is a part of or adjacent to such highway and where 
pedestrians are not permitted to cross the roadway. (Section 

REVISED, 1954; RENUMBERED, 1968.) 

Article VIII — Speed Restrictions 
§ 11-801— Basic rule 

No person shall drive a vehicle at a speed greater than is 
reasonable and prudent under the conditions and having regard 
to the actual and potential hazards then existing. Consistent 
with the foregoing, every person shall drive at a safe and appro- 
priate speed when approaching and crossing an intersection or 
railroad grade crossing, when approaching and going around 
a curve, when approaching a hill crest, when traveling upon 
any narrow or winding roadway, and when special hazards exist 
with respect to pedestrians or other traffic or by reason of 
weather or highway conditions. (Revised, 1968.) 

§ 11-801.1— Maximum limits 

Except when a special hazard exists that requires lower speed 
for compliance with § 11-801, the limits hereinafter specified or 
established as hereinafter authorized shall be maximum lawful 
speeds, and no person shall drive a vehicle at a speed in excess 
of such maximum limits. (Revised, 1968.) 

155 



§ 11-802 Uniform Vehicle Code 

1. Thirty miles per hour in any urban district ; 

2. Sixty miles per hour in other locations during the daytime ; 

3. Fifty-five miles per hour in such other locations during the 
nighttime. 

Daytime means from a half hour before sunrise to a half hour 
after sunset. Nighttime means at any other hour. 

The maximum speed limits set forth in this section may be 
altered as authorized in §§ 11-802 and 11-803. (REVISED, 1956; 

REPOSITIONED, 1968.) 

§ 11-802 — Establishment of State speed zones 

Whenever the (State highway commission) shall determine 
upon the basis of an engineering and traffic investigation that 
any maximum speed hereinbefore set forth is greater or less 
than is reasonable or safe under fhe conditions found to exist 
at any intersection or other place or upon any part of the State 
highway system, said (commission) may determine and declare 
a reasonable and safe maximum limit thereat, which shall be 
effective when appropriate signs giving notice thereof are 
erected. Such a maximum speed limit may be declared to be 
effective at all times or at such times as are indicated upon the 
said signs; and differing limits may be established for different 
times of day, different types of vehicles, varying weather condi- 
tions, and other factors bearing on safe speeds, which shall be 
effective when posted upon appropriate fixed or variable signs. 
(Revised, 1962.) 

§ 11-803 — When local authorities may and shall alter maximum 
limits 

(a) Whenever local authorities in their respective jurisdic- 
tions determine on the basis of an engineering and traffic in- 
vestigation that the maximum speed permitted under this ar- 
ticle is greater or less than is reasonable and safe under the con- 
ditions found to exist upon a highway or part of a highway, the 
local authority may determine and declare a reasonable and 
safe maximum limit thereon which : 

1. Decreases the limit at intersections ; or 

2. Increases the limit within an urban district but not to more 
than 60 miles per hour during daytime or 55 miles per hour dur- 
ing nighttime ; or 

156 



Rules of the Road § 11-805 

3. Decreases the limit outside an urban district, but ruot to 
less than 35 miles per hour. 

(b) Local authorities in their respective jurisdictions shall 
determine by an engineering and traffic investigation the proper 
maximum speed for all arterial streets and shall declare a rea- 
sonable and safe maximum limit thereon which may be greater or 
less than the maximum speed permitted under this act for an 
urban district. 

(c) Any altered limit established as hereinabove authorized 
shall be effective at all times or during hours of darkness or at 
other times as may be determined when appropriate signs giving 
notice thereof are erected upon such street or highway. 

(d) Any alteration of maximum limits on State highways or 
extensions thereof in a municipality by local authorities shall 
not be effective until such alteration has been approved by the 
(State highway commission) . 

(e) Not more than six such alterations as hereinabove au- 
thorized shall be made per mile along a street or highway, except 
in the case of reduced limits at intersections, and the difference 
between adjacent limits shall not be more than 10 miles per 
hour. (Section revised, 1956.) 

§ 11-804 — Minimum speed regulation 

(a) No person shall drive a motor vehicle at such a slow speed 
as to impede the normal and reasonable movement of traffic ex- 
cept when reduced speed is necessary for safe operation or in 
compliance with law. 

(b) Whenever the (State highway commission) or local au- 
thorities within their respective jurisdictions determine on the 
basis of an engineering and traffic investigation that slow speeds 
on any part of a highway consistently impede the normal and rea- 
sonable movement of traffic, the (commission) or such local au- 
thority may determine and declare a minimum speed limit below 
which no person shall drive a vehicle except when necessary for 
safe operation or in compliance with law. (Section revised, 
1954.) 

§ 11-805 — Special speed limitation on motor-driven cycles 

No person shall operate any motor-driven cycle at any time 

157 



§ 11-806 Uniform Vehicle Code 

mentioned in § 12-201 at a speed greater than 35 miles per hour 
unless such motor-driven cycle is equipped with a head lamp or 
lamps which are adequate to reveal a person or vehicle at a dis- 
tance of 300 feet ahead. 

§ 11-806 — Special speed limitations 

(a) No person shall drive a vehicle which is towing a house 
trailer at a speed greater than a maximum of 45 miles per hour. 
(New, 1956.) 

(b) No person shall drive any vehicle equipped with solid rub- 
ber or cushion tires at a speed greater than a maximum of 10 
miles per hour. 

(c) No person shall drive a vehicle over any bridge or other 
elevated structure constituting a part of a highway at a speed 
which is greater than the maximum speed which can be main- 
tained with safety to such bridge or structure, when such struc- 
ture is signposted as provided in this section. 

(d) The (State highway commission) upon request from any 
local authority shall, or upon its own initiative may, conduct an 
investigation of any bridge or other elevated structure constitut- 
ing a part of a highway, and if it shall thereupon find that such 
structure cannot with safety to itself withstand vehicles traveling 
at the speed otherwise permissible under this chapter, the (com- 
mission) shall determine and declare the maximum speed of ve- 
hicles which such structure can safely withstand, and shall cause 
or permit suitable signs stating such maximum speed to be 
erected and maintained before each end of such structure. 
(Revised, 1962.) 

(e) Upon the trial of any person charged with a violation of 
this section, proof of said determination of the maximum speed 
by said (commission) and the existence of said signs shall con- 
stitute conclusive evidence of the maximum speed which can be 
maintained with safety to such bridge or structure. 

§ 11-807 — Charging violations and rule in civil actions 

(a) In every charge of violation of any speed regulation in this 
article the complaint, also the summons or notice to appear, shall 
specify the speed at which the defendant is alleged to have 

158 



Rules of the Road § 11-901 

driven, also the maximum speed applicable within the district or 
at the location. 

(b) The provision of this article declaring maximum speed 
limitations shall not be construed to relieve the plaintiff in any 
action from the burden of proving negligence on the part of the 
defendant as the proximate cause of an accident. (Section 
revised, 1956.) 

§ 11-808 — Racing on highways 

(a) No person shall drive any vehicle in any race, speed com- 
petition or contest, drag race or acceleration contest, test of 
physical endurance, exhibition of speed or acceleration, or for 
the purpose of making a speed record, and no person shall in any 
manner participate in any such race, competition, contest, test, 
or exhibition. 

(b) Drag race is defined as the operation of two or more ve- 
hicles from a point side by side at accelerating speeds in a com- 
petitive attempt to outdistance each other, or the operation of one 
or more vehicles over a common selected course, from the same 
point to the same point, for the purpose of comparing the relative 
speeds or power of acceleration of such vehicle or vehicles within 
a certain distance or time limit. 

(c) Racing is defined as the use of one or more vehicles in an 
attempt to outgain, outdistance, or prevent another vehicle from 
passing, to arrive at a given destination ahead of another vehicle 
or vehicles, or to test the physical stamina or endurance of driv- 
ers over long distance driving routes. 

(d) Any person convicted of violating this section shall be pun- 
ished as provided in § 17-101 (c). (New section, 1968.) 

Article IX— Serious Traffic Offenses 6 
§ 11-901 — Reckless driving 

(a) Any person who drives any vehicle in willful or wanton 
disregard for the safety of persons or property is guilty of reck- 
less driving. 

(b) Every person convicted of reckless driving shall be pun- 

6 This article covers what are generally regarded as relatively serious 
offenses carrying significantly higher penalties. All sections in this arti- 
cle apply on and off the highways under § 11-101. 

159 



§ 11-902 Uniform Vehicle Code 

ished upon a first conviction by imprisonment for a period of not 
less than five days nor more than 90 days, or by fine of not less 
than $25 nor more than ($500), or by both such fine and impris- 
onment, and on a second or subsequent conviction shall be pun- 
ished by imprisonment for not less than 10 days nor more than 
six months, or by a fine of not less than $50 nor more than 
($1,000), or by both such fine and imprisonment. 

§ 11-902 — Persons under the influence of intoxicating liquor 

(a) It is unlawful and punishable as provided in § 11-902.2 
for any person who is under the influence of intoxicating liquor to 
drive or be in actual physical control of any vehicle within this 
State. 

(b) Upon the trial of any civil or criminal action or proceed- 
ing arising out of acts alleged to have been committed by any 
person while driving or in actual physical control of a vehicle 
while under the influence of intoxicating liquor, the amount of 
alcohol in the person's blood at the time alleged as shown by 
chemical analysis of the person's blood, urine, breath, or other 
bodily substance shall give rise to the following presumptions: 

1. If there was at that time 0.05 percent or less by weight of 
alcohol in the person's blood, it shall be presumed that the per- 
son was not under the influence of intoxicating liquor. 

2. If there was at that time in excess of 0.05 percent but less 
than 0.10 percent by weight of alcohol in the person's blood, such 
fact shall not give rise to any presumption that the person was 
or was not under the influence of intoxicating liquor, but such 
fact may be considered with other competent evidence in deter- 
mining whether the person was under the influence of intoxicat- 
ing liquor. 

3. If there was at that time 0.10 percent or more by weight of 
alcohol in the person's blood, it shall be presumed that the person 
was under the influence of intoxicating liquor. 

4. Percent by weight of alcohol in the blood shall be based upon 
grams of alcohol per 100 cubic centimeters of blood. (Revised, 
1968.) 

5. The foregoing provisions of paragraph (b) shall not be con- 
strued as limiting the introduction of any other competent evi- 
dence bearing upon the question whether the person was under 
the influence of intoxicating liquor. 

160 



Rules of the Road § 11-902.1 

(c) Chemical analyses of the person's blood, urine, breath, or 
other bodily substance to be considered valid under the provi- 
sions of this section shall have been performed according to 
methods approved by the State department of health and by an 
individual possessing a valid permit issued by the State depart- 
ment of health for this purpose. The State department of health 
is authorized to approve satisfactory techniques or methods, to 
ascertain the qualifications and competence of individuals to con- 
duct such analyses, and to issue permits which shall be subject 
to termination or revocation at the discretion of the State depart- 
ment of health. 

(d) When a person shall submit to a blood test at the request 
of a law enforcement officer under the provisions of § 6-205.1, 
only a physician or a registered nurse (or other qualified person) 
may withdraw blood for the purpose of determining the alcoholic 
content therein. This limitation shall not apply to the taking of 
breath or urine specimens. 

(e) The person tested may have a physician, or a qualified 
technician, chemist, registered nurse, or other qualified person 
of his own choosing administer a chemical test or tests in addition 
to any administered at the direction of a law enforcement officer. 
The failure or inability to obtain an additional test by a person 
shall not preclude the admission of evidence relating to the test 
or tests taken at the direction of a law enforcement officer. 

(f) Upon the request of the person who shall submit to a 
chemical test or tests at the request of a law enforcement officer, 
full information concerning the test or tests shall be made avail- 
able to him or his attorney. 

Optional (g) If a person under arrest refuses to submit to 
a chemical test under the provisions of § 6-205.1, evidence of re- 
fusal shall be admissible in any civil or criminal action or pro- 
ceeding arising out of acts alleged to have been committed while 
the person was driving or in actual physical control of a motor 
vehicle while under the influence of intoxicating liquor. (Revised, 
1968.) 

§ 11-902.1 — Persons under the influence of drugs 

It is unlawful and punishable as provided in § 11-902.2 for any 
person who is an habitual user of or under the influence of any 

UVC— 6 161 



§ 11-902.2 UNIFORM VEHICLE CODE 

narcotic drug or who is under the influence of any other drug to 
a degree which renders him incapable of safely driving a vehicle 
to drive a vehicle within this State. The fact that any person 
charged with a violation of this section is or has been entitled 
to use such drug under the laws of this State shall not constitute 
a defense against any charge of violating this section. (RE- 
POSITIONED, 1962.) 

§ 11-902.2— Penalties and administrative action of commissioner 

(a) Every person who is convicted of a violation of § 11-902 
or § 11-902.1 shall be punished by imprisonment for not less than 
10. days nor more than one year, or by fine of not less than $100 
nor more than $1,000, or by both such fine and imprisonment. On 
a second or subsequent conviction under either section he shall be 
punished by imprisonment for not less than 90 days nor more 
than one year, and, in the discretion of the court, a fine of not 
more than $1,000. 

(b) The commissioner shall revoke the license or permit to 
drive and any nonresident operating privilege of any person con- 
victed under § 11-902 or § 11-902.1. (Repositioned, 1962.) 

§ 11-903 — Homicide by vehicle 

(a) Whoever shall unlawfully and unintentionally cause the 
death of another person while engaged in the violation of any 
state law or municipal ordinance applying to the operation or use 
of a vehicle or to the regulation of traffic shall be guilty of homi- 
cide when such violation is the proximate cause of said death. 
(Revised, 1968.) 

(b) Any person convicted of homicide by vehicle shall be fined 
not less than $500 nor more than $2,000, or shall be imprisoned 
in the county jail not less than three months nor more than one 
year, or may be so fined and so imprisoned, or shall be imprisoned 
in the penitentiary for a term not less than one year nor more 
than five years. (Revised, 1962.) 

§ 11-904 — Fleeing or attempting to elude a police officer 

(a) Any driver of a motor vehicle who willfully fails or re- 
fuses to bring his vehicle to a stop, or who otherwise flees or 

162 



Rules of the Road § 11-1002 

attempts to elude a pursuing police vehicle, when given visual 
or audible signal to bring the vehicle to a stop, shall be guilty of 
a misdemeanor. The signal given by the police officer may be 
by hand, voice, emergency light or siren. The officer giving such 
signal shall be in uniform, prominently displaying his badge of 
office, and his vehicle shall be appropriately marked showing it 
to be an official police vehicle. 

(b) Every person convicted of fleeing or attempting to elude 
a police officer shall be punished by imprisonment for not less 
than 30 days nor more than six months or by a fine of not less 
than $100 nor more than $500, or by both such fine and impris- 
onment (New section, 1968.) 

Article X — Stopping, Standing and Parking 

§ 11-1001 — Stopping, standing or parking outside of business or 
residence districts 

(a) Upon any highway outside of a business or residence dis- 
trict no person shall stop, park or leave standing any vehicle, 
whether attended or unattended, upon the paved or main-trav- 
eled part of the highway when it is practicable to stop, park or 
so leave such vehicle off such part of said highway, but in every 
event an unobstructed width of the highway opposite a standing 
vehicle shall be left for the free passage of other vehicles and a 
clear view of such stopped vehicle shall be available from a dis- 
tance of 200 feet in each direction upon such highway. 

(b) This section shall not apply to the driver of any vehi- 
cle which is disabled while on the paved or main-traveled por- 
tion of a highway in such manner and to such extent that it is 
impossible to avoid stopping and temporarily leaving such dis- 
abled vehicle in such position. 

§ 11-1002 — Officers authorized to remove vehicles 

(a) Whenever any police officer finds a vehicle standing up- 
on a highway in violation of any of the provisions of § 11-1001 
such officer is hereby authorized to move such vehicle, or re- 
quire the driver or other person in charge of, the vehicle to move 
the same, to a position off the paved or main-traveled part of 
such highway. 

163 



§ 11-1003 Uniform Vehicle code 

(b) Any police officer is hereby authorized to remove or cause 
to be removed to a place of safety any unattended vehicle il- 
legally left standing upon any highway, bridge, causeway, or in 
any tunnel, in such position or under such circumstances as to 
obstruct the normal movement of traffic. (Revised, 1968.) 

(c) Any police officer is hereby authorized to remove or cause 
to be removed to the nearest garage or other place of safety any 
vehicle found upon a highway when : 

1. Report has been made that such vehicle has been stolen or 
taken without the consent of its owner, or 

2. The person or persons in charge of such vehicle are unable 
to provide for its custody or removal, or 

3. When the person driving or in control of such vehicle is 
arrested for an alleged offense for which the officer is required 
by law to take the person arrested before a proper magistrate 
without unnecessary delay. (New, 1968.) 

§ 11-1003 — Stopping, standing or parking prohibited in specified 
places 

(a) Except when necessary to avoid conflict with other traf- 
fic, or in compliance with law or the directions of a police offi- 
cer or official traffic-control device, no person shall: 

1. Stop, stand or park a vehicle : 

a. On the roadway side of any vehicle stopped or parked at 
the edge or curb of a street ; 

b. On a sidewalk; 

c. Within an intersection ; 

d. On a crosswalk; 

e. Between a safety zone and the adjacent curb or within 
30 feet of points on the curb immediately opposite the ends 
of a safety zone, unless a different length is indicated by signs 
or markings; (Revised, 1968.) 

f. Alongside or opposite any street excavation or obstruc- 
tion when stopping, standing, or parking would obstruct traf- 
fic; 

g. Upon any bridge or other elevated structure upon a high- 
way or within a highway tunnel ; 

h. On any railroad tracks ; 

i. At any place where official signs prohibit stopping. 

164 



Rules of the Road § 11-1004 

2. Stand or park a vehicle, whether occupied or not, except 
momentarily to pick up or discharge a passenger or passengers : 

a. In front of a public or private driveway ; 

b. Within 15 feet of a fire hydrant ; 

c. Within 20 feet of a crosswalk at an intersection ; 

d. Within 30 feet upon the approach to any flashing signal, 
stop sign, yield sign or traffic-control signal located at the side 
of a roadway; (Revised, 1968.) 

e. Within 20 feet of the driveway entrance to any fire sta- 
tion and on the side of a street opposite the entrance to any 
fire station within 75 feet of said entrance (when properly 
signposted) ; 

f . At any place where official signs prohibit standing. 

3. Park a vehicle, whether occupied or not, except temporarily 
for the purpose of and while actually engaged in loading or un- 
loading merchandise or passengers : 

a. Within 50 feet of the nearest rail of a railroad crossing ; 

b. At any place where official signs prohibit parking. 

(b) No person shall move a vehicle not lawfully under his 
control into any such prohibited area or away from a curb such 
a distance as is unlawful. (Section revised, 1962.) 

§ 11-1004 — Additional parking regulations 

(a) Except as otherwise provided in this section, every vehi- 
cle stopped or parked upon a two-way roadway shall be so 
stopped or parked with the right-hand wheels parallel to and 
within 12 inches of the right-hand curb or edge of the roadway. 
(Revised, 1962.) 

(b) Except when otherwise provided by local ordinance, 
every vehicle stopped or parked upon a one-way roadway shall 
be so stopped or parked parallel to the curb or edge of the road- 
way, in the direction of authorized traffic movement, with its 
right-hand wheels within 12 inches of the right-hand curb or 
edge of the roadway, or its left-hand wheels within 12 inches of 
the left-hand curb or edge of the roadway. (Revised, 1962.) 

(c) Local authorities may by ordinance permit angle parking 
on any roadway, except that angle parking shall not be permitted 
on any federal-aid or State highway unless the (State highway 
commission) has determined by resolution or order entered in 
its minutes that the roadway is of sufficient width to permit 

165 



§ 11-1101 UNIFORM VEHICLE CODE 

angle parking without interfering with the free movement of 
traffic. 

(d) The (State highway commission) with respect to high- 
ways under its jurisdiction may place signs prohibiting or re- 
stricting the stopping, standing or parking of vehicles on any 
highway where in its opinion, as evidenced by resolution or or- 
der entered in its minutes, such stopping, standing or parking- 
is dangerous to those using the highway or where the stopping, 
standing or parking of vehicles would unduly interfere with the 
free movement of traffic thereon. Such signs shall be official signs 
and no person shall stop, stand or park any vehicle in violation 
of the restrictions stated on such signs. 

Article XI — Miscellaneous Rules 
§ 11-1101 — Unattended motor vehicle 

No person driving or in charge of a motor vehicle shall permit 
it to stand unattended without first stopping the engine, locking 
the ignition, removing the key from the ignition, effectively set- 
ting the brake thereon and, w T hen standing upon any grade, 
turning the front wheels to the curb or side of the highway. (Re- 
vised, 1968.) 

§ 11-1102 — Limitations on backing 

(a) The driver of a vehicle shall not back the same unless 
such movement can be made with safety and without interfer- 
ing with other traffic. 

(b) The driver of a vehicle shall not back the same upon any 
shoulder or roadway of any controlled-access highway. (New, 
1962.) 

§ 11-1103— Driving upon sidewalk 

No person shall drive any vehicle upon a sidewalk or sidewalk 
area except upon a permanent or duly authorized temporary 
driveway. (New, 1968.) 

§ 11-1104 — Obstruction to driver's view or driving mechanism 

(a) No person shall drive a vehicle when it is so loaded, or 
when there : .are in the front seat such a number of persons, 

166 



Rules of the Road § 11-1108 

exceeding three, as to obstruct the view of the driver to the 
front or sides of the vehicle or as to interfere with the driver's 
control over the driving mechanism of the vehicle. 

(b) No passenger in a vehicle (or streetcar) shall ride in 
such position as to interfere with the driver's (or motorman's) 
view ahead or to the sides, or to interfere with his control over 
the driving mechanism of the vehicle (or streetcar). (Revised, 
1968.) 

§ 11-1105 — Opening and closing vehicle doors 

No person shall open the door of a motor vehicle on the side 
available to moving traffic unless and until it is reasonably safe 
to do so, and can be done without interfering with the move- 
ment of other traffic, nor shall any person leave a door open on 
the side of a vehicle available to moving traffic for a period 
of time longer than necessary to load or unload passengers. (RE- 
VISED, 1962.) 

§ 11-1106 — Riding in house trailers 

No person or persons shall occupy a house trailer while it is 
being moved upon, a public highway. (New, 1956.) 

§11-1107 — Driving on mountain highways 

The driver of a motor vehicle traveling through defiles or 
canyons or on mountain highways shall hold such motor vehicle 
under control and as near the right-hand edge of the highway 
as reasonably possible and, upon approaching any curve where 
the view is obstructed within a distance of 200 feet along the 
highway, shall give audible warning with the horn of such motor 
vehicle. 

§ 11-1108— Coasting prohibited 

(a) The driver of any motor vehicle when traveling upon a 
down grade shall not coast with the gears or transmission of 
such vehicle in neutral. 

(b) The driver of a truck or bus when traveling upon a down 
grade shall not coast with the clutch disengaged. (Section re 
vised, 1968.) 

167 



§ 11-1109 UNIFORM VEHICLE t^ODE 

§ 11-1109 — Following fire apparatus prohibited 

The driver of any vehicle other than one on official business 
shall not follow any fire apparatus traveling in response to a 
fire alarm closer than 500 feet or drive into or park such ve- 
hicle within the block where fire apparatus has stopped in an- 
swer to a fire alarm. 

§ 11-1110 — Crossing fire hose 

No vehicle shall be driven over any unprotected hose of a 
fire department when laid down on any street, private road or 
driveway to be used at any fire or alarm of fire, without the 
consent of the fire department official in command. (Revised, 
1968.) 

§ 11-1111 — Putting glass, etc., on highway prohibited 

(a) No person shall throw or deposit upon any highway any 
glass bottle, glass, nails, tacks, wire, cans or any other sub- 
stance likely to injure any person, animal or vehicle upon such 
highway. 

(b) Any person who drops, or permits to be dropped or 
thrown, upon any highway any destructive or injurious mate- 
rial shall immediately remove the same or cause it to be re- 
moved. 

(c) Any person removing a wrecked or damaged vehicle 
from a highway shall remove any glass or other injurious sub- 
stance dropped upon the highway from such vehicle. 

Article XII — Operation of Bicycles and Play Vehicles 
§ 11-1201— Effect of regulations 

(a) It is a misdemeanor for any person to do any act for- 
bidden or fail to perform any act required in this article. 

(b) The parent of any child and the guardian of any ward 
shall not authorize or knowingly permit any such child or ward 
to violate any of the provisions of this act, 

(c) These regulations applicable to bicycles shall apply when- 
ever a bicycle is operated upon any highway or upon any path 
set aside for the exclusive use of bicycles subject to those excep- 
tions stated herein. 

168 



Rules of the Road § 11-1207 

§ 11-1202 — Traffic laws apply to persons riding bicycles 

Every person riding a bicycle upon a roadway shall be 
granted all of the rights and shall be subject to all of the duties 
applicable to the driver of a vehicle by this act, except as to 
special regulations in this article and except as to those provi- 
sions of this act which by their nature can have no application. 

§ 11-1203— Riding on bicycles 

(a) A person propelling a bicycle shall not ride other than 
upon or astride a permanent and regular seat attached thereto. 

(b) No bicycle shall be used to carry more persons at one time 
than the number for which it is designed and equipped. 

§ 11-1204 — Clinging to vehicles 

No person riding upon any bicycle, coaster, roller skates, sled 
or toy vehicle shall attach the same or himself to any (streetcar 
or) vehicle upon a roadway. (Revised, 1968.) 

§ 11-1205 — Riding on roadways and bicycle paths 

(a) Every person operating a bicycle upon a roadway shall 
ride as near to the right side of the roadway as practicable, exer- 
cising due care when passing a standing vehicle or one proceeding 
in the same direction. 

(b) Persons riding bicycles upon a roadway shall not ride more 
than two abreast except on paths or parts of roadways set aside 
for the exclusive use of bicycles. 

(c) Wherever a usable path for bicycles has been provided ad- 
jacent to a roadway, bicycle riders shall use such path and shall 
not use the roadway. 

§ 11-1206 — Carrying articles 

No person operating a bicycle shall carry any package, bundle 
or article which prevents the driver from keeping at least one 
hand upon the handlebars. 

§ 11-1207 — Lamps and other equipment on bicycles 

(a) Every bicycle when in use at nighttime shall be equipped 

169 



§ 11-1301 Uniform Vehicle Code 

with a lamp on the front which shall emit a white light visible 
from a distance of at least 500 feet to the front and with a red 
reflector on the rear of a type approved by the department which 
shall be visible from all distances from 100 feet to 600 feet to the 
rear when directly in front of lawful lower beams of head lamps 
on a motor vehicle. A lamp emitting a red light visible from a 
distance of 500 feet to the rear may be used in addition to the 
red reflector, (Revised, 1968.) 

(b) No person shall operate a bicycle unless it is equipped with 
a bell or other device capable of giving a signal audible for a dis- 
tance of at least 100 feet, except that a bicycle shall not be equip- 
ped with nor shall any person use upon a bicycle any siren or 
whistle. 

(c) Every bicycle shall be equipped with a brake which will 
enable the operator to make the braked wheels skid on dry, level, 
clean pavement. 

Article XIII— Special Rules for Motorcycles 
(New, 1968.) 

§ 11-1301 — Traffic laws apply to persons operating motorcycles 

Every person operating a motorcycle shall be granted all of the 
rights and shall be subject to all of the duties applicable to the 
driver of any other vehicle under this act, except as to special 
regulations in this article and except as to those provisions of 
this act which by their nature can have no application. 

§ 11-1302 — Riding on motorcycles 

(a) A person operating a motorcycle shall ride only upon the 
permanent and regular seat attached thereto, and such operator 
shall not carry any other person nor shall any other person ride 
on a motorcycle unless such motorcycle is designed to carry more 
than one person, in which event a passenger may ride upon the 
permanent and regular seat if designed for two persons, or upon 
another seat firmly attached to the motorcycle at the rear or 
side of the operator. (Formerly § 11-1103; revised, 1968.) 

(b) A person shall ride upon a motorcycle only while sitting 
astride the seat, facing forward, with one leg on each side of the 
the motorcycle. 

170 



EULES OF THE ROAD § 11-1306 

(c) No person shall operate a motorcycle while carrying any 
package, bundle, or other article which prevents him from keep- 
ing both hands on the handlebars. 

(d) No operator shall carry any person, nor shall any person 
ride, in a position that will interfere with the operation or con- 
trol of the motorcycle or the view of the operator. 

§ 11-1303 — Operating motorcycles on roadways laned for traffic 

(a) All motorcycles are entitled to full use of a lane and no 
motor vehicle shall be driven in such a manner as to deprive any 
motorcycle of the full use of a lane. This subsection shall not ap- 
ply to motorcycles operated two abreast in a single lane. 

(b) The operator of a motorcycle shall not overtake and pass 
in the same lane occupied by the vehicle being overtaken. 

(c) No person shall operate a motorcycle between lanes of 
traffic or between adjacent lines or rows of vehicles. 

(d) Motorcycles shall not be operated more than two abreast 
in a single lane. 

(e) Subsections (b) and (c) shall not apply to police officers in 
the performance of their official duties. 

§ 11-1304— Clinging toother vehicles 

No person riding upon a motorcycle shall attach himself or the 
motorcycle to any other vehicle (or streetcar) on a roadway. 

§ 11-1305 — Footrests and handlebars 

(a) Any motorcycle carrying a passenger, other than in a 
sidecar or enclosed cab, shall be equipped with footrests for 
such passenger. 

(b) No person shall operate any motorcycle with handlebars 
more than 15 inches in height above that portion of the seat oc- 
cupied by the operator. 

§ 11-1306 — Equipment for motorcycle riders 

(a) No person shall operate or ride upon a motorcycle unless 
he is wearing protective headgear which complies with standards 
established by the commissioner. 

(b) No person shall operate a motorcycle unless he is wearing 

171 



§ 11-1401 Uniform Vehicle Code 

an eye-protective device of a type approved by the commissioner, 
except when the motorcycle is equipped with a windscreen. 

(c) This section shall not apply to persons riding within an en- 
closed cab. 

(d) The commissioner is hereby authorized to approve or dis- 
approve protective headgear and eye-protective devices required 
herein, and to issue and enforce regulations establishing stan- 
dards and specifications for the approval thereof. The commis- 
sioner shall publish lists of all protective headgear and eye-pro- 
tective devices by name and type which have been approved by 
him. 

Article XIV — Streetcars 7 

(Repositioned, 1968; formerly article XIII.) 
§ 11-1401 — Traffic laws apply to operators of streetcars 

Every operator of a streetcar upon any roadway shall be 
granted al] of the rights and shall be subject to all of the duties 
applicable to the driver of a vehicle by this chapter and chapter 
10, except regulations and provisions which by their nature can 
have no application. (New, 1968.) 

§ 11-1402 — Passing streetcar on left 

(a) The driver of a vehicle shall not overtake and pass upon 
the left nor drive upon the left side of any streetcar proceeding in 
the same direction, whether such streetcar is actually in motion 
or temporarily at rest, except : 

1. When so directed by a police officer; 

2. When upon a one-way street ; or 

3. When upon a street where the tracks are so located as to 
prevent compliance with this section. 

(b) The driver of any vehicle when permitted to overtake and 
pass upon the left of a streetcar which has stopped for the pur- 
pose of receiving or discharging any passenger shall reduce speed 
and may proceed only upon exercising due caution for pedestrians 
and shall accord pedestrians the right of way when required by 
other sections of this chapter. 



7 This article should be omitted in states where no streetcars are in 
operation. 

172 



Rules of the Road § 11-1404 

§ 11-1403 — Passing streetcar on right 

The driver of a vehicle overtaking* upon the right any street- 
car stopped or about to stop for the purpose of receiving or dis- 
charging any passenger shall stop such vehicle at least five feet 
to the rear of the nearest running board or door of such streetcar 
and thereupon remain standing until all passengers have boarded 
such car or upon alighting have reached a place of safety, except 
that where a safety zone has been established, a vehicle need not 
be brought to a stop before passing any such streetcar but may 
proceed past such car at a speed not greater than is reasonable 
and proper and with due caution for the safety of pedestrians. 

§ 11-1404 — Driving on streetcar tracks 

(a) The driver of any vehicle proceeding upon any streetcar 
track in front of a streetcar upon a street shall remove such vehi- 
cle from the track as soon as practical after signal from the oper- 
ator of said streetcar. 

(b) When a streetcar has lawfully entered and is crossing an 
intersection, no driver of a vehicle shall drive upon or across the 
car tracks within the intersection in front of the streetcar when 
there is hazard of a collision. 

(c) The driver of a vehicle upon overtaking and passing a 
streetcar shall not turn in front of such streetcar so as to inter- 
fere with or impede its movement. 



173 



CHAPTER 12 
Equipment of Vehicles * 
Article I — Scope and Effect of Regulations 
§ 12-101 — Scope and effect of regulations 

(a) It is a misdemeanor for any person to drive or move or 
for the owner to cause or knowingly permit to be driven or 
moved on any highway any vehicle or combination of vehicles 
which is in such unsafe condition as to endanger any person, 
or which does not contain those parts or is not at all times 
equipped with such lamps and other equipment in proper con- 
dition and adjustment as required in this chapter, or which is 
equipped in any manner in violation of this chapter, or for any 
person to do any act forbidden or fail to perform any act re- 
quired under this chapter. 

(b) Nothing contained in this chapter shall be construed to 
prohibit the use of additional parts and accessories on any ve- 
hicle not inconsistent with the provisions of this chapter. 



1 A state enacting most of the provisions in this chapter or any other 
law dealing with equipment requirements or performance should ascertain 
whether a pertinent federal standard has been issued under the National 
Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act, 80 Stat. 718 (1966), 15 USCA §§ 
1381 et seq. (Supp. 1967). See the further discussions in footnotes at §'§ 
12-102, 12-304 and 12-412, infra. 

If a provision in this chapter or in the laws of any state should be in 
conflict or be inconsistent with any such federal standard, the National 
Committee recommends amending the Code and those laws as may be nec- 
essary to resolve the difference so as not to penalize the user of a vehicle 
manufactured and equipped in accordance with those standards. In the 
absence of any such direct conflict or inconsistency, however, the National 
Committee urges each state to revise its laws to achieve verbatim or sub- 
stantial conformity with this chapter. 

An alternative to amending laws to avoid such conflicts would be to 
give advance and automatic effect to a federal motor vehicle safety 
standard. This approach has been partially incorporated into the following 
California law: 

A federal motor vehicle safety standard which conflicts with an 
equipment provision of this code applicable to the same aspect 
of performance shall supersede that specific provision of this 
code with respect to vehicles in compliance with the federal mo- 
tor vehicle safety standard that was in effect at the time of sale. 
(Cal. Vehicle Code § 2402.5 (Supp. 1967), as amended by Gen. 
Laws 1968, ch. 812, CCH ASLR 939.) 
Current federal motor vehicle safety standards issued or in effect under 
the 1966 Act may be obtained from the National Highway Safety Bureau, 
Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C. 20591, or may be 
found in 49 Code of Federal Regulations Part 371, as added by 33 Federal 
Register 19700-25 (Dee. 25, 1968). 

174 



Equipment of Vehicles § 12-102 

(c) The provisions of this chapter with respect to equipment 
required on vehicles shall not apply to implements of husbandry, 
road machinery, road rollers or farm tractors except as herein 
made applicable. 2 (Revised, 1968.) 

(d) The provisions of this chapter with respect to equipment 
required on vehicles shall not apply to motorcycles or motor- 
driven cycles, except as herein made applicable. 3 (New, 1968.) 

§ 12-102 — Authority of commissioner 4 

(a) The commissioner is hereby required to approve or dis- 
approve any lighting device or other safety equipment, com- 

2 For equipment provisions applicable to these vehicles, see §§ 12-215, 
12-216 and 12-229. 

3 For equipment provisions applicable to motorcycles, see §§ 12-501 et 
seq. 

4 Since its inception in 1926, the Uniform Vehicle ^ Code has contem- 
plated that lighting devices and certain other essential items of equip- 
ment be approved prior to their sale and use to assure that such devices 
conform to minimum standards and will perform their intended function. 
This new section provides a procedure to simplify securing such approval. 

Prior editions of the Code have also indicated that motor vehicle light- 
ing- and equipment technology is a constantly changing area and that 
standards and specifications should be revised whenever necessary to re- 
flect improvements or new developments. Further, this necessary and de- 
sirable change makes such standards and specifications a more appropri- 
ate subject for regulatory treatment by the executive branch of state gov- 
ernment than by the legislatures because of the comparative inflexibility 
of laws. 

In large part because of the adoption by Congress in 1966 of the Na- 
tional Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act, the element of change in 
equipment standards has assumed a new, and as yet partially undefined, 
dimension. Clearly, insofar as they reflect the newest and best technical 
developments, federal standards promulgated under this Act should be 
considered in the administrative formulation of certain equipment regula- 
tions in each state But, in connection with the relationship of state regu- 
lations to equipment on most new vehicles and to equipment made to re- 
place that original equipment, it should be noted that the 1966 Federal Act 
provides: 

Whenever a federal motor vehicle safety standard established 
under this title is in effect, no state or political subdivision of a 
state shall have any authority either to establish, or to continue 
in effect, with respect to any motor vehicle or item of motor ve- 
hicle equipment, any safety standard applicable to the same as- 
pect of performance of such vehicle or item of equipment which 
is not identical to the federal standard. (15 USCA § 1392(d) 
(Supp. 1967).) 
The extent and nature of limitations placed on the power of a state to 
establish equipment requirements, standards or approval procedures for 
new equipment or equipment on new vehicles by the above provision is as 
yet largely undefined and the subject of current litigation. Whatever the 
ultimate resolution of the many legal issues may be, it is thus imperative 
that any federal standard be taken into account, when pertinent and ap- 
propriate, in the formulation of state equipment standards. See California 

175 



ponents or assemblies of a type for which approval is specifically 
required in this act within a reasonable time after such approval 
has been requested. Such approvals may be based upon certifi- 
cates of approval and test reports furnished to the commis- 
sioner by the American Association of Motor Vehicle Admin- 
istrators. 

(b) The commissioner is further authorized to establish the 
procedure to be followed when request for approval of any light- 
ing device or other safety equipment, component or assembly is 
submitted under this section. Such procedure may provide for 
submission of such device, component or assembly to the Amer- 
ican Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators in lieu of sub- 
mission of such device, component or assembly to the commis- 
sioner. 

(c) The commissioner shall maintain and publish lists of all 
such devices, components or assemblies which have been ap- 
proved by him or under authority contained in this act. (New 
SECTION, 1968.) 

Article II — Lamps and Other Lighting Equipment 
§ 12-201 — When lighted lamps are required 

Every vehicle upon a highway within this State at any time 
from a half hour after sunset to a half hour before sunrise and 
at any other time when, due to insufficient light or unfavorable 
atmospheric conditions, persons and vehicles on the highway are 
not clearly discernible at a distance of 1,000 feet ahead shall dis- 
play lighted lamps and illuminating devices as hereinafter re- 
spectively required for different classes of vehicles, subject to ex- 
ceptions with respect to parked vehicles, and further that stop 
lights, turn signals and other signaling devices shall be lighted 
as prescribed for the use of such devices. (Revised, 1968.) 



Vehicle Code § 2402.5, as amended by Gen. Laws 1968, ch. 812, CCH 
ASLR 939, and Va. Gen. Laws 1968, ch. 172, CCH ASLR 213, which pro- 
vide for the administrative adoption of federal motor vehicle safety 
standards. 

In addition to the adoption of standards for new vehicles and replace- 
ment equipment, it should be noted that the federal Act requires the es- 
tablishment of uniform federal motor vehicle safety standards applicable 
to all used motor vehicles. 15 USCA § 1397(b)(1) (Supp. 1967). When 
such standards are adopted, they should ako be considered. 

17'- 



Equipment op Vehicles § 12-204 

§ 12-202 — Visibility distance and mounted height of lamps 

(a) Whenever requirement is hereinafter declared as to dis- 
tance from which certain lamps and devices shall render objects 
visible or within which such lamps or devices shall be visible, 
said provisions shall apply during the times stated in § 12-201 
in respect to a vehicle without load when upon a straight, level, 
unlighted highway under normal atmospheric conditions unless 
a different time or condition is expressly stated. 

(b) Whenever requirement is hereinafter declared as to the 
mounted height of lamps or devices it shall mean from the cen- 
ter of such lamp or device to the level ground upon which the 
vehicle stands when such vehicle is without a load. 

§ 12-203 — Head lamps on motor vehicles 

(a) Every motor vehicle shall be equipped with at least two 
head lamps with at least one on each side of the front of the 
motor vehicle, which head lamps shall comply with the require- 
ments and limitations set forth in this chapter. 

(b) Every head lamp upon every motor vehicle shall be lo- 
cated at a height of not more than 54 inches nor less than 24 
inches to be measured as set forth in § 12-202 (b). 6 (Section 
revised, 1968.) 

§ 12-204— Tail lamps 

(a) After (date), every motor vehicle, trailer, semi- 
trailer and pole trailer, and any other vehicle which is being 
drawn at the end of a combination of vehicles, shall be equipped 
with at least two tail lamps mounted on the rear, which, when 
lighted as required in § 12-201, shall emit a red light plainly 
visible from a distance of 1,000 feet to the rear, except that pas- 
senger cars manufactured or assembled prior to (date) 

shall have at least one tail lamp. On a combination of vehicles, 
only the tail lamps on the rearmost vehicle need actually be seen 
from the distance specified. On vehicles equipped with more than 
one tail lamp, the lamps shall be mounted on the same level and 
as widely spaced laterally as practicable. (Revised, 1968.) 

5 Although added to the Code in 1948, it may be desirable to limit sub- 
section (b) to new motor vehicles first sold after the effective date of 
said paragraph. 

177 



§ 12-205 Uniform vehicle cj.ode 

(b) Every tail lamp upon every vehicle shall be located at a 
height of not more than 72 inches nor less than 20 inches. (Re- 
vised, 1952.) 

(c) Either a tail lamp or a separate lamp shall be so con- 
structed and placed as to illuminate with a white light the rear 
registration plate and render it clearly legible from a distance 
of 50 feet to the rear. Any tail lamp or tail lamps, together with 
any separate lamp or lamps for illuminating the rear registra- 
tion plate, shall be so wired as to be lighted whenever the head 
lamps or auxiliary driving lamps are lighted. 

§ 12-205— Reflectors 

(a) Every motor vehicle, trailer, semitrailer and pole trailer 
shall carry on the rear, either as a part of the tail lamps or 
separately, two or more red reflectors meeting the requirements 
of this section; provided, however, that vehicles of the types 
mentioned in § 12-208 shall be equipped with reflectors meeting 
the requirements of §§ 12-210 (a) and 12-211 (a) . 

(b) Every such reflector shall be mounted on the vehicle at 
a height not less than 20 inches nor more than 60 inches mea- 
sured as set forth in § 12-202 (b), and shall be of such size and 
characteristics and so mounted as to be visible at night from ail 
distances within 600 feet to 100 feet from such vehicle when 
directly in front of lawful lower beams of head lamps, except 
that reflectors on vehicles manufactured or assembled prior to 
January 1, 1970, shall be visible at night from all distances with- 
in 350 feet to 100 feet when directly in front of lawful upper 
beams of head lamps. (Section revised, 1968.) 

§ 12-206 — Stop lamps and turn signals 

(a) After (date), every motor vehicle, trailer, semi- 
trailer and pole trailer shall be equipped with two or more stop 
lamps meeting the requirements of § 12-219 (a) , except that pas- 
senger cars manufactured or assembled prior to (date) 

shall be equipped with at least one stop lamp. On a combination 
of vehicles, only the stop lamps on the rearmost vehicle need 
actually be seen from the distance specified in § 12-219 (a) . 

(b) After , (date), every motor vehicle, trailer, semi- 
trailer and pole trailer shall be equipped with electric turn signal 

178 



Equipment of Vehicles § 12-208 

lamps meeting the requirements of § 12-219 (b), except that 
passenger cars and trucks less than 80 inches in width, manu- 
factured or assembled prior to January 1, 1953, need not be 
equipped with electric turn signal lamps. (SECTION REVISED, 
1968.) 

§ 12-207 — Application of succeeding sections 

Those sections of this chapter which follow immediately, in- 
cluding §§ 12-208, 12-209, 12-210, 12-211 and 12-212, relating to 
clearance lamps, marker lamps and reflectors, shall apply as 
stated in said sections to vehicles of the type therein enumerated, 
namely buses, trucks, truck-tractors, and trailers, semitrailers 
and pole trailers, respectively, when operated upon any highway, 
and said vehicles shall be equipped as required and all lamp 
equipment required shall be lighted at the times mentioned in 
§12-201. (Revised, 1962.) 

§ 12-208 — Additional lighting equipment required on certain ve- 
hicles 

In addition to other equipment required in §§ 12-203, 12-204, 
12-205 and 12-206 of this chapter, the following vehicles shall be 
equipped as herein stated under the conditions stated in § 12- 
207, and in addition, the reflectors elsewhere enumerated for 
such vehicles shall conform to the requirements of § 12-211 (a). 

(a) Buses and trucks 80 inches or more in over-all width : 

1. On the front, two clearance lamps, one at each side, and on 

vehicles manufactured or assembled after (date) three 

identification lamps meeting the specifications of subdivision 

(f). 

2. On the rear, two clearance lamps, one at each side, and after 
(date) three identification lamps meeting the specifica- 
tions of subdivision (f ) . 

3. On each side, two side marker lamps, one at or near the 
front and one at or near the rear. 

4. On each side, two reflectors, one at or near the front and 
one at or near the rear. 

(b) Trailers and semitrailers 80 inches or more in over-all 
width : 

1. On the front, two clearance lamps, one at each side. 

179 



9 JLZ-ZUy UNIFORM VEHICLE CODE 

2. On the rear, two clearance lamps, one at each side, and after 
(date) three identification lamps meeting the specifica- 
tions of subdivision (f). 

3. On each side, two side marker lamps, one at or near the 
front and one at or near the rear. 

4. On each side, two reflectors, one at or near the front and 
< ne at or near the rear. 

(c) Truck-tractors: 

On the front, two cab clearance lamps, one at each side, and 

(,n vehicles manufactured or assembled after (date) 

three identification lamps meeting the specifications of subdivi- 
•ion (f). 

(cl) Trailers, semitrailers and pole trailers 30 feet or more in 
uver-all length: 

On each side, one amber side marker lamp and one amber re- 
flector, centrally located with respect to the length of the ve- 
hicle. 

(e) Pole trailers : 

1. On each side, one amber side marker lamp at or near the 
front of the load. 

2. One amber reflector at or near the front of the load. 

3. On the rearmost support for the load, one combination 
marker lamp showing amber to the front and red to the rear 
and side, mounted to indicate maximum width of the pole trailer. 

(f ) Whenever required or permitted by this chapter, identi- 
fication lamps shall be grouped in a horizontal row, with lamp 
centers spaced not less than six nor more than 12 inches apart, 
and mounted on the permanent structure of the vehicle as close 
as practicable to the vertical centerline; provided, however, that 
where the cab of a vehicle is not more than 42 inches wide at 
the front roof line, a single identification lamp at the center of 
the cab shall be deemed to comply with the requirements for front 
identification lamps. (Section revised, 1962.) 

§ 12-209 — Color of clearance lamps, identification lamps, side 
marker lamps, back-up lamps and reflectors 

(a) Front clearance lamps, identification lamps and those 
marker lamps and reflectors mounted on the front or on the side 
near the front of a vehicle shall display or reflect an amber color. 
(Revised, 1962.) 

180 



Equipment of Vehicles § 12-210 

(b) Rear clearance lamps, identification lamps and those 
marker lamps and reflectors mounted on the rear or on the sides 
near the rear of a vehicle shall display or reflect a red color. 
(Revised, 1962.) 

(c) All lighting devices and reflectors mounted on the rear of 
any vehicle shall display or reflect a red color, except the stop 
light or other signal device, which may be red, amber or yellow, 
and except that the light illuminating the license plate shall be 
white and the light emitted by a back-up lamp shall be white or 
amber. 

§ 12-210 — Mounting of reflectors, clearance lamps and side 
marker lamps 

(a) Reflectors when required by § 12-208 shall be mounted 
at a height not less than 24 inches and not more than 60 inches 
above the ground on which the vehicle stands, except that if the 
highest part of the permanent structure of the vehicle is less 
than 24 inches the reflector at such point shall be mounted as 
high as that part of the permanent structure will permit. 

The rear reflectors on a pole trailer may be mounted on each 
side of the bolster or load. 

Any required red reflector on the rear of a vehicle may be 
incorporated with the tail lamp, but such reflector shall meet all 
the other reflector requirements of this chapter. 

(b) Clearance lamps shall, so far as is practicable, be 
mounted on the permanent structure of the vehicle in such a 
manner as to indicate the extreme height and width of the ve- 
hicle. Provided, that when rear identification lamps are required 
and are mounted as high as is practicable, rear clearance lamps 
may be mounted at optional height and when the mounting of 
front clearance lamps results in such lamps failing to indicate 
the extreme width of the trailer, such lamps may be mounted at 
optional height but must indicate, as near as practicable, the 
extreme width of the trailer. Clearance lamps on truck-tractors 
shall be located so as to indicate the extreme width of the truck- 
tractor cab. Clearance lamps and side marker lamps may be 
mounted in combination provided illumination is given as re- 
quired herein with reference to both. (Section revised, 1968.) 



181 



§ lz^ll UNIFORM VEHICLE OODtt 

§ 12-211 — Visibility requirements for reflectors, clearance lamps, 
identification lamps and marker lamps 

(a) Every reflector upon any vehicle referred to in § 12-208 
shall be of such size and characteristics and so maintained as to 
be readily visible at nighttime from all distances within 600 feet 
to 100 feet from the vehicle when directly in front of lawful 
lower beams of head lamps except that the visibility for reflectors 
on vehicles manufactured or assembled prior to January 1, 1970, 
shall be measured in front of lawful upper beams of head lamps. 
Reflectors required to be mounted on the sides of the vehicle 
shall reflect the required color of light to the sides, and those 
mounted on the' rear shall reflect a red color to the rear. (Re- 
vised, 1968.) 

(b) Front and rear clearance lamps and identification lamps 
shall be capable of being seen and distinguished under normal 
atmospheric conditions at the times lights are inquired at all 
distances between 500 and 50 feet from the front and rear, re- 
spectively, of the vehicle. (Revised, 1962.) 

(c) Side marker lamps shall be capable of being seen and dis- 
tinguished under normal atmospheric conditions at the times 
lights are required at all distances between 500 and 50 feet from 
the side of the vehicle on which mounted. (Revised, 1962.) 

§ 12-212— Obstructed lights not required 

Whenever motor and other vehicles are operated in combina- 
tion during the time that lights are required, any lamp (except 
tail lamps) need not be lighted which, by reason of its location 
on a vehicle of the combination, would be obscured by another 
vehicle of the combination, but this shall not affect the require- 
ment that lighted clearance lamps be displayed on the front of 
the foremost vehicle required to have clearance lamps, nor that 
all lights required on the rear of the rearmost vehicle of any 
combination shall be lighted. 

§ 12-213 — Lamps or flags on projecting load 

Whenever the load upon any vehicle extends to the rear four 
feet or more beyond the bed or body of such vehicle there shall 
be displayed at the extreme rear end of the load, at the times 
specified in § 12-201, two red lamps visible from a distance of at 

182 



Equipment of Vehicles § 12-214 

least 500 feet to the rear, two red reflectors visible at night from 
all distances within GOO feet to 100 feet to the rear when di- 
rectly in front of lawful lower beams of head lamps and located 
so as to indicate maximum width, and on each side one red lamp 
visible from a distance of at least 500 feet to the side and lo- 
cated so as to indicate maximum overhang. There shall be dis- 
played at all other times on any vehicle having a load which 
extends beyond its sides or more than four feet beyond its rear, 
red flags, not less than 12 inches square, marking the extremities 
of such load, at each point where a lamp would otherwise be re- 
quired by this section. (Revised, 1968.) 

§ 12-214 — Lamps on parked vehicles 

(a) Every vehicle shall be equipped with one or more lamps 
which, when lighted, shall display a white or amber light visible 
from a distance of 1,000 feet to the front of the vehicle, and a 
red light visible from a distance of 1,000 feet to the rear of the 
vehicle. The location of said lamp or lamps shall always be such 
that at least one lamp or combination of lamps meeting the re- 
quirements of this section is installed as near as practicable to 
the side of the vehicle which is closest to passing traffic. (Re- 
vised, 1968.) 

(b) Whenever a vehicle is lawfully parked upon a street or 
highway during the hours between a half hour after sunset and 
a half hour before sunrise and in the event there is sufficient 
light to reveal persons and vehicles within a distance of 1,000 
feet upon such street or highway, no lights need be displayed 
upon such parked vehicle. (Revised, 1968.) 

(c) Whenever a vehicle is parked or stopped upon a roadway 
or shoulder adjacent thereto, whether attended or unattended, 
during the hours between a half hour after sunset and a half 
hour before sunrise and there is insufficient light to reveal any 
person or object within a distance of 1,000 feet upon such high- 
way, such vehicle so parked or stopped shall be equipped with 
and shall display lamps meeting the requirements of subsection 
(a). 

(d) Any lighted head lamps upon a parked vehicle shall be 
depressed or dimmed. (Section revised, 1962. ) 



183 



$ IZ-ZL5 UNIFORM VEHICLE CODE 

§ 12-215 — Lamps, reflectors and emblems on farm tractors, farm 
equipment and implements of husbandry 

(a) Every farm tractor and every self-propelled unit of farm 
equipment or implement of husbandry (manufactured or as- 
sembled after January 1, 1970,) (after (date)) shall 

be equipped with vehicular hazard warning lights of a type 
described in § 12-220, visible from a distance of not less than 
1,000 feet to the front and rear in normal sunlight, which shall 
be displayed whenever any such vehicle is operated upon a 
highway. 

(b) Every farm tractor and every self-propelled unit of farm 
equipment or implement of husbandry manufactured or assem- 
bled after (date) shall at all times, and every other 

such motor vehicle shall at all times mentioned in § 12-201, be 
equipped with lamps and reflectors as follows : 

1. At least two head lamps meeting the requirements of §§ 
12-222, 12-224 or 12-225. 

2. At least one red lamp visible when lighted from a distance 
of not less than 1,000 feet to the rear mounted as far to the lefl 
of the center of the vehicle as practicable. 

3. At least two red reflectors visible from all distances within 
600 feet to 100 feet to the rear when directly in front of lawful 
lower beams of head lamps. 

(c) Every combination of farm tractor and towed farm equip 
ment or towed implement of husbandry shall at all times men 
tioned in § 12-201 be equipped with lamps and reflectors as fol 
lows : 

1. The farm tractor shall be equipped as required in subsec 
tions (a) and (b). 

2. If the towed unit or its load extends more than fou] 
feet to the rear of the tractor or obscures any light there 
on, said unit shall be equipped on the rear with at least tw< 
red reflectors visible from all distances within 600 feet to 10( 
feet to the rear when directly in front of lawful lower beams o 
head lamps. 

3. If the towed unit of such combination extends more thai 
four feet to the left of the center line of the tractor, said unit 
shall be equipped on the front with an amber reflector visibl* 
from all distances within 600 feet to 100 feet to the front wh^ 

184 



Equipment of Vehicles § 12-216 

directly in front of lawful lower beams of head lamps. This re- 
flector shall be so positioned to indicate, as nearly as practicable, 
the extreme left projection of the towed unit. 

(d) The two red reflectors required in the foregoing subsec- 
tions shall be so positioned as to show from the rear, as nearly 
as practicable, the extreme width of the vehicle or combination 
carrying them. Provided that all other requirements are met, 
reflective tape or paint may be used in lieu of the reflectors re- 

uired by subsection (c). 

(e) After (date), every farm tractor and every 

*j If -propelled unit of farm equipment or implement of husbandry 

designed for operation at speeds not in excess of 25 miles per 
hour shall at all times be equipped with a slow moving vehicle 
emblem mounted on the rear except as provided in subsection 

(f). 

(f) After (date), every combination of farm trac- 
tor and towed farm equipment or towed implement of husbandry 
normally operating at speeds not in excess of 25 miles per hour 
shall at all times be equipped with a slow moving vehicle emblem 
as follows : 

1. Where the towed unit or any load thereon obscures the 
slow moving vehicle emblem on the farm tractor, the towed unit 
shall be equipped with a slow moving vehicle emblem. In such 
cases, the towing vehicle need not display the emblem. 

2. Where the slow moving vehicle emblem on the farm tractor 
unit is not obscured by the towed unit or its load, then either or 
both may be equipped with the required emblem but it shall be 
sufficient if either has it. 

(g) The emblem required by subsections (e) and (f) shall 
comply with current standards and specifications (of the Amer- 
ican Society of Agricultural Engineers) (approved by the com- 
missioner). (Section revised, 1968.) 

§ 12-216 — Lamps on other vehicles and equipment 

Every vehicle, including animal-drawn vehicles and vehicles 
referred to in § 12-101 (c), not specifically required by the pro- 
visions of this article to be equipped with lamps or other lighting 
devices, shall at all times specified in § 12-201 of this act be 
equipped with at least one lamp displaying a white light visible 
from a distance of not less than 1,000 feet to the front of said 

185 



§ 12-217 Uniform Vehicle code 

vehicle, and shall also be equipped with two lamps displaying 
red light visible from a distance of not less than 1,000 feet to 
the rear of said vehicle, or as an alternative, one lamp display- 
ing a red light visible from a distance of not less than 1,000 feet 
to the rear and two red reflectors visible from all distances of 
600 to 100 feet to the rear when illuminated by the lawful lower 
beams of head lamps. (Revised, 1968.) 

§ 12-217 — Spot lamps and auxiliary lamps 

(a) Spot lamps. — Any motor vehicle may be equipped with 
not to exceed two spot lamps and every lighted spot lamp shall 
be so aimed and used that no part of the high intensity portion 
of the beam will strike the windshield, or any windows, mirror, 
or occupant of another vehicle in use. (Revised, 1962.) 

(b) Fog lamps. — Any motor vehicle may be equipped with not 
to exceed two fog lamps mounted on the front at a height not 
less than 12 inches nor more than 30 inches above the level sur- 
face upon which the vehicle stands and so aimed that when the 
vehicle is not loaded none of the high intensity portion of the 
light to the left of the center of the vehicle shall at a distance 
of 25 feet ahead project higher than a level of four inches below 
the level of the center of the lamp from which it comes. Lighted 
fog lamps meeting the above requirements may be used with 
lower head lamp beams as specified in § 12-222 (a) 2. (Revised, 
1968.) 

(c) Auxiliary passing lamps. — Any motor vehicle may be 
equipped with not to exceed two auxiliary passing lamps mounted 
on the front at a height not less than 24 inches nor more than 
42 inches above the level surface upon which the vehicle stands. 
The provisions of § 12-222 shall apply to any combination of head 
lamps and auxiliary passing lamps. (Revised, 1968.) 

(d) Auxiliary driving lamps. — Any motor vehicle may be 
equipped with not to exceed two auxiliary driving lamps mounted 
on the front at a height not less than 16 inches nor more than 
42 inches above the level surface upon which the vehicle stands. 
The provisions of § 12-222 shall apply to any combination of 
head lamps and auxiliary driving lamps. (Revised, 1968.) 

§ 12-218 — Audible and visual signals on vehicles 

(a) Every authorized emergency vehicle shall, in addition to 

186 



Equipment of Vehicles § 12-219 

any other equipment and distinctive markings required by this 
act, be equipped with a siren, exhaust whistle or bell capable of 
giving an audible signal. 

(b) Every school bus and every authorized emergency vehicle 
shall, in addition to any other equipment and distinctive mark- 
ings required by this act, be equipped with signal lamps 
mounted as high and as widely spaced laterally as practicable, 
which shall be capable of displaying to the front two alternately 
flashing red lights located at the same level and to the rear two 
alternately flashing red lights located at the same level, and 
these lights shall have sufficient intensity to be visible at 500 
feet in normal sunlight. (Revised, 1962.) 

(c) A police vehicle when used as an authorized emergency 
vehicle may but need not be equipped with alternately flashing 
reel lights specified herein. 

(d) The alternately flashing lighting described in subsections 
(b) and (c) of this section shall not be used on any vehicle other 
than a school bus or an authorized emergency vehicle. (New, 
1982; subsection (e) deleted, 1968.) 

§ 12-219 — Signal lamps and signal devices 

(a) Any vehicle may be equipped and when required under 
this act shall be equipped with a stop lamp or lamps on the rear 
of the vehicle which shall display a red or amber light, or any 
shade of color between red and amber, visible from a distance 
of not less than 300 feet to the rear in normal sunlight, and which 
shall be actuated upon application of the service (foot) brake, 
and which may but need not be incorporated with one or more 
other rear lamps. 

(b) Any vehicle may be equipped and when required under § 
12-206 (b) shall be equipped with electric turn signals which 
shall indicate an intention to turn by flashing lights showing to 
the front and rear of a vehicle or on a combination of vehicles 
on the side of the vehicle or combination toward which the turn 
is to be made. The lamps showing to the front shall be mounted 
on the same level and as widely spaced laterally as practicable 
and, when signaling, shall emit white or amber light, or any 
shade of light between white and amber. The lamps showing to 
the rear shall be mounted on the same level and as widely spaced 
laterally as practicable, and, when signaling, shall emit a red 

187 



S iz-ZZV UNIFORM VEHICLE CODE 

or amber light, or any shade of color between red and amber. 
Turn signal lamps on vehicles 80 inches or more in over-all width 
shall be visible from a distance of not less than 500 feet to the 
front and rear in normal sunlight. Turn signal lamps on vehicles 
less than 80 inches wide shall be visible at a distance of not less 
than 300 feet to the front and rear in normal sunlight. Turn 
signal lamps may, but need not be, incorporated in other lamps 
on the vehicle. (Section revised, 1962 ; subsection (b) revised, 
1968.) 

} 12-220 — Vehicular hazard warning signals 

(a) Any vehicle may be equipped with lamps for the pur- 
pose of warning the operators of other vehicles of the presence 
of a vehicular traffic hazard requiring the exercise of unusual 
care in approaching, overtaking or passing. (Revised and RE- 
POSITIONED, 1968.) 

(b) After (date), every bus, truck, truck-tractor, 

trailer, semitrailer or pole trailer 80 inches or more in over-all 
width or 30 feet or more in over-all length shall be equipped 
with lamps meeting the requirements of this section. (New, 
1968.) 

(c) Vehicular hazard warning signal lamps used to display 
such warning to the front shall be mounted at the same level 
and as widely spaced laterally as practicable, and shall display 
simultaneously flashing white or amber lights, or any shade of 
color between white and amber. The lamps used to display such 
warning to the rear shall be mounted at the same level and as 
widely spaced laterally as practicable, and shall show simul- 
taneously flashing amber or red lights, or any shade of color 
between amber and red. These warning lights shall be visible 
from a distance of not less than 500 feet in normal sunlight. 
(REVISED AND REPOSITIONED, 1968.) 

§ 12-221 — Additional lighting equipment 

(a) Any motor vehicle may be equipped with not more than 
two side cowl or fender lamps which shall emit an amber or 
white light without glare. 

(b) Any motor vehicle may be equipped with not more than 
one running-board courtesy lamp on each side thereof which 
shall emit a white or amber light without glare. 

188 



Equipment of Vehicles § 12-222 

(c) Any motor vehicle may be equipped with one or more 
back-up lamps either separately or in combination with other 
lamps, but any such back-up lamp or lamps shall not be lighted 
when the motor vehicle is in forward motion. 

(d) Any vehicle 80 inches or more in over-all width, if not 
otherwise required by § 12-208, may be equipped with not more 
than three identification lamps showing to the front which shall 
emit an amber light without glare and not more than three iden- 
tification lamps showing to the rear which shall emit a red 
light without glare. Such lamps shall be mounted as specified 
in subdivision (f) of § 12-208. (Section revised, 1962; reposi- 
tioned, 1968.) 

§ 12-222 — Multiple-beam road-lighting equipment 

(a) Except as hereinafter provided, the head lamps or the 
auxiliary driving lamp or the auxiliary passing lamp or com- 
bination thereof on motor vehicles shall be so arranged that the 
driver may select at will between distributions of light projected 
to different elevations and such lamps may, in addition, be so 
arranged that such selection can be made automatically, sub- 
ject to the following limitations : 

1. There shall be an uppermost distribution of light, or com- 
posite beam, so aimed and of such intensity as to reveal per- 
sons and vehicles at a distance of at least 450 feet ahead for all 
conditions of loading. 

2. There shall be a lowermost distribution of light, or com- 
posite beam, so aimed and of sufficient intensity to reveal per- 
sons and vehicles at a distance of at least 150 feet ahead; and 
on a straight level road under any condition of loading none of 
the high intensity portion of the beam shall be directed to strike 
the eyes of an approaching driver. 

(b) Every new motor vehicle registered in this State after 
"... (date), which has multiple-beam road-lighting equip- 
ment shall be equipped with a beam indicator, which shall be 
lighted whenever the uppermost distribution of light from the 
head lamps is in use, and shall not otherwise be lighted. Said 
indicator shall be so designed and located that when lighted it 
will be readily visible without glare to the driver of the vehicle so 
equipped. (Section revised and renumbered, 1968.) 

189 



§ 12-223 UNIFORM VEHICLE UODE 

§ 12-223 — Use of multiple-beam road-lighting equipment 

Whenever a motor vehicle is being operated on a roadway or 
shoulder adjacent thereto during the times specified in § 12-201, 
the driver shall use a distribution of light, or composite beam, 
directed high enough and of sufficient intensity to reveal per- 
sons and vehicles at a safe distance in advance of the vehicle, 
subject to the following requirements and limitations: 

1. Whenever the driver of a vehicle approaches an oncoming 
vehicle within 500 feet, such driver shall use a distribution 
of light, or composite beam, so aimed that the glaring rays are 
not projected into the eyes of the oncoming driver. The lower- 
most distribution of light, or composite beam, specified in §§ 
12-222 (a) 2 or 12-506 (b) 2 shall be deemed to avoid glare at all 
times, regardless of road contour and loading. 

2. Whenever the driver of a vehicle approaches another ve- 
hicle from the rear, within 300 feet, such driver shall use a dis- 
tribution of light permissible under this chapter other than the 
uppermost distribution of light specified in §§ 12-222 (a) 1 and 
12-506 (b) 1. (Section revised and renumbered, 1968.) 

§ 12-224 — Single-beam road-lighting equipment 

Head lamp systems which provide only a single distribution 
of light shall be permitted on all farm tractors regardless of 
date of manufacture, and on other motor vehicles manufactured 
and sold prior to one year after the effective date of this act in 
lieu of multiple-beam road-lighting equipment herein specified 
if the single distribution of light complies with the following 
requirements and limitations: (Revised, 1968.) 

1. The head lamps shall be so aimed that when the vehicle is 
not loaded none of the high intensity portion of the light shall 
at a distance of 25 feet ahead project higher than a level of five 
inches below the level of the center of the lamp from which it 
comes, and in no case higher than 42 inches above the level on 
which the vehicle stands at a distance of 75 feet ahead. 

2. The intensity shall be sufficient to reveal persons and vehi- 
cles at a distance of at least 200 feet. (Section renumbered, 
19680 



190 



Equipment of Vehicles § 12-227 

§ 12-225 — Alternate road-iighting equipment 

Any motor vehicle may be operated under the conditions spe- 
cified in § 12-201 when equipped with two lighted lamps upon 
the front thereof capable of revealing persons and vehicles 100 
feet ahead in lieu of lamps required in § 12-222 or § 12-224, pro- 
vided, however, that at no time shall it be operated at a speed 
in excess of 20 miles per hour. (Revised, 1968.) 

§ 12-226 — Number of driving lamps required or permitted 

(a) At all times specified in § 12-201, at least two lighted 
lamps shall be displayed, one on each side at the front of every 
motor vehicle, except when such vehicle is parked subject to the 
regulations governing lights on parked vehicles. (Revised, 
1968.) 

(b) Whenever a motor vehicle equipped with head lamps as 
herein required is also equipped with any auxiliary lamps or a 
spot lamp or any other lamp on the front thereof projecting a 
beam of intensity greater than 300 candlepower, not more than 
a total of four of any such lamps on the front of a vehicle shall 
be lighted at any one time when upon a highway. 

§ 12-227 — Special restrictions on lamps 

(a) During the times specified in § 12-201, any lighted lamp 
or illuminating device upon a motor vehicle, other than head 
lamps, spot lamps, auxiliary lamps, flashing turn signals, vehic- 
ular hazard warning lamps and school bus warning lamps, 
which projects a beam of light of an intensity greater than 300 
candlepower shall be so directed that no part of the high inten- 
sity portion of the beam will strike the level of the roadway 
on which the vehicle stands at a distance of more than 75 feet 
from the vehicle. (Revised, 1968.) 

(b) Except as required in § 12-218, no person shall drive or 
move any vehicle or equipment upon any highway with any lamp 
or device thereon displaying a red light visible from directly in 
front of the center thereof. 

(c) Flashing lights are prohibited except as authorized or 
required in §§ 12-215, 12-218, 12-219, 12-220 and 12-229. (Re- 
vised, 1968.) 

191 



§ 12-228 — Special lighting equipment on school buses 

The (commissioner of motor vehicles) is authorized to adopt 
standards and specifications applicable to lighting equipment on 
and special warning devices to be carried by school buses con- 
sistent with the provisions of this chapter, but supplemental 
thereto. Such standards and specifications shall correlate with 
and, so far as possible, conform to the specifications then cur- 
rent as approved by the Society of Automotive Engineers. 6 (Sub- 
section (b) DELETED, 1968.) 

§ 12-229— Standards for lights on snow-removal and other high- 
way maintenance and service equipment 

(a) The (State highway commission) shall adopt standard; 
and specifications applicable to head lamps, clearance lamps 
identification and other lamps on snow-removal and other high 
way maintenance and service equipment when operated on th< 
highways of this State in lieu of the lamps otherwise required 
on motor vehicles by this chapter. Such standards and specifica 
tions may permit the use of flashing lights for purposes of iden 
tification on snow-removal and other highway maintenance ant 
service equipment when in service upon the highways. The starj 
dards and specifications for lamps referred to in this sectioi 
shall correlate with and, so far as possible, conform with thos 
approved by the American Association of State Highway Offi 
cials. 

(b) It shall be unlawful to operate any snow-removal an* 
other highway maintenance and service equipment on any high 
way unless the lamps thereon comply with and are lighted whej 
and as required by the standards and specifications adopted a 
provided in this section. (Section revised, 1962.) 

§ 12-230 — Selling or using lamps or equipment 

(a) On and after (date) no person shall have for 

sale, sell or offer for sale for use upon or as a part of the equip 
ment of a motor vehicle, trailer, semitrailer, or pole trailer or use 



6 In addition to SAE standards, the portion of Federal Motor Vehicl< 
Safety Standard No. 108, 49 Code of Federal Regulations Part 371, a* 
added by 33 Federal Register 19708 (Dec. 25, 1968), dealing with signs 
lamps on school buses, should be consulted in the formulation of suitabi 
standards and specifications. 

192 



Equipment of Vehicles § 12-231 

upon any such vehicle any head lamp, auxiliary, or fog lamp, rear 
lamp, signal lamp or reflector, which reflector is required here- 
under, or parts of any of the foregoing which tend to change the 
original design or performance, unless of a type which has been 
submitted to the commissioner and approved by him. The fore- 
going provisions of this section shall not apply to equipment in 
actual use when this section is adopted or replacement parts 
therefor. (Revised, 1952.) 

(b) No person shall have for sale, sell or offer for sale for use 
upon or as a part of the equipment of a motor vehicle, trailer, 
semitrailer or pole trailer any lamp or device mentioned in this 
section which has been approved by the commissioner unless such 
lamp or device bears thereon the trade-mark or name under 
which it is approved so as to be legible when installed. 

(c) No person shall use upon any motor vehicle, trailer, semi- 
trailer or pole trailer any lamps mentioned in this section unless 
said lamps are mounted, adjusted and aimed in accordance with 
instructions of the commissioner. (Section revised, 1968.) 

§ 12-231— Revocation of certificate of approval on lighting de- 
vices 

When the commissioner has reason to believe that an approved 
device as being sold commercially does not comply with the re- 
quirements of this chapter, he may, after giving 30 days' pre- 
vious notice to the person holding the certificate of approval 
for such device in this State, conduct a hearing upon the ques- 
tion of compliance of said approved device. After said hearing 
the commissioner shall determine whether said approved device 
meets the requirements of this chapter. If said device does not 
meet the requirements of this chapter he shall give notice to the 
person holding the certificate of approval for such device in this 
State. 

If at the expiration of 90 days after such notice the person 
holding the certificate of approval for such device has failed to 
satisfy the commissioner that said approved device as thereafter 
to be sold meets the requirements of this chapter, the commis- 
sioner shall suspend or revoke the approval issued therefor until 
or unless such device is resubmitted to and retested by an autho- 
rized testing agency and is found to meet the requirements of 
this chapter, and may require that all said devices sold since the 

UVC— 7 193 



§ 12-301 Uniform vehicle <jode 

notification following the hearing be replaced with devices that 
do comply with the requirements of this chapter. The commis- 
sioner may at the time of the retest purchase in the open market 
and submit to the testing agency one or more sets of such ap- 
proved devices, and if such device upon such retest fails to meet 
the requirements of this chapter, the commissioner may refuse 
to renew the certificate of approval of such device. (Section re- 
numbered, 1968.) 

Article III — Brakes 

§ 12-301 — Brake equipment required 

Every motor vehicle, trailer, semitrailer and pole trailer, and 
any combination of such vehicles operating upon a highway 
within this State shall be equipped with brakes in compliance 
with the requirements of this chapter. 

(a) Service brakes — adequacy. — Every such vehicle and com- 
bination of vehicles, except special mobile equipment as defined 
in § 1-166, shall be equipped with service brakes complying with 
the performance requirements of § 12-302 and adequate to con- 
trol the movement of and to stop and hold such vehicle under all 
conditions of loading, and on any grade incident to its oper- 
ation. 

(b) Parking brakes—adequacy. — Every such vehicle and com- 
bination of vehicles shall be equipped with parking brakes ade- 
quate to hold the vehicle on any grade on which it is operated, 
under all conditions of loading, on a surface free from snow, 
ice or loose material. The parking brakes shall be capable of 
being applied in conformance with the foregoing requirements 
by the driver's muscular effort or by spring action or by equiv- 
alent means. Their operation may be assisted by the service 
brakes or other source of power provided that failure of the ser- 
vice brake actuation system or other power assisting mecha- 
nism will not prevent the parking brakes from being applied in 
conformance with the foregoing requirements. The parking- 
brakes shall be so designed that when once applied they shall re- 
main applied with the required effectiveness despite exhaustion 
of any source of energy or leakage of any kind. The same brake 
drums, brake shoes and lining assemblies, brake shoe anchors 
and mechanical brake shoe actuation mechanism normally asso- 
ciated with the wheel brake assemblies may be used for both the 

194 



Equipment of Vehicles § 12-301 

service brakes and the parking brakes. If the means of applying 
the parking brakes and the service brakes are connected in any 
way, they shall be so constructed that failure of any one part 
shall not leave the vehicle without operative brakes. (REVISED, 
1968.) 

(c) Brakes on all wheels. — Every vehicle shall be equipped 
with brakes acting on all wheels except : 

1* Trailers, semitrailers or pole trailers of a gross weight not 
exceeding 3,000 pounds, provided that : 

a. The total weight on and including the wheels of the 
trailer or trailers shall not exceed 40 percent of the gross 
weight of the towing vehicle when connected to the trailer or 
trailers, and 

b. The combination of vehicles, consisting of the towing ve- 
hicle and its total towed load, is capable of complying with 
the performance requirements of § 12-302. 

2. Any vehicle being towed in driveaway or towaway opera- 
tions, provided the combination of vehicles is capable of com- 
plying with the performance requirements of § 12-302. 

3. Trucks and truck-tractors having three or more axles need 
not have brakes on the front wheels, except that when such 
vehicles are equipped with at least two steerable axles, the 
wheels of one steerable axle need not have brakes. However, 
such trucks and truck-tractors must be capable of complying 
with the performance requirements of § 12-302. 

4. Special mobile equipment as defined in § 1-166. (SUBPARA- 
GRAPH 5 REPOSITIONED, 1968.) 

(d) Automatic trailer brake application upon breakaway. — 
Every trailer, semitrailer and pole trailer equipped with air or 
vacuum actuated brakes and every trailer, semitrailer and pole 
trailer with a gross weight in excess of 3,000 pounds, manufac- 
tured or assembled after (date), shall be equipped 

with brakes acting on all wheels and of such character as to be 
applied automatically and promptly, and remain applied for at 
least 15 minutes, upon breakaway from the towing vehicle. 

(e) Tractor brakes protected. — Every motor vehicle manufac- 
tured or assembled after (date) and used to tow a 

trailer, semitrailer or pole trailer equipped with brakes, shall be 
equipped with means for providing that in case of breakaway 

195 



JiJW KJKfLJja 



of the towed vehicle, the towing vehicle will be capable of being 
stopped by the use of its service brakes. 

(f ) Trailer air reservoirs safeguarded.- — Air brake systems 

installed on trailers manufactured or assembled after 

(date) shall be so designed that the supply reservoir used to 
provide air for the brakes shall be safeguarded against backflow 
of air from the reservoir through the supply line. 

(g) Two means of emergency brake operation.— 

1. Air brakes. After (date), every towing vehicle, 

when used to tow another vehicle equipped with air controlled 
brakes, in other than driveaway or towaway operations, shall be 
equipped with two means for emergency application of the 
trailer brakes. One of these means shall apply the brakes auto- 
matically in the event of a reduction of the towing vehicle air 
supply to a fixed pressure which shall be not lower than 20 
pounds per square inch nor higher than 45 pounds per square 
inch. The other means shall be a manually controlled device for 
applying and releasing the brakes, readily operable by a person 
seated in the driving seat, and its emergency position or method 
of operation shall be clearly indicated. In no instance may the 
manual means be so arranged as to permit its use to prevent op- 
eration of the automatic means. The automatic and the manual 
means required by this section may be, but are not required to 
be, separate. 

2. Vacuum brakes. After (date), every towing ve- 
hicle used to tow other vehicles equipped with vacuum brakes, 
in operations other than driveaway or towaway operations, 
shall have, in addition to the single control device required by 
subsection (h), a second control device which can be used to 
operate the brakes on towed vehicles in emergencies. The second 
control shall be independent of brake air, hydraulic, and other 
pressure, and independent of other controls, unless the braking 
system be so arranged that failure of the pressure upon which 
the second control depends will cause the towed vehicle brakes 
to be applied automatically. The second control is not required 
to provide modulated braking. 

(h) Single control to overate all brakes. — After 

(date), every motor vehicle, trailer, semitrailer and pole trailer, 
and every combination of such vehicles, equipped with brakes 
shall have the braking system so arranged that one control device 

196 



Equipment of Vehicles § 12-301 

can be used to operate all service brakes. This requirement does 
not prohibit vehicles from being equipped with an additional 
control device to be used to operate brakes on the towed vehi- 
cles. This regulation does not apply to driveaway or towaway 
operations unless the brakes on the individual vehicles are de- 
signed to be operated by a single control on the towing vehicle. 
(Revised, 1968.) 
(i) Reservoir capacity and check valve. — 

1. Air brakes. Every bus, truck or truck-tractor with air op- 
erated brakes shall be equipped with at least one reservoir suf- 
ficient to insure that, when fully charged to the maximum pres- 
sure as regulated by the air compressor governor cut-out setting, 
a full service brake application may be made without lowering 
such reservoir pressure by more than 20 percent. Each reservoir 
shall be provided with means for readily draining accumulated 
oil or water. 

2. Vacuum brakes. After (date), every truck with 

three or more axles equipped with vacuum assistor type brakes 
and every truck-tractor and truck used for towing a vehicle 
equipped with vacuum brakes shall be equipped with a reserve 
capacity or a vacuum reservoir sufficient to insure that, with 
the reserve capacity or reservoir fully charged and with the 
engine stopped, a full service brake application may be made 
without depleting the vacuum supply by more than 40 percent. 

3. Reservoir safeguarded. All motor vehicles, trailers, semi- 
trailers and pole trailers, when equipped with air or vacuum 
reservoirs or reserve capacity as required by this section, shall 
have such reservoirs or reserve capacity so safeguarded by a 
check valve or equivalent device that in the event of failure or 
leakage in its connection to the source of compressed air or 
vacuum, the stored air or vacuum shall not be depleted by the 
leak or failure. 

(j) Warning devices. — 

1. Air brakes. Every bus, truck or truck-tractor using com- 
pressed air for the operation of its own brakes or the brakes on 
any towed vehicle shall be provided with a warning signal, other 
than a pressure gauge, readily audible or visible to the driver, 
which will operate at any time the air reservoir pressure of the 
vehicle is below 50 percent of the air compressor governor cut- 
out pressure. In addition, each such vehicle shall be equipped 

197 



§ 12-302 Uniform Vehicle Code 

with a pressure gauge visible to the driver, which indicates in 
pounds per square inch the pressure available for braking. 

2. Vacuum brakes, After (date), every truck-trac- 
tor and truck used for towing a vehicle equipped with vacuum 
operated brakes and every truck with three or more axles using 
vacuum in the operation of its brakes, except those in driveaway 
or towaway operations, shall be equipped with a warning signal, 
other than a gauge indicating vacuum, readily audible or visible 
to the driver, which will operate at any time the vacuum in the 
vehicle's supply reservoir or reserve capacity is less than eight 
inches of mercury. 

3. Combination of warning devices. When a vehicle required 
to be equipped with a warning device is equipped with both air 
and vacuum power for the operation of its own brakes or the 
brakes on a towed vehicle, the warning devices may be, but are 
not required to be, combined into a single device which will serve 
both purposes. A gauge or gauges indicating pressure or vacuum 
shall not be deemed to be an adequate means of satisfying this 
requirement. (Section revised and amplified, 1962.) 

§ 12-302 — Performance ability of brakes 

(a) Every motor vehicle and combination of vehicles, at all 
times and under all conditions of loading, upon application of the 
service brake, shall be capable of : 

1. Developing a braking force that is not less than the per- 
centage of its gross weight tabulated herein for its classification ; 

2. Decelerating to a stop from not more than 20 miles per 
hour at not less than the feet per second per second tabulated 
herein for its classification ; and 

3* Stopping from a speed of 20 miles per hour in not more 
than the distance tabulated herein for its classification, such dis- 
tance to be measured from the point at which movement of the 
service brake pedal or control begins, 

(b) Tests for deceleration and stopping distance shall be made 
on a substantially level (not to exceed plus or minus one per- 
cent grade), dry, smooth, hard surface that is free from loose 
material. (Section revised, table revised and amplified, 1962 ; 
table revised, 1968.) 7 



7 (a) There is a definite mathematical relationship between the figures 
in columns 2 and 3. If the decelerations set forth in column 3 are divided 

198 



Equipment of Vehicles 



12-302 



Classification of Vehicles 



Braking 

force as a 

percentage 

of gross 

vehicle or 

combination 

weight 



Deceleration 

in feet 
per second 
per second 



Brake system 

application 

and braking 

distance 

in feet 

from an 

initial 

speed of 

20 m.p.h. 



A Passenger vehicles with a 
seating capacity of 10 
people or less including 
driver, not having a 
manufacturer's gross 
vehicle weight rating .... 52.8% 

B Single unit vehicles with 
a manufacturer's _ gross 
vehicle weight rating of 
10,000 pounds or less .... 43.5% 

C-l Single unit vehicles with 
a manufacturer's gross 
weight rating of more 
than 10,000 pounds 43.5% 

C-2 Combination of a two-axle 
towing vehicle and a 
trailer with a gross 
trailer weight of 3,000 
pounds or less 43.5% 

C-3 Buses, regardless of the 
number of axles, not 
having a manufactur- 
er's gross weight rat- 
ing ;.. ,,,...,.... 43.5% 

C-4 All combinations of vehicles 
in driveaway-towaway 
operations 43.5% 

D All other vehicles and com- 
binations of vehicles .... 43.5% 



17 

14 
14 

14 

14 

14 
14 



25 

30 
40 

40 

40 

40 
50 



by 32.2 feet per second per second, the column 2 figures will be obtained. 
(For example, 17 divided by 32.2 gives 52.8%). Column 2 is included in 
the tabulation because certain brake testing devices utilize this factor. 

(b) The decelerations as in column 3 are an indication of the effective- 
ness of the basic brakes, and as measured in practical brake testing are 
the maximum braking decelerations attained at some time during the stop. 

This deceleration as measured in brake tests cannot be used to compute 
the values in column 4 because it is not sustained at the same rate over 
the entire period of the stop. The deceleration increases from zero to a 
maximum during a period of brake system application and brake force 
build-up. Also, other factors may cause the deceleration to decrease after 
reaching a maximum. The added distance which results because a maxi- 
mum deceleration is not sustained is included in the figures in column 4 
but is not indicated by the usual brake testing devices for checking de- 
celeration. 

(c) The distances in column 4 and the decelerations in column 3 are 
not directly related. "Brake system application and braking distance in 
feet" (column 4) is a definite measure of the over-all effectiveness of the 

199 



a x^-ov/o UXNWUJKJYL V-UJtilCLE U0DE 

§ 12-303 — Maintenance of brakes 

All brakes shall be maintained in good working- order and 
shall be so adjusted as to operate as equally as practicable with 
respect to the wheels on opposite sides of the vehicle. 

§ 12-304— Hydraulic brake fluid 

(a) The term "hydraulic brake fluid" as used in this section 
shall mean the liquid medium through which force is trans- 
mitted to the brakes in the hydraulic brake system of a vehicle. 

(b) Hydraulic brake fluid shall be distributed and serviced 
with due regard for the safety of the occupants of the vehicle and 
the public. 

(c) The (department or official) shall, after public hearing- 
following due notice, adopt and enforce regulations for the ad- 
ministration of this section and shall adopt and publish stan- 
dards and specifications for hydraulic brake fluid which shall 
correlate with, and so far as practicable conform to, the then 
current standards and specifications of the Society of Automo- 
tive Engineers applicable to such fluid. 

(d) No person shall distribute, have for sale, offer for sale, 
or sell any hydraulic brake fluid unless it complies with the re- 
quirements of this section. No person shall service any vehicle 
with brake fluid unless it complies with the requirements of this 
section. 8 (Revised, 1962; section renumbered, 1968.) 



braking system, being the distance traveled between the point at which 
the driver starts to move the braking controls and the point at which the 
vehicle comes to rest. It includes distance traveled while the brakes are 
being applied and the distance traveled while the brakes are retarding the 
vehicle. 

(d) The distance traveled during the period of brake system applica- 
tion and brake force build-up varies with vehicle type, being negligible 
for many passenger cars and greatest for combinations of commercial 
vehicles. This fact accounts for the variation from 25 to 50 feet in the 
numerical values in column 4 for the various classes of vehicles. 

(e) The deceleration requirement in column 3 is the same for all clas- 
sifications of vehicles except for passenger vehicles, not including buses, 
because brakes on vehicles in the second, third and fourth classifications 
are all capable with reasonable maintenance of producing the designated 
deceleration as measured by brake testing devices. A higher deceleration 
requirement is warranted for passenger cars in view of Bureau of Public 
Roads test data. 

8 Subsection (c) requires the adoption of brake fluid specifications based 
on current SAE standards if such conformance with those standards is 
practicable. In connection with this provision, it should be noted that a 

200 



Equipment of Vehicles § 12-401 

Article IV — Other Equipment 

§ 12-401 — Horns and warning devices 

(a) Every motor vehicle when operated upon a highway shall 
be equipped with a horn in good working order and capable of 
emitting sound audible under normal conditions from a distance 
of not less than 200 feet, but no horn or other warning device 
shall emit an unreasonably loud or harsh sound or a whistle. 
The driver of a motor vehicle shall when reasonably necessary 
to insure safe operation give audible warning with his horn but 
shall not otherwise use such horn when upon a highway. 

(b) No vehicle shall be equipped with nor shall any person 
use upon a vehicle any siren, whistle or bell, except as otherwise 
permitted in this section. 

(c) It is permissible but not required that any commercial 
vehicle be equipped with a theft alarm signal device which is so 
arranged that it cannot be used by the driver as an ordinary 
warning signal. 

(d) Every authorized emergency vehicle shall be equipped 
with a siren, whistle or bell, capable of emitting sound audible 
under normal conditions from a distance of not less than 500 
feet and of a type approved by the department, but such siren 



federal motor vehicle safety standard establishing standards for hydraulic 
brake fluid is in effect under the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety 
Act of 1966. See Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 116, as added to 49 
Code of Federal Regulations Part 371 by 34 Federal Register 113-15 (Jan. 
4, 1969). Previously, this Standard appeared in 15 Code of Federal Regu- 
lations Part 6, and was originally issued under a 1962 Act of Congress. 
See 15 USC §§ 1301-1303, 76 Stat. 437 (1962), which was repealed in 1966 
by § 117 of the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act, 15 USCA 
§ 1405 (Supp. 1967). However, the 1966 Act continued the brake fluid 
standards issued under the 1962 Act and gave them the same effect as if 
they had been issued under the 1966 Act. 

As previously noted, when a federal motor vehicle safety standard is 
in effect, a state may not establish or continue in effect a standard "which 
is not identical to the federal standard" as to the "same aspect of per- 
formance" of the equipment — in this instance, brake fluid. 15 USCA § 
1392(d). See footnotes 1 and 4, supra, in this chapter. For these reasons 
and in the interest of consistency and effectiveness of action by the states, 
current SAE and federal standards should be considered in the admin- 
istrative formulation of appropriate brake fluid standards. 

It is also recommended that consideration be given to requiring, in the 
regulations, an appropriate label on any container of brake fluid indicat- 
ing the pertinent SAE and federal standards which have been met or ex- 
ceeded, in this connection, consideration should also be given to duplicat- 
ing any labeling requirement that might be specified in future federal mo- 
tor vehicle safety standards. 

201 



§ 12-402 Uniform Vehicle Code 

shall not be used except when such vehicle is operated in response 
to an emergency call or in the immediate pursuit of an actual or 
suspected violator of the law, in which said latter events the 
driver of such vehicle shall sound said siren when reasonably- 
necessary to warn pedestrians and other drivers of the approach 
thereof. (Revised, 1968.) 

§ 12-402 — Mufflers, prevention of noise 

(a) Every motor vehicle shall at all times be equipped with 
a muffler in good working order and in constant operation to 
prevent excessive or unusual noise, and no person shall use a 
muffler cut-out, bypass or similar device upon a vehicle on a high- 
way. (Revised, 1968.) 

(b) The engine and power mechanism of every motor vehicle 
shall be so equipped and adjusted as to prevent the escape of 
excessive fumes or smoke. 

§ 12-403— Mirrors 

On and after (date), every motor vehicle, operated 

singly or when towing any other vehicle, shall be equipped with a 
mirror so located as to reflect to the driver a view of the high- 
way for a distance of at least 200 feet to the rear of such mo- 
tor vehicle. (Revised, 1956.) 

§ 12-404 — Windshields must be unobstructed and equipped with 
wipers 

(a) No person shall drive any motor vehicle with any sign, 
poster or other nontransparent material upon the front wind- 
shield, side wings or side or rear windows of such vehicle which 
materially obstructs, obscures, or impairs the driver's clear view 
of the highway or any intersecting highway. 9 (Revised, 1968.) 

(b) The windshield on every motor vehicle shall be equipped 
with a device for cleaning rain, snow or other moisture from 
the windshield, which device shall be so constructed as to be con- 
trolled or operated by the driver of the vehicle. 

(c) Every windshield wiper upon a motor vehicle shall be 
maintained in good working order. 



» States whose climates may cause frequent and substantial accumula- 
tion of snow, ice or frost on windows may wish to include reference to 
such substances in this subsection. 

202 



Equipment of Vehicles § 12-406 

§ 12-405 — Restrictions as to tire equipment 

(a) Every solid rubber tire on a vehicle shall have rubber on 
its entire traction surface at least one inch thick above the edge 
of the flange of the entire periphery. 

(b) No person shall operate or move on any highway any mo- 
tor vehicle, trailer or semitrailer having any metal tire in con- 
tact with the roadway. 

(c) No tire on a vehicle moved on a highway shall have on 
its periphery any protuberance of any material other than rub- 
ber which projects beyond the tread of the traction surface of 
the tire, except that it shall be permissible to use : 

1. Farm machinery with tires having protuberances which 
will not injure the highway ; 

2. Tire chains of reasonable proportions upon any vehicle 
when required for safety because of snow, ice or other conditions 
tending to cause a vehicle to skid ; 

3. Pneumatic tires having studs designed to improve traction 
without materially injuring the surface of the highway. Any such 
tires must be approved by the commissioner and their use may 
be limited to certain months or types of vehicles by the (here 
insert name of appropriate agency). (Revised, 1968.) 

(d) The (State highway commission) and local authorities 
in their respective jurisdictions may in their discretion issue spe- 
cial permits authorizing the operation upon a highway of trac- 
tion engines or tractors having movable tracks with transverse 
corrugations upon the periphery of such movable tracks or farm 
tractors or other farm machinery, the operation of which upon 
a highway would otherwise be prohibited under this section. 

§ 12-406 — Safety glazing material in motor vehicles 10 

(a) On and after (date) no person shall sell any 

new motor vehicle as specified herein, nor shall any new motor 
vehicle as specified herein be registered thereafter unless such 
vehicle is equipped with safety glazing material of a type ap- 
proved by the commissioner wherever glazing material is used 
in doors, windows and windshields. The foregoing provisions shall 



10 Current requirements of the United States Department of Transpor- 
tation for safety glazing materials in new motor vehicles and campers 
were promulgated in Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 205, 49 Code of 
Federal Regulations Part 371. 

203 



§ JLZ-4U7 UM1FUKM VE±il<JL.E UODE 

apply to all passenger-type motor vehicles, including passenger 
buses and school buses, but in respect to trucks, including truck- 
tractors, the requirements as to safety glazing material shall not 
apply to glazing material in compartments not so designed and 
equipped that persons may ride therein. (Revised, 1968.) 

(b) No person shall sell or affix to a motor vehicle any camper 
manufactured or assembled after July 1, 1968, unless such 
camper is equipped with safety glazing material of a type ap- 
proved by the commissioner wherever glazing material is used 
in doors and windows. As used in this section, "camper" means 
any structure designed to be loaded onto, or affixed to, a motor 
vehicle to provide temporary living quarters for recreation, 
travel or other use. (New, 1968.) 

(c) The term "safety glazing materials" means glazing mate- 
rials so constructed, treated or combined with other materials as 
to reduce substantially, in comparison with ordinary sheet glass 
or plate glass, the likelihood of injury to persons by objects from 
exterior sources or by these safety glazing materials when they 
may be cracked or broken. 

(d) The commissioner shall compile and publish a list of types 
of glazing material by name approved by him as meeting the re- 
quirements of this section and the commissioner shall not reg- 
ister after (date) any motor vehicle which is subject 

to the provisions of this section unless it is equipped with an 
approved type of safety glazing material, and he shall thereafter 
suspend the registration of any motor vehicle so subject to this 
section which he finds is not so equipped until it is made to con- 
form to the requirements of this section. (SECTION REVISED, 
1952.) 

§ 12-407 — Certain vehicles to carry flares or other devices 

(a) No person shall operate any truck, bus or truck-tractor, 
or any motor vehicle towing a house trailer, upon any highway 
outside an urban district or upon any divided highway at any 
time from a half hour after sunset to a half hour before sunrise 
unless there shall be carried in such vehicles the following equip- 
ment except as provided in subsection (b) : (Revised, 1968.) 

1. At least three flares or three red electric lanterns or three 
portable red emergency reflectors, each of which shall be capa- 

204 



Equipment op Vehicles § 12-407 

ble of being seen and distinguished at a distance of not less 
than 600 feet under normal atmospheric conditions at nighttime. 

No flare, fusee, electric lantern or warning flag shall be used 
for the purpose of compliance with the requirements of this sec- 
tion unless such equipment is of a type which has been sub- 
mitted to the commissioner and approved by him. 11 No portable 
reflector unit shall be used for the purpose of compliance with 
the requirements of this section unless it is so designed and con- 
structed as to be capable of reflecting red light clearly visible 
from all distances within 600 feet to 100 feet under normal at- 
mospheric conditions at night when directly in front of lawful 
lower beams of head lamps, and unless it is of a type which has 
been submitted to the commissioner and approved by him. 12 (Re- 
vised, 1968.) 

2. At least three red-burning fusees unless red electric lan- 
terns or red portable emergency reflectors are carried. 13 

(b) No person shall operate at the time and under conditions 
stated in subsection (a) any motor vehicle used for the transpor- 
tation of explosives, any cargo tank truck used for the transpor- 
tation of flammable liquids or compressed gases, or any motor 
vehicle using compressed gas as a fuel unless there shall be car- 
ried in such vehicle three red electric lanterns or three portable 
red emergency reflectors meeting the requirements of subsection 
(a), and there shall not be carried in any said vehicle any flares, 
fusees or signal produced by flame. 

(c) No person shall operate any vehicle described in subsec- 
tions (a) or (b) upon any highway outside of an urban district 
or upon a divided highway at any time when lighted lamps are 
not required by § 12-201 unless there shall be carried in such 
vehicle at least two red flags, not less than 12 inches square, 
with standards to support such flags. (Revised and reposi- 
tioned, 1968.) 



11 It is recommended that the commissioner in each state adopt cur- 
rent standards for electric lanterns and flares (liquid-burning pot torches) 
approved by the Society of Automotive Engineers. 

12 It is recommended that consideration be given to standards approved 
by the Society of Automotive Engineers, and by the Bureau of Motor 
Carrier Safety in the Federal Highway Administration of the United 
States Department of Transportation. 

13 It is recommended that the commissioner adopt current standards for 
portable red-burning fusees as promulgated by the Bureau of Explosives,. 
American Association of Railroads, 2 Pennsylvania Plaza, New York, New 
York 10001. 

205 



§ 12-408 Uniform Vehicle Code 

§ 12-408 — Display of warning lights and devices when vehicle 
is stopped or disabled 

(a) Whenever any truck, bus, truck-tractor, trailer, semi- 
trailer or pole trailer 80 inches or more in over-all width or 30 
feet or more in over-all length is stopped upon a roadway or 
adjacent shoulder, the driver shall immediately actuate vehicular 
hazard warning signal lamps meeting the requirements of § 12- 
220. Such lights need not be displayed by a vehicle parked law- 
fully in an urban district, or stopped lawfully to receive or dis- 
charge passengers, or stopped to avoid conflict with other traffic 
or to comply with the directions of a police officer or an official 
traffic-control device, or while the devices specified in subsec- 
tions (b) to (h) are in place. 14 

(b) Whenever any vehicle of a type referred to in subsection 
(a) is disabled, or stopped for more than 10 minutes, upon a 
roadway outside of an urban district at any time when lighted 
lamps are required, the driver of such vehicle shall display the 
following warning devices except as provided in subsection (c) : 

1, A lighted fusee, a lighted red electric lantern or a portable 
red emergency reflector shall immediately be placed at the traf- 
fic side of the vehicle in the direction of the nearest approaching 
traffic. 

2. As soon thereafter as possible but in any event within the 
burning period of the fusee (15 minutes), the driver shall place 
three liquid-burning flares (pot torches), or three lighted red 
electric lanterns, or three portable red emergency reflectors on 
the roadway in the following order : 

(I) One, approximately 100 feet from the disabled vehicle in 
the center of the lane occupied by such vehicle and toward traf- 
fic approaching in that lane. 

(II) One, approximately 100 feet in the opposite direction 
from the disabled vehicle and in the center of the traffic lane oc- 
cupied by such vehicle. 

(III) One at the traffic side of the disabled vehicle not less 
than 10 feet rearward or forward thereof in the direction of the 
nearest approaching traffic. If a lighted red electric lantern or 
a red portable emergency reflector has been placed at the traffic 



14 The effective date of this subsection should correspond with the date 
on which such vehicles must be equipped with traffic hazard warning sig- 
nal lamps under § 12-220. 

206 



Equipment of Vehicles § 12-408 

side of the vehicle in accordance with paragraph (I) of this sub- 
section, it may be used for this purpose. 

(c) Whenever any vehicle referred to in this section is dis- 
abled, or stopped for more than 10 minutes, within 500 feet of 
a curve, hillcrest or other obstruction to view, the warning 
device in that direction shall be so placed as to afford ample 
warning to other users of the highway, but in no case less than 
100 feet nor more than 500 feet from the disabled vehicle. 

(d) Whenever any vehicle of a type referred to in this section 
is disabled, or stopped for more than 10 minutes, upon any road- 
way of a divided highway during the time lighted lamps are re- 
quired, the appropriate warning devices prescribed in subsec- 
tions (b) and (e) shall be placed as follows : 

One at a distance of approximately 200 feet from the vehicle 
in the center of the lane occupied by the stopped vehicle and in 
the direction of traffic approaching in that lane; one at a dis- 
tance of approximately 100 feet from the vehicle, in the cen- 
ter of the lane occupied by the vehicle and in the direction of 
traffic approaching in that lane; one at the traffic side of the 
vehicle and approximately 10 feet from the vehicle in the di- 
rection of the nearest approaching traffic. 

(e) Whenever any motor vehicle used in the transportation 
of explosives or any cargo tank truck used for the transportation 
of any flammable liquid or compressed flammable gas, or any 
motor vehicle using compressed gas as a fuel, is disabled, or 
stopped for more than 10 minutes, at any time and place men- 
tioned in subsections (b), (c) or (d), the driver of such vehi- 
cle shall immediately display red electric lanterns or portable red 
emergency reflectors in the same number and manner specified 
therein. Flares, fusees or signals produced by flame shall not be 
used as warning devices for disabled vehicles of the type men- 
tioned in this subsection. 

(f) The warning devices described in subsections (b) to (e) 
need not be displayed where there is sufficient light to reveal 
persons and vehicles within a distance of 1,000 feet. 

(g) Whenever any vehicle described in this section is disabled, 
or stopped for more than 10 minutes, upon a roadway outside of 
an urban district or upon the roadway of a divided highway at 
any time when lighted lamps are not required by § 12-201, the 
driver of the vehicle shall display two red flags as follows : 

207 



§ lZ-4Uy U.N1FUKM VUmUJjJti ^UJJJU 

(I) If traffic on the roadway moves in two directions, one 
flag shall be placed approximately 100 feet to the rear and one 
flag approximately 100 feet in advance of the vehicle in the 
center of the lane occupied by such vehicle, 

(II) Upon a one-way roadway, one flag shall be placed ap- 
proximately 100 feet and one flag approximately 200 feet to the 
rear of the vehicle in the center of the lane occupied by such 
vehicle. 

(h) When any vehicle described in this section is stopped en- 
tirely off the roadway and on an adjacent shoulder at any time 
and place hereinbefore mentioned, the warning devices shall be 
placed, as nearly as practicable, on the shoulder near the edge of 
the roadway. 

(i) The flares, fusees, red electric lanterns, portable red emer- 
gency reflectors and flags to be displayed as required in this sec- 
tion shall conform with the requirements of § 12-407 applicable 
thereto. (Section revised, 1968.) 

§ 12-409— Vehicles transporting hazardous materials 

(a) The (commissioner or other appropriate State official or 
agency) shall adopt such regulations as may be necessary for 
the safe transportation of hazardous materials. Such regulations 
shall duplicate or be consistent with current Hazardous Mate- 
rials Regulations of the United States Department of Trans- 
portation. The (commission or other appropriate State official 
or agency) is hereby authorized to adopt said Hazardous Mate- 
rials Regulations by reference (and any such adoption shall be 
construed to incorporate amendments thereto as may be made 
from time to time) , 15 

(b) Any person operating a vehicle transporting any hazard- 
ous material as a cargo or part of a cargo upon a highway shall 
at all times comply with regulations of the (commissioner or 
other appropriate State official or agency) adopted pursuant to 
the provisions of this section. 



15 The pertinent Hazardous Materials Regulations constitute Parts 171, 
172, 173, 177 and 178 of Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations. These 
regulations are promulgated pursuant to the Transportation of Explo- 
sives and Other Dangerous Articles Act, 74 Stat. 808 (1960), 18 USC § 
834. See also, the regulations in 49 Code of Federal Regulations Part 297, 
which were adopted pursuant to a different Act of Congress but which are 
often regarded as part of the Hazardous Materials Regulations. 

208 



Equipment of Vehicles § 12-410 

(c) Said vehicle shall be marked or placarded at such places 
and in such manner as have been prescribed by regulations 
adopted pursuant to this section. 

(d) Every said vehicle shall be equipped with fire extinguish- 
ers of a type, size and number approved by the (commissioner), 
filled and ready for immediate use, and placed at a convenient 
point on the vehicle so used. 16 

Optional (e) Any person convicted of violating a regulation 
adopted pursuant to this section shall be punished by a fine of 
not more than $1,000 or by imprisonment for not more than one 
year, or by both such fine and imprisonment ; but if the death or 
bodily injury of any person results from such violation, any 
person convicted shall be punished by a fine of not more than 
$10,000 or by imprisonment for not more than 10 years, or by 
both such fine and imprisonment. (Section revised, 1968.) 

§ 12-410— Air-conditioning equipment 

(a) The term "air-conditioning equipment" as used or re- 
ferred to in this section shall mean mechanical vapor compres- 
sion refrigeration equipment which is used to cool the driver's 
or passenger compartment of any motor vehicle. 

(b) Such equipment shall be manufactured, installed and 
maintained with due regard for the safety of the occupants of 
the vehicle and the public and shall not contain any refrigerant 
which is toxic to persons or which is flammable. 

(c) The (department or official) may adopt and enforce 
safety requirements, regulations and specifications consistent 
with the requirements of this section applicable to such equip- 
ment which shall correlate with and, so far as possible, con- 
form to the current recommended practice or standard appli- 
cable to such equipment approved by the Society of Automotive 
Engineers. 

(d) No person shall have for sale, offer for sale, sell or equip 
any motor vehicle with any such equipment unless it complies 
with the requirements of this section. 

(e) No person shall operate on any highway any motor ve- 
hicle equipped with any air-conditioning equipment unless said 



10 A possible alternative to this section is a provision that would pro- 
hibit driving a vehicle containing any hazardous material in violation of 
current Hazardous Materials Regulations of the United States Depart- 
ment of Transportation. 

209 



§ JL2-4I1 UNIFORM VEHICLE UODE 

equipment complies with the requirements of this section. (New 
section, 1954.) 

§ 12-411 — Television receivers 

(a) No motor vehicle operated on the highways of this State 
shall be equipped with television-type receiving equipment so 
located that the viewer or screen is visible from the driver's 
seat. 

(b) This section does not prohibit the use of television-type 
receiving equipment used exclusively for safety or law enforce- 
ment purposes, provided such use is approved by the (appro- 
priate State official) . (New section, 1968.) 

§ 12-412 — Seat belts and shoulder harnesses 

(a) Every passenger car manufactured or assembled after 
January 1, 1965, shall be equipped with at least two lap-type 
safety belt assemblies for use in the front seating positions. 

(b) Every passenger car manufactured or assembled after 
January 1, 1968, shall be equipped with a lap-type safety belt 
assembly for each permanent passenger seating position. This 
requirement shall not apply to police vehicles. 

(c) Every passenger car manufactured or assembled after 
January 1, 1968, shall be equipped with at least two shoulder 
harness-type safety belt assemblies for use in the front seating 
positions. 

(d) The commissioner shall except specified types of motor 
vehicles or seating positions within any motor vehicle from the 
requirements imposed by subsections (a) to (c) when compli- 
ance would be impractical. 17 

(e) No person shall distribute, have for sale, offer for sale 
or sell any safety belt or shoulder harness for use in motor ve- 
hicles unless it meets current minimum standards and specifi- 
cations (approved by the commissioner or the Federal Highway 



17 It is recommended that the commissioner except the same passenger 
cars specified by present and future federal motor vehicle safety stan- 
dards as not having to be equipped with seat belts or other types of re- 
straining devices. For instance, Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 208, 
Seat Belt Installations — Passenger Cars, does not require seat belts in 
"multipurpose passenger vehicles" or shoulder harnesses in convertibles, 
See 49 Code of Federal Regulations §§ 371.3(b) and 371.21, as added by 
33 Federal Register 19700 (Dec. 25, 1968). 

210 



Equipment of Vehicles § 12-504 

Administrator) (of the United States Department of Transpor- 
tation). 18 (New section, 1968.) 

Article V— Equipment on Motorcycles and Motor-driven 
Cycles 19 (New, 1968.) 

§ 12-501— Head lamps 

(a) Every motorcycle and every motor-driven cycle shall be 
equipped with at least one and not more than two head lamps 
which shall comply with the requirements and limitations of 
this article. 

(b) Every head lamp upon every motorcycle and motor- 
driven cycle shall be located at a height of not more than 54 
inches nor less than 24 inches to be measured as set forth in § 
12-202 (b). 

§ 12-502— Tail lamps 

(a) Every motorcycle and motor-driven cycle shall have at 
least one tail lamp which shall be located at a height of not more 
than 72 nor less than 20 inches. 

(b) Either a tail lamp or a separate lamp shall be so con- 
structed and placed as to illuminate with a white light the rear 
registration plate and render it clearly legible from a distance 
of 50 feet to the rear. Any tail lamp or tail lamps, together with 
any separate lamp or lamps for illuminating the rear registra- 
tion plate, shall be so wired as to be lighted whenever the head 
lamps or auxiliary driving lamps are lighted. 

§ 12-503— Reflectors 

Every motorcycle and motor-driven cycle shall carry on the 
rear, either as part of the tail lamp or separately, at least one 
red reflector meeting the requirements of § 12-205 (b). 

§ 12-504— Stop lamps 

Every motorcycle and motor-driven cycle shall be equipped 

is The current federal motor vehicle safety standard for seat belts is 
Standard No, 209, 49 Code of Federal Regulations § 371.21, as added by 
33 Federal Register 19700 (Dec. 25, 1968) and as amended by 34 Federal 
Register 115-23 (Jan. 4, 1969). 

19 For additional equipment provisions incident to the operation of mo- 
torcycles, see §§ 11-1302, -1305 and -1306. 

211 



§ 12-505 Uniform Vehicle Code 

with at least one stop lamp meeting the requirements of § 12- 
219(a). 

§ 12-505— Lamps on parked vehicles 

(a) Every motorcycle must comply with the provisions of § 
12-214 regarding lamps on parked vehicles and the use thereof, 

(b) Motor-Hrivsn cycles need not be equipped with parking 
lamps nor otherwise comply with the provisions of § 12-214. 

§ 12-506 — Multiple-beam road-lighting equipment 

(a) Every motorcycle other than a motor-driven cycle shall 
be equipped with multiple-beam road-lighting equipment. 

(b) Such equipment shall: 

1. Reveal persons and vehicles at a distance of at least 300 feet 
ahead when the uppermost distribution of light is selected. 

2. Reveal persons and vehicles at a distance of at least 150 
feet ahead when the lowermost distribution of light is selected, 
and on a straight, level road under any condition of loading none 
of the high intensity portion of the beam shall be directed to 
strike the eyes of an approaching driver. 

§ 12-507 — Lighting equipment for motor-driven cycles 

The head lamp or head lamps upon every motor-driven cycle 
may be of the single-beam or multiple-beam type but in either 
event shall comply with the requirements and limitations as 
follows : 

(a) Every said head lamp or head lamps on a motor-driven 
cycle shall be of sufficient intensity to reveal persons and ve- 
hicles at a distance of not less than 100 feet when the motor- 
driven cycle is operated at any speed less than 25 miles per 
hour, and at a distance of not less than 200 feet when the motor- 
driven cycle is operated at a speed of 25 or more miles per hour, 
and at a distance of not less than 300 feet when the motor-driven 
cycle is operated at a speed of 35 or more miles per hour. (Re- 
vised, 1968.) 

(b) In the event the motor-driven cycle is equipped with a 
multiple-beam head lamp or head lamps, such equipment shall 
comply with the requirements of § 12-506 (b). 

212 



Equipment of Vehicles § 12-510 

(c) In the event the motor-driven cycle is equipped with a 
single-beam lamp or lamps, said lamp or lamps shall be so aimed 
that when the vehicle is loaded none of the high intensity por- 
tion of light, at a distance of 25 feet ahead, shall project higher 
than the level of the center of the lamp from which it comes, 

:§ 12-508— Brake equipment required 

Every motorcycle and motor-driven cycle must comply with 
the provisions of § 12-301, except that: 

(a) Motorcycles and motor-driven cycles need not be equipped 
with parking brakes. 

(b) The wheel of a sidecar attached to a motorcycle or to 
a motor-driven cycle, and the front wheel of a motor-driven cycle 
need not be equipped with brakes, provided that such motor- 
cycle or motor-driven cycle is capable of complying with the 
performance requirements of this article. 

,§ 12-509— Performance ability of brakes 

Every motorcycle and motor-driven cycle, at all times and 
under all conditions of loading, upon application of the service 
brake, shall be capable of : 

(a) Developing a braking force that is not less than 43.5 per- 
cent of its gross weight ; 

(b) Decelerating to a stop from not more than 20 miles per 
hour at not less than 14 feet per second per second ; and 

(c) Stopping from a speed of 20 miles per hour in not more 
than 30 feet, such distance to be measured from the point at 
which movement of the service brake pedal or control begins. 

Tests for deceleration and stopping distance shall be made on 
a substantially level (not to exceed plus or minus one percent 
grade), dry, smooth, hard surface that is free from loose ma- 
terial. 20 

§ 12-510 — Brakes on motor-driven cycles 

(a) The commissioner is authorized to require an inspection 
of the braking system on any motor-driven cycle and to disap- 
prove any such braking system on a vehicle which he finds will 



20 See the footnote accompanying § 12-302 for a discussion of these 
brake performance standards. 

213 



S ±^~oxx uiNiruruvi v ejihulJ!; KjUU& 

not comply with the performance ability standard set forth in § 
12-509, or which in his opinion is equipped with a braking sys- 
tem that is not so designed or constructed as to insure reason- 
able and reliable performance in actual use. 

(b) The commissioner may refuse to register or may suspend 
or revoke the registration of any vehicle referred to in this 
section when he determines that the braking system thereon does 
not comply with the provisions of this section. 

(c) No person shall operate on any highway any vehicle re- 
ferred to in this section in the event the commissioner has dis- 
approved the braking system upon such vehicle. 

§ 12-511 — Other equipment 

Every motorcycle and every motor-driven cycle shall comply 
with the requirements and limitations of § 12-401 on horns and 
warning devices, § 12-402 on mufflers and prevention of noise, 
and § 12-403 on mirrors. 



214 



CHAPTER 13 
Inspection of Vehicles (Revised, 1968.) 

§ 13-101 — Vehicles without required equipment or in unsafe 
condition 

No person shall drive or move on any highway any motor ve- 
hicle, trailer, semitrailer or pole trailer, or any combination 
thereof, unless the equipment upon any and every said vehicle 
is in good working order and adjustment as required in this act 
and unless the vehicle is in such safe mechanical condition as 
not to endanger the driver or other occupant or any person or 
property. 

§ 13-102 — Inspection by officers 

(a) Uniformed police officers may at any time upon reason- 
able cause to believe that a vehicle is unsafe or not equipped 
as required by law, or that its equipment is not in proper ad- 
justment or repair, require the driver of such vehicle to stop 
and submit such vehicle to an inspection and such test with ref- 
erence thereto as may be appropriate. 

(b) In the event a vehicle is found to be in unsafe condi- 
tion or any required part or equipment is not present or in proper 
repair and adjustment, the officer shall give a written notice to 
the driver and shall send a copy to the department. Said notice 
shall require that the vehicle be placed in safe condition and 
its equipment in proper repair and adjustment as soon as prac- 
ticable, specifying the particulars with reference thereto, and 
shall require that an official certificate of inspection and approval 
be obtained within 10 days. 

(c) In the event any such vehicle is, in the reasonable judg- 
ment of the officer, in such condition that further operation 
would be hazardous, the officer may require in addition that the 
vehicle not be operated under its own power or that it be driven 
to the nearest garage or other place of safety. 

(d) Every owner or driver shall comply with the notice and 
secure an official certificate of inspection and approval within 
10 days or the vehicle shall not be operated on the highways of 
this State. 1 



1 Subsections (b) to (d) of this section supplement the authority of a 
police officer detecting equipment violations and the notice required there- 

215 



§ 13-103 — Owners and drivers to comply with inspection laws 

No owner or driver shall refuse to submit a vehicle to any 
inspection and test that is authorized or required by the pro- 
visions of this chapter. 

§ 13-104 — Periodic inspection required 2 

(a) Every motor vehicle, trailer, semitrailer or pole trailer reg- 



xn is intended to serve as an additional means of encouraging maintenance 
of vehicles in safe operating condition. The notice issued to the driver 
should describe any defects and should require repairs to be made either 
as soon as practicable or within such other time as may be specified 
therein by the officer. Depending* on the nature of the defect, the notice 
might also mention the consequences that may result from continued op- 
eration of a vehicle that is not equipped as required by law. in any event, 
a certificate of inspection and approval must be obtained within 10 days. 

Subsection (d) requires compliance with the notice and contemplates 
that the vehicle will be repaired within the time specified or not be driven 
on the highways; and further contemplates that a certificate of inspection 
and approval must be obtained within 10 days or the vehicle may not be 
operated on the highways even though the vehicle may already display a 
certificate issued under a program of periodic inspection pursuant to §5$ 
13-104 et seq. 

Subsection (c) provides that when operation of the vehicle would be 
hazardous, the officer may, in addition to issuing a notice, restrict fur- 
ther driving by requiring that the vehicle not be moved under its own 
power or that it be driven to the nearest garage or other place of safety. 
In these circumstances, it is recommended that the notice indicate any 
such special instructions given by the officer. 

2 The Federal Highway Safety Act contemplates that each state will 
have a comprehensive highway safety program meeting uniform stand arch- 
approved by the Secretary of Transportation. Under the Act, such stan- 
dards are to include provisions for vehicle inspection. 80 Stat. 731 (1966) 
23 USCA § 402(a) (Supp. 1967). However, it should be noted that the 
standard on inspection issued by the Secretary on June 27, 1967, does not 
necessarily require states to have an inspection program of a type speci- 
fied by this or ensuing sections of the Uniform Vehicle Code. The pertinent 
portion of Highway Safety Program Standard 4.4.1 provides: 

Each State shall have a program for periodic inspection of all 
registered vehicles or other experimental, pilot, or demonstration 
program approved by the Secretary, to reduce the number of 
vehicles with existing or potential conditions which cause or con- 
tribute to accidents or increase the severity of accidents which do 
occur, and shall require the owner to correct such conditions. 
I. The program shall provide, as a minimum, that: 
A. Every vehicle registered in the State is inspected either at 
the time of initial registration and at least annually thereafter, 
or at such other time as may be designated under an experimen- 
tal, pilot, or demonstration program approved by the Secretary. 

33 Federal* Register 16560 (Nov. 14, 1968); 23 Code of Federal Regula- 
tions § 204.4. This is noted only for the purpose of alerting states to the 
need for considering inspection laws within the context of current fed- 
eral requirements for approval of highway safety programs and is not 
intended to diminish the longstanding and continuing recommendation of 
the National Committee for periodic inspection of all registered vehicles. 

216 



Inspection of Vehicles § 13-104 

istered in this State (except house trailers not operated upon the 
highways) shall be inspected periodically, but at least annually, 
and an official certificate of inspection and approval shall be ob- 
tained for each such vehicle. Such inspections shall be made 
and such certificates obtained with respect to such items of equip- 
ment as the commissioner shall designate. 3 Inspections shall be 
conducted in accordance with such standards of the United States 
of America Standards Institute or the Federal Highway Admin- 
istrator as may be specified by the commissioner. 

(b) The commissioner may require a portion of all registered 
vehicles to be inspected each calendar month or during such 
other period of time as he shall find desirable to avoid unneces- 
sary inconvenience and congestion at inspection stations. 

(c) Any vehicle required by law to be registered or propor- 
tionally registered in this and any other jurisdiction shall oe 
exempt from periodic inspection in this State, provided said ve- 
hicle bears a valid inspection certificate issued by such other 
jurisdiction within the previous six months. 

(d) The commissioner may, by regulation or reciprocal agree- 
ment with other jurisdictions, authorize the acceptance in this 
State of a certificate of inspection and approval issued in an- 
other jurisdiction having an inspection law similar to this chap- 
ter. The commissioner may extend the time within which a cer- 
tificate shall be obtained by the resident owner of a vehicle which 
was not in this State during the time an inspection was required 
and may also provide by regulation for inspection of any for- 
eign vehicle on request of the owner or operator of such vehi- 
cle. 

(e) The commissioner may suspend or revoke the registra- 
tion of any vehicle which he determines is mechanically unfit or 
unsafe to be operated or moved upon the highways, or which 
after notice and demand is not equipped as required in this act 
or for which a required certificate has not been obtained. 



3 It is recommended that the commissioner specify the items of equip- 
ment to be inspected that will be appropriate for different types or cate- 
gories of vehicles. For most motor vehicles, these items should include at 
least the brakes, lights, reflectors, steering*, glazing, mirrors, exhaust sys- 
tems, windshield wipers and tires. The items specified for all types of 
vehicles should also reflect equipment required under state laws compara- 
ble to chapter 12 of the Code, equipment required on vehicles made after 
January!, 1968, under the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act, 
and equipment recommended for inspection under the Highway Safety 
Act. 

217 



§ 13-JU5 UNIFORM VEHICLE CODE 

§ 13-105 — Commissioner may establish stations 4 

For the purpose of making inspections and issuing official cer- 
tificates of inspection as provided herein, the commissioner may 
establish such permanent or temporary stations of the depart- 
ment and shall provide such equipment, either stationary or 
movable, as he may deem necessary and suitable for such pur- 
poses and shall publicize the location of all stations or other 
places where and times when official certificates of inspection and 
approval may be obtained. 

§ 13-106 — Appointment of official inspection stations 

(a) For the purpose of establishing a system of official in- 
spection stations, the commissioner shall issue permits, instruc- 
tions and all necessary forms to privately-owned (or munici- 
pally-owned) facilities that comply with the requirements of this 
chapter and regulations adopted by the commissioner. Such of- 
ficial inspection stations are hereby authorized to inspect vehi- 
cles and issue official certificates of inspection. 

(b) Application for a permit shall be made upon an official 
form and such permit shall be issued only when the commis- 
sioner is satisfied that the station is equipped properly and has 
competent personnel to make inspections and adjustments and 
that inspections will be conducted properly. Before issuing a 
permit the commissioner may require a bond or proof of insur- 
ance to provide compensation for any damage to a vehicle during 
an inspection or adjustment due to negligence on the part of 
such applicant or its employees. 

(c) The commissioner may require the payment of an annual 

fee by official inspection stations not to exceed dollars, 

which shall accompany the application for a permit. If a permit 
is not issued, one-half of the fee shall be returned to the appli- 
cant. Official certificates shall be obtained from the department 

at a cost not to exceed per certificate. All fees collected 

by the department under this chapter shall be deposited in the 



4 This section provides for the establishment of state-owned inspection 
stations. As to whether inspections should be performed by publicly- or 
privately-owned stations, the enacting jurisdiction should decide which 
system, or a combination thereof, is more suitable. In the event a state 
decides upon the appointment of private garages or municipally-owned 
stations to perform inspections, then §§ 13-106 and 13-107 (a) and (b) 
should be added, or inserted in place of § 13-105. 

218 



Inspection of Vehicles § 13-107 

treasury of the State and credited to a revolving fund for the 
administration and enforcement of this chapter. Unused cer- 
tificates may be returned to the department for a credit or re- 
fund. 

(d) The commissioner may issue a permit under the provi- 
sions of this chapter to any person who owns or operates 

or more vehicles and who meets the requirements of this chapter 
and regulations adopted by the commissioner. Such permit shall 
authorize inspection only of vehicles owned or operated by the 
permit holder. 

(e) The commissioner shall supervise and inspect such sta- 
tions and may suspend or revoke the permit issued to a station 
which he finds is not properly equipped or conducted, or which 
has violated or failed to comply with any of the provisions of 
this chapter or regulations adopted by the commissioner. The 
commissioner shall maintain a list of all stations holding per- 
mits and of those whose permits have been suspended or re- 
voked. Any suspended or revoked permit and all unused certifi- 
cates of inspection shall be returned immediately to the depart- 
ment. 

§ 13-107 — Operation of inspection stations; issuance of inspec- 
tion certificates 

(a) No permit for any official station shall be assigned or 
transferred or used at any location other than therein desig- 
nated and permits shall be posted in a conspicuous place at the 
location designated. 

(b) The person operating an official inspection station shall 
issue a certificate of inspection and approval upon an official 
form furnished by the department only upon inspecting such 
vehicle and determining that the equipment required by the com- 
missioner to be inspected is in good working order and adjust- 
ment. 

(c) A certificate of inspection and approval may be issued 

free of charge or a fee of not more than may be 

charged for an inspection and issuance of such certificate. 

(d) In the event repair or adjustment of any vehicle or its 
equipment is found necessary upon inspection, the owner of said 
vehicle may obtain such repair or adjustment at any place he 
may choose. If the vehicle is to be operated on the highways prior 

219 



§ 13-108 Uniform Vehicle Code 

to such repair or adjustment, an official certificate of rejection 
shall be issued and shall require that the vehicle be placed in 
safe condition and its equipment in proper repair and adjust- 
ment as soon as practicable, specifying the particulars with 
reference thereto, and shall require that a certificate of inspec- 
tion and approval be obtained within 10 days. Every owner or 
driver shall comply with such requirements and shall secure a 
certificate of inspection and approval within 10 days or the ve- 
hicle shall not be operated further on the highways of this State. 
Any fee shall be collected at the time of the original inspection, 
and no additional fee shall be charged if the vehicle is repaired 
and returned to the same inspection station within 10 days. 

(e) The appropriate inspection certificate shall be placed on 
the vehicle or shall be issued to the driver in accordance with 
regulations adopted by the commissioner at the conclusion of 
each inspection. 

(f ) A record shall be made of every inspection and every cer- 
tificate issued and such record shall be forwarded to the depart- 
ment in such manner and at such time as the commissioner shall 
specify by regulation. 

§ 13-108 — Display of inspection certificates 

Every vehicle inspected under the provisions of this chapter 
shall at all times display the certificate of inspection placed there- 
on or said certificate shall at all times be carried in the vehicle 
for which it is issued or shall be carried by the driver who shall 
display the same upon demand of a police officer. 

§ 13-109 — Improper representation as official station 

(a) No person shall in any manner represent any place as 
an official inspection station unless such station is operated by 
the department (or is operating under a valid permit issued by 
the department). 5 

(b) No person other than a duly authorized officer or employee 
of the department shall issue a certificate of inspection and ap- 
proval or a certificate of rejection (unless then holding a valid 
permit hereunder) , 5 



6 The portions of paragraphs (a) and (b) in parentheses should be re- 
tained or omitted, depending upon whether the state has appointed ga- 
rages as official testing stations. 

220 



Inspection of Vehicles § 13-112 

(c) No unauthorized person shall knowingly possess official 
certificates of inspection. 

§ 13-110— False certificates 

(a) No person shall make, issue or knowingly use any imita- 
tion or counterfeit of an official certificate of inspection. 

(b) No person shall display or cause or permit to be dis- 
played upon any vehicle any certificate of inspection knowing 
the same to be fictitious or issued for another vehicle or issued 
without an inspection having been made, 

§ 13-111— -Official signs or posters 

All signs or posters pertaining to the safety inspection pro- 
gram to be used by an official inspection station shall be issued 
or approved by the department. 

§ 13-112— Authority of commissioner to adopt regulations 

(a) The commissioner is hereby authorized to make necessary 
rules and regulations for the administration and enforcement of 
this chapter (including regulations for the suspension or revoca- 
tion of inspection station permits). 

(b) The commissioner may, by regulation, extend the time 
for any of the inspections required by this chapter for not more 
than 60 days due to weather conditions or other causes which 
render compliance with the provisions of this chapter within the 
prescribed time difficult or impossible. 



6 The portion of paragraph (a) in parentheses should be retained by- 
states appointing 1 official inspection stations. 



221 



CHAPTER 14 
Size, Weight and Load 1 
§ 14-101 — Scope and effect of chapter 

(a) It is a misdemeanor for any person to drive or move or 
for the owner to cause or knowingly permit to be driven or 
moved on any highway any vehicle or vehicles of a size or 
weight exceeding the limitations stated in this chapter or other- 
wise in violation of this chapter, and the maximum size and 
weight of vehicles herein specified shall be lawful throughout 
this State, and local authorities shall have no power or author- 
ity to alter said limitations except as express authority may be 
granted in this chapter. 

(b) The provisions of this chapter governing size, weight and 
load shall not apply to fire apparatus, road machinery, or to im- 
plements of husbandry, including farm tractors, temporarily 
moved upon a highway, or to a vehicle operated under the terms 
of a special permit issued as herein provided. 

§ 14-102— Width of vehicles 

(a) The total outside width of any vehicle or the load there- 
on shall not exceed eight feet, except as otherwise provided in 
this section. 



1 This chapter contains the current recommendations of the National 
Committee with respect to laws regulating the maximum weights and 
sizes of vehicles. If at a given time or place these general limits are too 
high and the size or weight of vehicles must be restricted, authority for 
such reductions is provided by § 14-113. If these general limits are too 
low and the size or weight can and should be increased, special permits 
may be issued under § 14-112. 

In formulating realistic and adequate general limits for the size and 
weight of vehicles, each state should consider: 

1. The recommendations of the National Committee contained in § 14- 
102 on width, § 14-104(a) on height, §§ 14-104(b) through (d) on length, 
§ 14-108 on axle weight and § 14-109 on gross weight. 

2. The most recent recommendations of the American Association of 
State Highway Officials. See Recommended Policy on Maximum Dimensions 
and Weights of Motor Vehicles To Be Operated Over the Highways of the 
United States (Rev. ed. 1968). 

3. Recommendations of the United States Bureau of Public Roads. See 
Maximum Desirable Dimensions and Weights of Vehicles Operated on the 
Federal-Aid Systems, House Doc. No. 3o4, 88th Cong., 2d Sess. (1964). 

4. Weight and width limits specified by the United States Congress for 
vehicles operated on the interstate system of highways. See 23 USCA § 
127 (1966). 

5. The physical capacity of highways in each state as well as the con- 
venience and safety of all users of those highways. 

222 



Size, Weight and Load § 14-104 

(b) Incorporated cities and municipalities may by ordinance 
permit the operation within their respective jurisdictions of any 
motor bus or trackless trolley coach with a maximum outside 
width of not to exceed 102 inches. 

(c) No motor bus or trackless trolley coach exceeding a total 
outside width of 96 inches shall be operated on any highway 
outside of an incorporated city or municipality, except that any 
motor bus or trackless trolley coach with a total outside width 
of not exceeding 102 inches may be operated upon any highway 
route or routes having traffic-lane widths of not less than 12 
feet in suburban areas adjacent to municipalities. 2 

§ 14-103 — Projecting loads on passenger vehicles 

No passenger-type vehicle shall be operated on any highway 
with any load carried thereon extending beyond the line of the 
fenders on the left side of such vehicle nor extending more than 
six inches beyond the line of the fenders on the right side 
thereof. 

§ 14-104 — Height and length of vehicles and loads 

(a) No vehicle including any load thereon shall exceed a 
height of 13 feet 6 inches. (Revised, 1968.) 

(b) No motor vehicle including any load thereon shall exceed 
a length of 35 feet extreme over-all dimension, inclusive of front 
and rear bumpers, except that a bus or trackless trolley coach 
equipped with three axles shall not exceed an over-all length, 
inclusive of front and rear bumpers, of 40 feet. No trailer, semi- 
trailer or pole trailer, including any load thereon and bumpers, 
shall exceed a length of 40 feet extreme over-all dimension. (Re- 
vised, 1968.) 

(c) No combination of vehicles coupled together shall con- 
sist of more than two units and no such combination of ve- 
hicles including any load thereon shall have an over-all length, 



2 It is recognized that certain conditions inherent in the design of ve- 
hicles suggest the desirability of 102 inches as an ultimate standard of 
maximum width. The existence of numerous bridges and a large mileage 
of highways too narrow for the safe accommodation of vehicles of such 
width precludes the present adoption of the higher standard of width. 
The American Association of State Highway Officials has urged that con- 
sideration be given to the desirability of eventual provisions for the ac- 
commodation of vehicles 102 inches in width in planning the reconstruc- 
tion of federal-aid and State highways. 

223 



§ 14-105 UNIFORM VEHICLE <JODE 

inclusive of front and rear bumpers, in excess of 55 feet except as 
otherwise provided in subsection (d) and in § 14-105 (b), (Re- 
vised, 1968.) 

(d) On the basis of an engineering and traffic investigation, 
the (State highway commission) or any local authority may 
designate highways or parts of highways under their respec- 
tive jurisdictions upon which combinations of commercial ve- 
hicles consisting of three units may be operated. Any such desig- 
nation shall describe the number and types of units in any such 
combination, shall not permit the operation of any such combina- 
tion exceeding 65 feet in over-all length, including the load and 
front and rear bumpers, and may impose such requirements and 
restrictions as are deemed necessary for safety. (New, 1968.) 

§ 14-105 — Special load limits 

(a) Subject to the foregoing provisions of this chapter limit- 
ing the length of vehicles and loads, the load upon any vehicle 
operated alone or the load upon the front vehicle of a combina- 
tion of vehicles shall not extend more than three feet beyond the 
foremost part of the vehicle, and the load upon any vehicle op- 
erated alone or the load upon the rear vehicle of a combination 
of vehicles shall not extend more than six feet beyond the rear 
of the bed or body of such vehicle. 

(b) The limitations as to length of vehicles and loads hereto- 
fore stated in § 14-104 and subsection (a) shall not apply to any 
load upon a pole trailer when transporting poles or pipes or 
structural material which cannot be dismembered, provided that 
no pole or pipe or other materia] exceeding 80 feet in length shall 
be so transported unless a permit has first been obtained as au- 
thorized in § 14-112. 

§ 14-106— -Loads on vehicles 

(a) No vehicle shall be driven or moved on any highway un- 
less such vehicle is so constructed or loaded as to prevent any of 
its load from dropping, sifting, leaking or otherwise escaping 
therefrom, except that sand may be dropped for the purpose of 
securing traction, or water or other substance may be sprinkled 
on a roadway in cleaning or maintaining such roadway. 

(b) No person shall operate on any highway any vehicle with 

224 



Size, Weight and Load § 14-109 

any load unless said load and any covering thereon is securely 
fastened so as to prevent said covering or load from becoming 
loose, detached or in any manner a hazard to other users of the 
highway. 

§ 14-107 — Trailers and towed vehicles 

(a) When one vehicle is towing another the drawbar or other 
connection shall be of sufficient strength to pull all weight towed 
thereby and said drawbar or other connection shall not exceed 
15 feet from one vehicle to the other except the connection 
between any two vehicles transporting poles, pipe, machinery 
or other objects of structural nature which cannot readily be 
dismembered. 

(b) W T hen one vehicle is towing another and the connection 
consists of a chain, rope or cable, there shall be displayed upon 
such connection a white flag or cloth not less than 12 inches 
square. 

§ 14-108— Single-axle load limit 

(a) The gross weight imposed on the highway by the wheels 
of any one axle of a vehicle shall not exceed 18,000 pounds. 

(b) For the purposes of this chapter an axle load shall be de- 
fined as the total load transmitted to the road by all wheels 
whose centers are included between two parallel transverse ver- 
tical planes 40 inches apart, extending across the full width of 
the vehicle. 

§ 14-109 — Gross weight of vehicles and loads 

Subject to the limit upon the weight imposed upon the high- 
way through any one axle as set forth in § 14-108, the total 
gross weight with load imposed upon the highway by any one 
group of two or more consecutive axles of a vehicle or combina- 
tion of vehicles shall not exceed the gross weight given for the 
respective distance between the first and last axle of the group 
of axles measured longitudinally to the nearest foot as set forth 
in the following table : 



uvc— 8 225 



8 JL^-IJ.U 



UNIFORM VEHICLE CODE 



Distance in feet 
between first and 
last axles of 
group 



Maximum load 

in pounds on 

group of 

axles 



4 32,000 

5 32,000 

6 32,000 

7 32,000 

8 32,610 

9 33,580 

10 34,550 

11 35,510 

12 36,470 

13 37,420 

14 38,360 

15 39,300 

16 40,230 

17 41,160 

18 42,080 

19 42,990 

20 43,900 

21 44,800 

22 45,700 

23 46,590 

24 47,470 

25 48,350 

26 49,220 

27 50,090 

28 50,950 

29 51,800 

30 52,650 



Distance in feet 
between first and 
last axles of 
group 



Maximum load 

in pounds on 

group of 

axles 



31 53,490 

32 54,330 

33 55,160 

34 55,980 

35 56,800 

36 57,610 

37 58,420 

38 59,220 

39 60,010 

40 60,800 

41 61,580 

42 62,360 

43 63,130 

44 63,890 

45 64,650 

46 65,400 

47 66,150 

48 66,890 

49 67,620 

50 68,350 

51 69,070 

52 69,790 

53 70,500 

54 71,200 

55 71,900 

56 72,590 

57. or more (Revised, 1968.) 73,280 



§ 14-110 — Registration of vehicles according to permissible 
gross weight 

(a) The commissioner, upon registering any bus, truck, 
truck-tractor, trailer, semitrailer or pole trailer under the laws 
of this State, may require such information and may make such 
investigation or test as necessary to enable him to determine 
whether such vehicle may safely be operated upon the highways 
in compliance with all the provisions of this act. He shall regis- 
ter every such vehicle for a permissible gross weight not exceed- 
ing the limitations set forth in this chapter. (REVISED, 1968.) 

(b) The commissioner shall insert in the registration card is- 
sued for every such vehicle the gross weight for which it is reg- 
istered, and if it is a motor vehicle to be used for propelling 
other vehicles he shall separately insert the total permissible 
gross weight of such motor vehicle and other vehicles to be pro- 
pelled by it. He may also issue a special plate with such gross 
weight or weights stated thereon, which shall be attached to the 
vehicle and displayed thereon at all times. It shall be unlawful 



226 



Size Weight and Load § 14-112 

for any person to operate any vehicle or combination of vehicles 
of a gross weight in excess of .that for which registered by the 
commissioner or in excess of the limitations set forth in this 
chapter. 

§ 14-111 — Officers may weigh vehicles and require removal of 
excess loads 

(a) Any police officer having reason to believe that the 
weight of a vehicle and load is unlawful is authorized to re- 
quire the driver to stop and submit to a weighing of the same 
by means of either portable or stationary scales and may re- 
quire that such vehicle be driven to the nearest public scales 
in the event such scales are within two miles. 

(b) Whenever an officer upon weighing a vehicle and load, 
as above provided, determines that the weight is unlawful, such 
officer may require the driver to stop the vehicle in a suitable 
place and remain standing until such portion of the load is re- 
moved as may be necessary to reduce the gross weight of such 
vehicle to such limit as permitted under this chapter. All ma- 
terial so unloaded shall be cared for by the owner or operator 
of such vehicle at the risk of such owner or operator. 

(c) Any driver of a vehicle who fails or refuses to stop and 
submit the vehicle and load to a weighing or who fails or re- 
fuses when directed by an officer upon a weighing of the vehicle 
to stop the vehicle and otherwise comply with the provisions 
of this section, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor. 

§ 14-112 — Permits for excess size and weight 

(a) The (State highway commission) with respect to high- 
ways under its jurisdiction and local authorities with respect to 
highways under their jurisdiction may in their discretion upon 
application in writing and good cause being shown therefor, 
issue a special permit in writing authorizing the applicant to 
operate or move a vehicle or combination of vehicles of a size 
or weight of vehicle or load exceeding the maximum specified in 
this chapter or otherwise not in conformity with the provisions 
of this act upon any highway under the jurisdiction of the party 
granting such permit and for the maintenance of which said 
party is responsible. 

(b) The application for any such permit shall specifically 

227 



§ 14-113 UMIFOKM VUJtlHJJLU UUimi 

describe the vehicle or vehicles and load to be operated or moved 
and the particular highways for which permit to operate is re- 
quested, and whether such permit is requested for a single trip 
or for continuous operation. 

(c) The (State highway commission) or local authority is 
authorized to issue or withhold such permit at its discretion; 
or, if such permit is issued, to limit the number of trips, or to 
establish seasonal or other time limitations within which the ve- 
hicles described may be operated on the highways indicated, or 
otherwise to limit or prescribe conditions of operation of such 
vehicle or vehicles, when necessary to assure against undue dam- 
age to the road foundations, surfaces or structures, and may re- 
quire such undertaking or other security as may be deemed nec- 
essary- to compensate for any injury to any roadway or road 
structure. 

(d) Every such permit shall be carried in the vehicle or com- 
bination of vehicles to which it refers and shall be open to in- 
spection by any police officer or authorized agent of any author- 
ity granting such permit, and no person shall violate any of the 
terms or conditions of such special permit. 

§ 14-113— When the (State highway commission) or local au- 
thorities may restrict right to use highways 

(a) Local authorities with respect to highways under their 
jurisdiction may by ordinance or resolution prohibit the oper- 
ation of vehicles upon any such highway or impose restrictions 
as to the weight of vehicles to be operated upon any such high- 
way, for a total period of not to exceed 90 days in any one cal- 
endar year, whenever any said highway by reason of deteriora- 
tion, rain, snow or other climatic conditions will be seriously 
damaged or destroyed unless the use of vehicles thereon is pro- 
hibited or the permissible weights thereof reduced. 

(b) The local authority enacting any such ordinance or reso- 
lution shall erect or cause to be erected and maintained signs 
designating the provisions of the ordinance or resolution at each 
end of that portion of any highway affected thereby, and the or- 
dinance or resolution shall not be effective unless and until such 
signs are erected and maintained. 

(c) Local authorities with respect to highways under their 
jurisdiction may also, by ordinance or resolution, prohibit the 

228 



Size. Weight and Load § 14-114 

operation of trucks or other commercial vehicles, or may impose 
limitations as to the weight or size thereof, on designated high- 
ways, which prohibitions and limitations shall be designated by 
appropriate signs placed on such highways. (Revised, 1968.) 

(d) The (State highway commission) shall likewise have au- 
thority as hereinabove granted to local authorities to determine 
by resolution and to impose restrictions as to the weight or size 
of vehicles operated upon any highways under the jurisdiction 
of said (commission) and such restrictions shall be effective 
when signs giving notice thereof are erected upon the highway 
or portion of any highway affected by such resolution. (Revised, 
1968.) 

§ 14-114 — Liability for damage to highway or structure 

(a) Any person driving any vehicle, object or contrivance 
upon any highway or highway structure shall be liable for all 
damage which said highway or structure may sustain as a re- 
sult of any illegal operation, driving or moving of such vehicle, 
object or contrivance, or as a result of operating, driving or mov- 
ing any vehicle, object or contrivance weighing in excess of the 
maximum weight in this act but authorized by a special permit 
issued as provided in this chapter. 

(b) Whenever such driver is not the owner of such vehicle, 
object or contrivance, but is so operating, driving or moving the 
same with the express or implied permission of said owner, then 
said owner and driver shall be jointly and severally liable for 
any such damage. 

(c) Such damage may be recovered in a civil action brought 
by the authorities in control of such highways or highway 
structure. 



229 



CHAPTER 15 
Respective Powers of State and Local Authorities 
§ 15-101 — Provisions uniform throughout State 

The provisions of chapters 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 of this act 
shall be applicable and uniform throughout this State and in 
all political subdivisions and municipalities therein and no local 
authority shall enact or enforce any ordinance on a matter cov- 
ered by the provisions of such chapters unless expressly autho- 
rized. (Revised, 1968.) 

§ 15-102 — Powers of local authorities 

(a) The provisions of this act shall not be deemed to pre- 
vent local authorities with respect to streets and highways 
under their jurisdiction and within the reasonable exercise of 
the police power from : 

1. Regulating or prohibiting stopping, standing or parking; 

2. Regulating traffic by means of police officers or official 
traffic-control devices ; 

3. Regulating or prohibiting processions or assemblages on 
the highways; 

4. Designating particular highways or roadways for use by 
traffic moving in one direction as authorized in § 11-308; 

5. Establishing speed limits for vehicles in public parks not- 
withstanding the provisions of § 11-803 (a) 3; 

6. Designating any highway as a through highway or desig- 
nating any intersection as a stop or yield intersection ; 

7. Restricting the use. of highways as authorized in § 14-113; 

8. Regulating the operation of bicycles and requiring the reg- 
istration and inspection of same, including the requirement of 
a registration fee ; 

9. Regulating or prohibiting the turning of vehicles or speci- 
fied types of vehicles ; 

10. Altering or establishing speed limits as authorized in § 
11-803; 

11. Requiring written accident reports as authorized in § 
10-115; 

12. Designating no-passing zones as authorized in § 11-307; 

13. Prohibiting or regulating the use of controlled-access 

230 



Powers of State and Local Authorities § 15-103 

roadways by any class or kind of traffic as authorized in § 
11-313; 

14. Prohibiting or regulating the use of heavily traveled 
streets by any class or kind of traffic found to be incompatible 
with the normal and safe movement of traffic; 

15. Establishing minimum speed limits as authorized in § 
11-804 (b); 

16. Designating hazardous railroad grade crossings as au- 
thorized in § 11-702; 

17. Designating and regulating traffic on play streets; 

18. Prohibiting pedestrians from crossing a roadway in a 
business district or any designated highway except in a cross- 
walk as authorized in § 15-107; 

19. Restricting pedestrian crossings at unmarked crosswalks 
as authorized in § 15-108; 

20. Regulating persons propelling push carts; 

21. Regulating persons upon skates, coasters, sleds and other 
toy vehicles ; 

22. Adopting and enforcing such temporary or experimental 
regulations as may be necessary to cover emergencies or special 
conditions ; 

23. Adopting such other traffic regulations as are specifically 
authorized by this act. 

(b) No local authority shall erect or maintain any official 
traffic-control device at any location so as to require the traffic 
on any State highway to stop before entering or crossing any 
intersecting highway unless approval in writing has first been 
obtained from the (State highway commission). 

(c) No ordinance or regulation enacted under subdivisions 
(4), (5), (6), (7),- (9), (10), (12), (13), (14), (16), (17) or 
(19) of paragraph (a) of this section shall be effective until 
official traffic-control devices giving notice of such local traffic 
regulations are erected upon or at the entrances to the highway 
or part thereof affected as may be most appropriate. (Section 
REVISED, 1968.) 

§ 15-103 — Adoption by reference 

Local authorities by ordinance may adopt by reference all or 
any part of the (name of State) Model Traffic Ordinance (in- 
clude any further description of the ordinance that may be nec- 

231 



§ 15-104 Uniform Vehicle code 

essary) without publishing or posting in full the provisions 
thereof, provided that (the enacting ordinance is published 
and) not less than three copies are available for public use and 
examination in the office of the (clerk) (commencing at least 
days prior to such adoption). 1 (New, 1968.) 

§ 15-104 — (State highway commission) to adopt sign manual 

The (State highway commission) shall adopt a manual and 
specifications for a uniform system of traffic-control devices 
consistent with the provisions of this chapter for use upon 
highways within this State. Such uniform system shall corre- 
late with and so far as possible conform to the system set forth 
in the most recent edition of the Manual on Uniform Traffic Con- 
trol Devices for Streets and Highways and other standards is- 
sued or endorsed by the Federal Highway Administrator. 2 
(Revised, 1968.) 



1 This section should be considered together with existing constitutional 
and legal requirements concerning the adoption and publication of munici- 
pal ordinances. Also, many states already have laws relating to munici- 
pal adoption of codes by reference and they should also be consulted. Con- 
sideration should be given to whether subsequent changes in the model 
ordinance adopted by reference will be adopted automatically or sepa- 
rately. If a state does not have or contemplate having an official or un- 
official model traffic ordinance for use by its municipalities, some consid- 
eration might be given to authorizing adoption by reference of a printed 
code of traffic ordinances compiled by a nationally-recognized organization 
such as the Model Traffic Ordinance of the National Committee on Uni- 
form Traffic Laws and Ordinances. 

If the recommendation of the National Committee is followed and a 
model traffic ordinance is adopted by the state legislature, then this sec- 
tion should be included as a part of that enactment. 

2 In enacting this provision, states should consider one of the Highway 
Safety Program Standards issued on June 27, 1967, under the Highway 
Safety Act, 23 USC § 402(a). Standard 4.4.13 suggests that states and 
local authorities should utilize devices that "conform with standards is- 
sued or endorsed by the Federal Highway Administrator." Any subse- 
quent change in this Standard should be considered in enacting or revis- 
ing laws comparable to this section. Copies of Standard 4.4.13 can be ob- 
tained from the National Highway Safety Bureau, Washington, D.C. 
20591, or may be found in 33 Federal Register 16560-64 (Nov. 14, 1968) 
or in 23 Code of Federal Regulations § 204.4. 

The requirement^ that a state agency adopt a manual affords maximum 
flexibility in devising an appropriate and uniform system for traffic-con- 
trol devices. The agency might, for instance: adopt the Manual on Uni- 
form Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways; or develop and 
publish a manual of its own that conforms to that Manual and exceeds 
its minimum specifications or describes the design and application of sup- 
plementary traffic-control devices; or adopt the Manual and devise a sup- 
plementary publication — the two becoming the manual for that state. 

The alternative to adoption of a manual by a state agency is to require 
all traffic-control devices installed by state and local authorities to con- 

232 



Powers of State and Local Authorities § 15-106 

§ 15-105 — (State highway commission) to sign all State (and 
county) highways 

(a) The (State highway commission) shall place and main- 
tain such traffic-control devices, conforming to its manual and 
specifications, upon all State (and county) highways as it shall 
deem necessary to indicate and to carry out the provisions of this 
act or to regulate, warn or guide traffic. 

(b) No local authority shall place or maintain any traffic- 
control device upon any highway under the jurisdiction of the 
(State highway commission) except by the latter's permission. 

§ 15-106 — Local traffic-control devices 

(a) Local authorities in their respective jurisdictions shall 
place and maintain such traffic-control devices upon highways 
under their jurisdiction as they may deem necessary to indicate 
and to carry out the provisions of this act or local traffic ordi- 
nances or to regulate, warn or guide traffic. All such traffic-con- 
trol devices hereafter erected shall conform to the State manual 
and specifications. 3 

Optional (b) Local authorities in exercising those func- 
tions referred to in the preceding paragraph shall be subject to 
the direction and control of the (State highway commission). 4 



form to specified standards, such as those issued or endorsed by the Fed- 
eral Highway Administrator. Although not as flexible, this alternative 
might foster a high degree of uniformity. States following this alterna- 
tive would not need a law comparable to § 15-104. Instead, §§ 15-105 (a) 
and 15-106 (a) could be modified to require such conformance by state and 
local authorities. 

Regardless of the approach selected, all state and local authorities are 
urged to follow the system of traffic-control devices recommended in the 
latest edition of the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. The 1961 
edition of this document has been endorsed by the Federal Highway Ad- 
ministrator. In view of Highway Safety Program Standard 4.4.13, how- 
ever, the use of future editions of this Manual should await the Admin- 
istrator's endorsement in states desiring to comply with that Standard. 
In the meantime, the Manual is the national standard for uniformity 
among traffic-control devices. It is prepared and sponsored by the Ameri- 
can Association of State Highway Officials, Institute of Traffic Engineers, 
National Committee on Uniform Traffic Laws and Ordinances, National 
Association of Counties and National League of Cities. Copies of the 
Manual may be obtained from the U.S. Government Printing Office, Wash- 
ington, D.C. 20401. 

3 Section 15-106(a) leaves to local authorities complete jurisdiction to 
determine the number and location of all traffic-control devices upon high- 
ways under their jurisdiction, requiring only that all such devices shall 
conform to the State manual and specifications. 

4 Optional paragraph (b), if adopted, would vest in the (State highway 

233 



§ 15-107 Uniform Vehicle Code 

§ 15-107 — Authority to restrict pedestrian crossings 

Local authorities by ordinance, and the (State highway com- 
mission) by erecting appropriate official traffic-control devices, 
are hereby empowered within their respective jurisdictions to 
prohibit pedestrians from crossing any roadway in a business 
district or any designated highways except in a crosswalk. (Re- 
vised, 1968.) 

§ 15-108 — Authority to close unmarked crosswalks 

The (State highway commission) and local authorities in 
their respective jurisdictions may after an engineering and 
traffic investigation designate unmarked crosswalk locations 
where pedestrian crossing is prohibited or where pedestrians 
must yield the right of way to vehicles. Such restrictions shall 
be effective only when official traffic-control devices indicating 
the restrictions are in place. (New, 1968.) 

§ 15-109 — Authority to designate through highways and stop 
and yield intersections 

The (State highway commission) with reference to State 
(and county) highways and local authorities with reference to 
other highways under their jurisdiction may designate through 
highways and erect stop signs or yield signs at specified en- 
trances thereto, or may designate any intersection as a stop in- 
tersection or as a yield intersection and erect stop signs or yield 
signs at one or more entrances to such intersection. (Revised, 
1956 ; RENUMBERED, 1968.) 

§ 15-110 — Regulations relative to school buses 

(a) The (State board of education) by and with the advice 
of the motor vehicle commissioner shall adopt and enforce reg- 
ulations not inconsistent with this act to govern the design and 
operation of all school buses when owned and operated by any 
school district or privately owned and operated under contract 

commission) authority to direct and control where and what number of 
traffic-control devices might be erected by local authorities. This may be 
objectionable to some local authorities although it is recognized that in 
certain instances local authorities having a free hand in this matter have 
erected such numbers of regulatory signs and signals as to unduly delay 
traffic and invite disobedience by the motoring public. 

234 



Powers of State and Local Authorities § 15-112 

with any school district in this State, and such regulations shall 
by reference be made a part of any such contract with a school 
district. Every school district, its officers and employees, and 
every person employed under contract by a school district shall 
be subject to said regulations. 

(b) Any officer or employee of any (school or school district) 
who violates any of said regulations or fails to include obliga- 
tion to comply with said regulations in any contract executed 
by him on behalf of a (school or school district) shall be guilty 
of misconduct and subject to removal from office or employ- 
ment. Any person operating a school bus under contract with 
a (school or school district) who fails to comply with any said 
regulations shall be guilty of breach of contract and such con- 
tract shall be canceled after notice of hearing by the respon- 
sible officers of such (school or school district). (Section re- 
vised, 1962 ; renumbered, 1968.) 

§ 15-111 — Designation of authorized emergency vehicles 

(a) The commissioner (or other appropriate state official) 
shall designate any particular vehicle as an authorized emer- 
gency vehicle upon a finding that designation of that vehicle is 
necessary to the preservation of life or property or to the execu- 
tion of emergency governmental functions. 

(b) The designation shall be in writing and the written 
designation shall be carried in the vehicle at all times, but fail- 
ure to carry the written designation shall not affect the status 
of the vehicle as an authorized emergency vehicle. (New sec- 
tion, 1968.) 

§ 15-112 — Abandoned vehicles 

(a) No person shall abandon a vehicle upon any highway. 

(b) No person shall abandon a vehicle upon any public or 
private property without the express or implied consent of the 
owner or person in lawful possession or control of the property. 

(c) Any police officer who has reasonable grounds to be- 
lieve that a vehicle has been abandoned may remove the vehicle, 
or cause it to be removed, at the expense of the owner, to the 
nearest garage or other place of safety and shall immediately 
send a written report of such removal to the department, which 
report shall include a description of the vehicle, the date, time 
and place of removal, the grounds for removal and the name of 

235 



§ 10- 116 UJN1FUKM Vttm<JL.l<J VjUUK 

the garage or place where the vehicle is stored. Upon receipt of 
a report as provided, the department shall notify the registered 
owner of the vehicle, or any lienholder, giving the grounds for 
removal and the name of the garage or place where the vehicle 
is stored. If the vehicle is not registered in this State, the de- 
partment shall make a reasonable effort to notify the registered 
owner or any lienholder of the removal and the location of the 
vehicle. The department shall forward a copy of the notice to 
the owner or person in charge of the garage or place where the 
vehicle is stored* 

(d) For purposes of this section a vehicle shall be presumed 
to be abandoned if it is left unattended on a highway for a pe- 
riod in excess of days or on any public or private prop- 
erty without express or implied consent of the owner or person 
in lawful possession or control of the property for a period in 
excess of , days. 

Optional (e) In the event a vehicle is not reclaimed by 

the registered owner or any lienholder within days, the 

laws of this State governing the disposition of abandoned prop- 
erty shall apply. 5 (New section, 1968.) 

§ 15-113 — Removal of traffic hazards 

(a) It shall be the duty of the owner of real property to re- 
move from such property any tree, plant, shrub or other ob- 
struction, or part thereof, which, by obstructing the view of any 
driver, constitutes a traffic hazard. 

(b) When the (State highway commission) or any local au- 
thority determines upon the basis of an engineering and traffic 
investigation that such a traffic hazard exists, it shall notify the 
owner and order that the hazard be removed within 10 days. 

(c) The failure of the owner to remove such traffic hazard 
within 10 days shall constitute an offense punishable by a pen- 
alty of dollars and every day said owner shall 

fail to remove it shall be a separate and distinct offense. (New 
SECTION, 1968.) 



5 States enacting this section should consider whether ^ existing laws on 
abandoned property adequately provide for the disposition of abandoned 
vehicles. 

236 



Powers op State and Local Authorities § 15-114 
§ 15-114 — Rights of owners of real property 

Nothing in this act shall be construed to prevent the owner 
of real property used by the public for purposes of vehicular 
travel by permission of the owner, and not as a matter of right, 
from prohibiting such use, or from requiring other or different 
or additional conditions than those specified in this act, or other- 
wise regulating such use as may seem best to such owner. (Re- 
numbered, 1968.) 



237 



CHAPTER 1G 

Parties and Procedure Upon Arrest 

§ 16-101 — Parties to a crime 

Every person who commits, attempts to commit, conspires to 
commit, or aids or abets in the commission of, any act declared 
in this act to be a crime, whether individually or in connection 
with one or more other persons or as a principal, agent or ac- 
cessory, shall be guilty of such offense, and every person who 
falsely, fraudulently, forcibly or willfully induces, causes, 
coerces, requires, permits or directs another to violate any pro- 
vision of this act is likewise guilty of such offense. 

§ 16-102 — Offenses by persons owning or controlling vehicles 

It is unlawful for the owner, or any other person, employing 
or otherwise directing the driver of any vehicle to require or 
knowingly to permit the operation of such vehicle upon a high- 
way in any manner contrary to law. 

§ 16-103 — Public officers and employees — exceptions 

The provisions of chapters 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 applicable to 
drivers of vehicles upon the highways shall apply to the drivers 
of all vehicles owned or operated by the United States, this 
State or any county, city, town, district or any other political 
subdivision of the State, subject to such specific exceptions as 
are set forth in this act. 

§ 16-104 — Procedure upon arrest for felony 

Whenever a person is arrested for any violation of this act 
declared herein to be a felony, he shall be dealt with in like 
manner as upon arrest for the commission of any other felony. 
For the purposes of this section any offense which may be pun- 
ishable by imprisonment in a state penitentiary is a felony. 
(New, 1956.) 

§ 16405 — Arrests for serious offenses 

(a) The authority of a police officer to make an arrest is the 
same as upon an arrest for a felony when such officer has rea- 

238 



Parties and Procedure Upon Arrest § 16-106 

sonable and probable grounds to believe that the person ar- 
rested has committed any of the following offenses: 

1. Homicide by vehicle; 

2. Driving, or being in actual physical control of, a vehicle 
while under the influence of intoxicating liquor; 

3. Driving a vehicle while under the influence of any narcotic 
drug, or driving a vehicle while under the influence of any other 
drug to a degree which renders the person incapable of safely 
driving a vehicle ; 

4. Failure to stop, or failure to give information, or failure to 
render reasonable assistance, in the event of an accident result- 
ing in death or personal injuries, as prescribed in §§ 10-102 and 
10-104; 

5. Failure to stop, or failure to give information, in the event 
of an accident resulting in damage to a vehicle or to other prop- 
erty, as prescribed in §§ 10-103 to 10-105 inclusive; (Revised, 
1968.) 

6. Reckless driving; 

7. Racing on the highway; or (New, 1968.) 

8. Willfully fleeing from or attempting to elude a police offi- 
cer. (New, 1968.) 

Provided, however, that the manner of making arrests under 
this section shall be as in misdemeanor cases. 

(b) Whenever any person is arrested as authorized in this 
section he shall be taken without unnecessary delay before the 
proper magistrate as specified in § 16-111, except that in the 
case of the offenses designated in paragraphs 5, 6, 7 and 8, a 
police officer shall have the same discretion as is provided in 
other cases in § 16-107. (REVISED, 1968.) 

§ 16-106 — When person must be taken immediately before a 
magistrate 

Whenever any person is halted by a police officer for any 
violation of this act not amounting to a felony, he shall be taken 
without unnecessary delay before the proper magistrate, as 
specified in § 16-111, in either of the following cases: 

1. When the person demands an immediate appearance be- 
fore a magistrate ; or 

2. In any other event when the person is issued a traffic ci- 
tation by an authorized person and refuses to give his written 

239 



§ 16-107 Uniform Vehicle Code 

promise to appear in court as hereinafter provided. (Section 

REVISED, 1956.) 

§ 16-107 — When officer has option to take person before a 
magistrate 

Whenever any person is halted by a police officer for any vio- 
lation of this act and is not required to be taken before a magis- 
trate as hereinbefore provided, the person shall, in the discre- 
tion of the officer, either be given a traffic citation as herein- 
after provided, or be taken without unnecessary delay before 
the proper magistrate, as specified in § 16-111 in any of the 
following cases : 

1. When the person does not furnish satisfactory evidence of 
identity or when the officer has reasonable and probable grounds 
to believe the person will disregard a written promise to ap- 
pear in court ; 

2. When the person is charged with a violation of § 12-409, 
relating to vehicles transporting hazardous materials; (RE- 
VISED, 1968.) 

3. When the person is charged with a violation of § 13-103, 
relating to the refusal of a driver of a vehicle to submit such ve- 
hicle to an inspection and test; or 

4. When the person is charged with a violation of § 14- 
111(c), relating to the failure or refusal of a driver of a vehicle 
to submit the vehicle and load to a weighing or to remove ex- 
cess weight therefrom. (New section, 1956.) 

§ 16-108 — Arrest of nonresident 

(a) All of the provisions of this chapter apply both to resi- 
dents and nonresidents of this State, except the special provi- 
sions in this section which shall govern in respect to nonresi- 
dents under the circumstances herein stated. 

(b) A police officer at the scene of a traffic accident may ar- 
rest without a warrant any driver of a vehicle who is a nonresi- 
dent of this State and who is involved in the accident when, 
based upon personal investigation, the officer has reasonable 
and probable grounds to believe that the person has committed 
any offense under the provisions of this act in connection with 
the accident, and if the officer has reasonable and probable 

240 



Parties and Procedure Upon Arrest § 16-110 

grounds to believe the person will disregard a written promise 
to appear in court. 

(c) Whenever any person is arrested under the provisions of 
this section, he shall be taken without unnecessary delay before 
the proper magistrate, as specified in § 16-111. (New section, 
1956.) 

§ 16-109 — When person to be given five-day notice to appear in 
court 

(a) Whenever a person is halted by a police officer for any 
violation of this act punishable as a misdemeanor and is not 
taken before a magistrate as hereinbefore required or per- 
mitted, the officer shall prepare in quadruplicate a written traffic 
citation containing a notice to appear in court, the name and ad- 
dress of the person, the State registration number of his vehicle, 
if any, the offense charged, the time and place when and where 
the person shall appear in court, and such other pertinent infor- 
mation as may be necessary. 

(b) The time specified in the notice to appear must be at least 
five days after the alleged violation unless the person charged 
with the violation shall demand an earlier hearing. 

(c) The place specified in the notice to appear must be before 
a magistrate, as designated in § 16-1 ll. 1 

(d) The person charged with the violation may give his writ- 
ten promise to appear in court by signing at least one copy of 
the written traffic citation prepared by the officer, in which 
event the officer shall deliver a copy of the citation to the per- 
son, and thereupon the officer shall not take the person into 
physical custody for the violation. 

(e) Any officer violating any of the provisions of this sec- 
tion is guilty of misconduct in office and shall be subject to re- 
moval from office. (Section revised, 1956.) 

§ 16-110 — Authority of an officer at the scene of an accident 

Except for felonies and those offenses enumerated in para- 



1 It is recomm ended that jurisdiction over juvenile traffic offenders be 
vested in the traffic courts except where juvenile delinquency involves of- 
fenses in addition to or other than traffic offenses. In such latter event, 
jurisdiction should be vested as at present in most cities in the juvenile 
court. 

241 



§ 16-111 Uniform Vehicle Code 

graphs 1, 2, 3 and 4 of subsection (a) of § 16-105, a police offi- 
cer at the scene of a traffic accident may issue a written traffic 
citation, as provided in § 16-109, to any driver of a vehicle in- 
volved in the accident when, based upon personal investigation, 
the officer has reasonable and probable grounds to believe that 
the person has committed any offense under the provisions of 
this act in connection with the accident. (NEW, 1956.) 

§ 16-111 — Appearance before magistrate having jurisdiction 

Whenever any person is taken before a magistrate or is 
given a written traffic citation containing a notice to appear be- 
fore a magistrate as hereinbefore provided, the magistrate shall 
be a magistrate within the county in which the offense charged 
is alleged to have been committed and who has jurisdiction of 
the offense and is nearest or most accessible with reference to 
the place where the alleged violation occurred, except that when 
the offense is alleged to have been committed within an incor- 
porated municipality wherein there is an established court hav- 
ing jurisdiction of the offense, the person shall be taken without 
unnecessary delay before that court. For the purpose of this 
chapter, the terms "magistrate" and "court' 7 include magis- 
trates and courts having jurisdiction of offenses under this act 
as committing magistrates and courts and those having juris- 
diction of the trials of such offenses. (New, 1956.) 

§ 16-112— Release of defendant when magistrate not available 

Whenever any person is taken into custody by an officer for 
the purpose of taking him before a magistrate or court as au- 
thorized or required in this chapter upon any charge other than 
a felony or the offenses enumerated in paragraphs 1, 2, 3 and 
4 of subsection (a) of § 16-105, and no magistrate is available at 
the time of arrest, and there is no bail schedule established by 
any such magistrate or court and no lawfully designated court 
clerk or other public officer who is available and authorized to 
accept bail upon behalf of the magistrate or court, such person 
shall be released from custody upon the issuance to him of a 
written traffic citation and his signing a promise to appear, as 
provided in § 16-109. (New, 1956.) 



242 



Parties and Procedure Upon Arrest § 16-117 

§ 16-113 — Failure to obey citation 

(a) It shall be unlawful for any person to violate his written 
promise to appear given to an officer upon the issuance of a traf- 
fic citation regardless of the disposition of the charge for which 
such citation was originally issued. (Revised, 1952.) 

(b) A written promise to appear in court may be complied 
with by an appearance by counsel. 

§ 16-114 — Procedure prescribed herein not exclusive 

The foregoing provisions of this chapter shall govern all po- 
lice officers in making arrests without a warrant for violations 
of any provisions of chapters 10, 11, 12, 13 or 14, but the pro- 
cedure prescribed herein shall not otherwise be exclusive of any 
other method prescribed by law for the arrest and prosecution of 
a person for an offense of like grade. 2 

§ 16-115 — Evidence of conviction inadmissible in a civil action 

No evidence of the conviction of any person for any violation 
of any provision of chapters 10, 11, 12, 13 or 14 shall be admis- 
sible in any court in any civil action. 

§ 16-116 — Conviction for traffic violation not to affect credibil- 
ity of witness 

The conviction of a person upon a charge of violating any pro- 
vision of chapters 10, 11, 12, 13 or 14 or other traffic regulation 
less than a felony shall not affect or impair the credibility of 
such person as a witness in any civil or criminal proceeding. 

§ 16-117— Form for traffic citations 3 

(a) Every traffic enforcement agency in this State shall pro- 
vide in appropriate form traffic citations containing notices to 
appear which shall be issued in books with citations in quadrup- 
licate and meeting the requirements of this chapter. (Revised, 
1968.) 



2 This provision is intended to make clear that complaints may be filed 
and warrants issued thereon as usually provided by criminal statutes. 

3 It is recommended that each state in adopting this chapter employ the 
term "traffic citation" which is the term employed in many states, al- 
though in some jurisdictions traffic citations are referred to as "notices 
to appear," "summonses,*' "tickets," or some other terminology indicating 
a legal form of traffic charge. 

243 



§ 16-118 Uniform Vehicle Code 

(b) The chief administrative officer of every such traffic en- 
forcement agency shall be responsible for the issuance of such 
books and shall maintain a record of every such book and each 
citation contained therein issued to individual members of the 
traffic enforcement agency and shall require and retain a receipt 
for every book so issued. 

§ 16-118 — Disposition and records of traffic citations 

(a) Every traffic enforcement officer upon issuing a traffic ci- 
tation to an alleged violator of any provision of the motor ve- 
hicle laws of this State or of any traffic ordinance of any city 
or town shall deposit the original or a copy of such traffic cita- 
tion with a court having jurisdiction over the alleged offense 
or with its traffic violations bureau. 

(b) Upon the deposit of the original or a copy of such traffic 
citation with a court having jurisdiction over the alleged of- 
fense or with its traffic violations bureau as aforesaid, said orig- 
inal or copy of such traffic citation may be disposed of only by 
trial in said court or other official action by a judge of said court, 
including forfeiture of the bail, or by the deposit of sufficient 
bail with or payment of a fine to said traffic violations bureau 
by the person to whom such traffic citation has been issued by 
the traffic enforcement officer. 

(c) It shall be unlawful and official misconduct for any traffic 
enforcement officer or other officer or public employee to dis- 
pose of a traffic citation or copies thereof or of the record of the 
issuance of the same in a manner other than as required herein. 

(d) The chief administrative officer of every traffic enforce- 
ment agency shall require the return to him of a copy of every 
traffic citation issued by an officer under his supervision to an 
alleged violator of any traffic law or ordinance and of all copies 
of every traffic citation which has been spoiled or upon which 
any entry has been made and not issued to an alleged violator. 

(e) Such chief administrative officer shall also maintain or 
cause to be maintained in connection with every traffic citation 
issued by an officer under his supervision a record of the dis- 
position of the charge by the court or its traffic violations bu- 
reau in which the original or copy of the traffic citation was 
deposited. 

244 



Parties and Procedure Upon Arrest § 16-120 

§ 16-119 — Illegal cancellation of traffic citation — audit of cita- 
tion records 

(a) Any person who cancels or solicits the cancellation of 
any traffic citation, in any manner other than as provided in 
this chapter, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor. 

(b) Every record of traffic citations required in this chapter 
shall be audited (monthly) (quarterly) (semiannually) (an- 
nually) by the appropriate fiscal officer of the governmental 
agency to which the traffic enforcement agency is responsible. 

(c) Such fiscal officer shall publish or cause to be published a 
(monthly) (quarterly) (semiannual) (annual) summary of all 
traffic violation notices issued by said traffic enforcement 
agency and the dispositions thereof in at least one local daily 
newspaper of general circulation. 

§ 16-120 — When copy of citation shall be deemed a lawful 
complaint 

In the event the form of citation provided under § 16-117 
includes information and is sworn to as required under the gen- 
eral laws of this State in respect to a complaint charging com- 
mission of the offense alleged in said citation to have been com- 
mitted, then such citation when filed with a court having juris- 
diction shall be deemed to be a lawful complaint for the purpose 
of prosecution under this act. (New section, 1952.) 



245 



CHAPTER 17 
Penalties and Disposition of Fines and Forfeitures 
§ 17-101 — Penalties for misdemeanor 

(a) It is a misdemeanor for any person to violate any of the 
provisions of this act unless such violation is by this act or other 
law of this State declared to be a felony. 

(b) Every person convicted of a misdemeanor for a viola- 
tion of any of the provisions of chapters 10, 11, 12, 13 or 14, 
for which another penalty is not provided, shall for a first con- 
viction thereof be punished by a fine of not more than $100 
or by imprisonment for not more than 10 days ; for conviction 
of a second offense committed within one year after the date 
of the first offense, such person shall be punished by a fine of 
not more than $200 or by imprisonment for not more than 20 
days or by both such fine and imprisonment; for conviction of 
a third or subsequent offense committed within one year after 
the date of the first offense, such person shall be punished by 
a fine of not more than $500 or by imprisonment for not more 
than six months or by both such fine and imprisonment. (Re- 
vised, 1968.) 

(c) Unless another penalty is in this act or by the laws of 
this State provided, every person convicted of a misdemeanor 
for the violation of any other provision of this act shall be pun- 
ished by a fine of not more than ($500), or by imprisonment 
for not more than six months, or by both such fine and imprison- 
ment 

§ 17-102— Penalty for felony 

Any person who is convicted of a violation of any of the pro- 
visions of this act herein or by the laws of this State declared 
to constitute a felony shall be punished by imprisonment for not 
less than one year nor more than five years, or by a fine of not 
less than $500 nor more than $5,000, or by both such fine and 
imprisonment. 

§ 17-103 — Disposition of fines and forfeitures 

(a) All fines and forfeitures collected upon conviction or 
upon forfeiture of bail of any person charged with a violation 

246 



Penalties and Disposition of Fines, etc. § 17-103 

of any of the provisions of this act constitating a misdemeanor 
shall be deposited in the treasury of the State or in the treasury 
of the county, city or town maintaining the court wherein such 
conviction or forfeiture was had in a special fund to be known 
as the "highway improvement fund," which is hereby created, 
and which shall be used exclusively in the construction, main- 
tenance and repair of public highways, bridges and highway 
structures or for the installation and maintenance of traffic- 
control devices thereon within such respective jurisdictions. 

(b) Failure, refusal or neglect on the part of any judicial 
or other officer or employee receiving or having custody of any 
such fine or forfeiture, either before or after a deposit in said 
"highway improvement fund/' to comply with the foregoing 
provisions of this section shall constitute misconduct in office 
and shall be ground for removal therefrom. 



247 



CHAPTER 18 

Records and Reports of Convictions 

§ 18-101 — Record of traffic cases — report of convictions to de- 
partment 

(a) Every magistrate or judge of a court shall keep or cause 
to be kept a record of every traffic complaint, traffic citation or 
other legal form of traffic charge deposited with or presented to 
said court or its traffic violations bureau, and shall keep a record 
of every official action by said court or its traffic violations bu- 
reau in reference thereto, including but not limited to a record 
of every conviction, forfeiture of bail, judgment of acquittal and 
the amount of fine or forfeiture resulting from every said traffic 
complaint or citation deposited with or presented to said court 
or traffic violations bureau. 

(b) Within 10 days after the final conviction or the forfei- 
ture of bail of a person upon a charge of violating any provision 
of this act or other law or ordinance regulating the operation 
of vehicles, every said magistrate of the court or clerk of the 
court of record in which such conviction was had or bail was 
forfeited shall prepare and immediately forward to the depart- 
ment an abstract of the record of said court covering the case 
in which said person was so convicted or forfeited bail, which 
abstract must be certified by the person so required to prepare 
the same to be true and correct. Report need not be made of 
any conviction or forfeiture involving the illegal parking or 
standing of a vehicle. (Revised, 1968.) 

(c) Said abstract shall be made upon a form furnished by the 
department and shall include the full name and residence ad- 
dress of the party charged, the number of his license, the reg- 
istration number of the vehicle involved, a description of the 
offense, the section of the law or ordinance violated, the date 
of hearing, the plea, the judgment or whether bail was for- 
feited, the sentence or amount of forfeiture as the case may 
be, and such other information as the department may re- 
quire. (Revised, 1968.) 

(d) Every court of record shall also forward a like report to 
the department upon the conviction of any person of manslaugh- 
ter or other felony in the commission of which a vehicle was 
used. 

248 



Records and Reports op Convictions § 18-101 

(e) The failure, refusal or neglect of any such judicial officer 
to comply with any of the requirements of this section shall con- 
stitute misconduct in office and shall be ground for removal 
therefrom. 

(f) The department shall keep all abstracts received here- 
under at its main office and the same shall be open to pub- 
lic inspection during reasonable business hours. 



249 



CHAPTER 19 

Effect of and Short Title of Act 

§ 19-101 — Uniformity of interpretation 

This act shall be so interpreted and construed as to effectuate 
its general purpose to make uniform the law of those states 

which enact it. 

§ 19-102— Effect of headings 

Chapter, article and section headings contained herein shall 
not be deemed to govern, limit, modify or in any manner affect 
the scope, meaning or intent of the provisions of any article or 
section hereof. 

§ 19-103— Short title 

This act may be cited as the Uniform Vehicle Code. 

§ 19-104 — Act not retroactive 

This act shall not have a retroactive effect and shall not ap- 
ply to any traffic accident, to any cause of action arising out of 
a traffic accident or judgment arising therefrom, or to any vio- 
lation of the motor vehicle laws of this State, occurring prior 
to the effective date of this act. 

§ 19-105— Constitutionality 

If any part or parts of this act shall be held to be unconsti- 
tutional, such unconstitutionality shall not affect the validity of 
the remaining parts of this act. The legislature hereby declares 
that it would have passed the remaining parts of this act if it 
had known that such part or parts thereof would be declared 
unconstitutional. 

§ 19-106— Repeal 

The (existing statutes covering the same matters as em- 
braced in this act) are hereby repealed and all acts or parts 
of acts inconsistent with the provisions of this act are hereby 
repealed. 

§ 19-107— Time of taking effect 

This act shall take effect from and after the day of 

250 



INDEX TO UNIFORM VEHICLE CODE 



Section 
Abandoned vehicles 
Garage or parking lot to report .... 4- 105(c) 
On public or private property .... IS- 112(b) 

Removal of 15 -112(c) 

Unclaimed vehicle index of depart- 
ment 4-105(d) 

Accidents, civil liability generally .... 

9-101 to -301 

Accidents, duties at scene— generally 

10-101 to -106 

Aid to persons injured 10-104 

Application of provisions 10-101, 

11-101, 15-101 

Arrest for failure to perform 16-105 

Attended property 10-103 

Damage to vehicle or other property 
Duty to give information 

Attended property 10-104 

Unattended property 10-105 

Duty to stop 

Attended property 10-103 

Unattended property ; 10-105 

Immediate notice to police .... 10-106, -105 
Death or personal injury 

Duty to give information 10-104 

Duty to render aid 10-104 

Duty to stop 10-102(a) 

Immediate notice to police .... 10-104, -106 
Penalty for failure to perform 

duties 10-102(b) 

Revocation of license 10-102, 6-205 

Debris removal 11- 1111(c) 

Disabled vehicle 

Emergency warning devices 12-408 

Excepted from standing restric- 
tions 11 -1001(b) 

Removal of 11-1002 

Drivers' duties, generally .... 10-102 to -106 

Aid to injured 10-104 

Identification 10-104, -105 

Immediate notice to police 10-106 

Stop 10- 102(a), -103, -105 

Emergency warning devices 12-408 

False oral report . 10-108 

Highways, accidents occurring on 

and off 10-101, 11-101 

Identification, driver must give 10-104, -105 

Immediate notice to police 10406 

License, driver must exhibit 10-104 

Occupants, notice to police by 10-106 

Police officer's authority .... 16-110, -108, 

-105 
Private property, accidents occur- 
ring on '. 10-101, 11-101 

Removal of vehicle „ 11-1002 

Revocation of license for failure to 

perform 10-102, 6-205 

Stop, duty of involved driver to 

Attended vehicle or property 10-103 

Death or personal injury 10-102(a) 

^ Unattended vehicle or property .... 10-105 
Stop so as not to obstruct traffic 

10-102, -103, -105 

Striking property 10-103, -105 

Unattended vehicle or property 10-105 

Vehicular traffic hazard warning 

signals required 12-408 

Accidents, excess speed causing .... ll-807(b) 

Accidents in other states 7-213 

Accidents, security after 7-201 to -219 

Accidents, service of process on non- 
resident 9-301 



Section 
Accidents, written reports — generally 

10-107 to -115 

Additional information 10- 107(b) 

Amount of property damage 10- 107 (a) 

Application of provisions 10-101, 11- 

101, 15-101 

Bureau of vital statistics 10-110 

Confidential nature 10- 107(e), -115 

Court may secure certain informa- 
tion 10- 107(f) 

Death or personal injury 10- 107(a) 

Department ■ to file 6-117, 2-305(d) 

Department to tabulate and analyze 10-114 

Driver to make, when 10- 107(a) 

Driver's record of 6-117, -206(a), 7-103 

Fvidencc, when admissible as .... 10- 107(f) 

False reports 10-108 

Financial responsibility, use of re- 
ports for 10-107(e), -113, 7-202 

Form of report 10-113 

Garage report, when required 10-111 

Information in 10-113 

Local authorities may require 10-115 

Owner to make, when 10- 107(d) 

Penalty for failing to make 10-109 

Personal injury or death 10- 107 (a) 

Physical incapacity 10-107(c), (d) 

Police to make 10-112 

Not confidential or privileged .... 10-112 

Privileged nature 10- 107(f), 7-219 

Property damage, amount of 10- 107(a) 

Public inspection 10-107(e), -112 

Supplemental reports 10- 107(b) 

Suspension until report made 10-109 

Time for filing 10- 107(a) 

Use of 10- 107(e), -113 

When required 10- 107 (a) 

Where to send 10- 107 (a), -115 

Witnesses, information from 2- 305(d) 

Acknowledging signatures 2-308 

Act not retroactive 19-104 

Administration of act (see also, Com- 
missioner, Department) 

Duty of commissioner 2-305 

Adoption by reference 

Federal Hazardous Materials Regu- 
lations 12-409 

Model Traffic Ordinance 15-103 

Advertising on traffic -control devices 

11 -205(b) 

Advisory board, medical 6-118 

Age limits^ for drivers, minimum 

Commercial or school bus driver 6- 104(c) 

Driver's license 6-103 (a) 

Instruction permit 6- 103(a). -105 

Air brakes— requirements 12-301 

Air-conditioning equipment 12-410 

Alcohol (see Intoxicating liquor) 
Alley 

Definition 1-102 

Intersection not formed by 1-126 

Left turn into 11-402 

Pedestrian, yield to, when entering 

or emerging from 11-509 

Stop when emerging from 11-705 

Turns at, excepted from restrictions 

against driving on left 11 -301(c), 

-306, -307 
Yield to vehicles, when emerging 

from .■ 11-404 

Amber lights (see Lamps, color re- 
quirements; Traffic-control signal 
legend, yellow) 
Ambulance (see Authorized emergency 
vehicle) 



252 



Uniform Vehicle Code 



Section 
American Association of Motor Ve- 
hicle Administrators 

Equipment approval procedure 12-102 

American Association of Railroads .... 12-407 
American Association of State High- 
way Officials 
Lights on highway maintenance ve- 
hicles 12-229 

Size and weight limitations 14-101 

Traffic- control devices, manual on 15-104 

Angle parking 11-1004 

Animal -drawn vehicles 

Certificates of title not required .... 3-102 

Controlled -access highways 11-313 

Drivers, rights and duties 11-104 

Lamps, reflectors, when required .... 12-216 

Animals, persons riding 1 11-104 

Antitheit laws, generally 4-101 to -111 

Changed or removed numbers or 

Plates 4-107 

Damaging or tampering with vehicle 4-104 
Evidence of criminal intent or knowl- 
edge 4-108 

Exceptions from provisions 4-101 

False report of theft or conversion .... 4-106 
Felonies relative to title and regis- 
tration 4-110 

Impounding vehicle reported stolen 

II -1002(c) 
Misdemeanors relating to title and 

registration 4-111 

Principals 4-109, 16-101 

Receiving or disposing of vehicle .... 4-103 
Reports of stolen, recovered and un- 
claimed vehicles 4-105 

Department, action by 4-105 (c), (d) 

Garages and parking places 4- 105(c) 

Owners and Iienh older s 4- 105(b) 

Police 4-105 (a) 

Tampering with vehicle 4-104 

Theft alarm signal device 12-401 (c) 

Unauthorized use ^ of vehicle 4-102 

Revocation of license 6-205 

Application of laws 
Accidents and accident reports .... 10-101, 
11-101, 15-101 

Certificate of title 3-101 

Driver licensing 6-101 

Equipment 12-101, 13-101, 15-101 

Financial responsibility „.. 7-201, -301 

Municipalities, in 15-101 

Nonresident service of process 9-301 (a) 

Registration 3-401 

Rules of the road „.. 11-101, 15-101 

Size and weight 14-101, 15-101 

Applications (see Forms) 
Armed Forces of_ the United States 
(see also, United States govern- 
ment) 

Driver licensing exemption 6-102 

Extension of license expiration , 6-115 

licenses issued by „ 6-102 

Arrest procedure, generally „ 16-104 to 

-120 
Appearance before magistrate hav- 
ing jurisdiction 16-111 

Civil action, evidence of conviction 

inadmissible 16-115 

Conviction of traffic violation not to 

affect credibility of witness 16-116 

Failure to obey citation 16-113 

Felony, arrest for „...««„ „ „ 16-104 

Misdemeanor „. 16-105 to -108 

Nonresident 16-108 

Offenses by owners and drivers .... 16-102 

Parties to a crime 16-101 

Police officer's authority at scene of 
accident 16-110, -108 



Section 
Arrest procedure, generally— (Contd) 
Procedure prescribed not exclusive .... 16-114 

Promise to appear 16-109, -113 

Release of defendant when magis- 
trate not available 16-112 

Removal of vehicle driven, by person 

under arrest 11- 1002(c) 

Serious offenses, arrests for .-..«. 16-105 

Traffic citation 

Disposition of 16-118 

Form for „,„. 16-117 

Illegal cancellation a misdemeanor 16-119 

Records of 16-118 

When copy a lawful complaint .... 16-120 
When officer has option to take 

person before a magistrate 16-107 

When person arrested must be 
taken immediately before a mag- 
istrate 16- 106 

When person arrested to be given 
five days 1 notice to appear in . 

court 16-109 

Written promise to appear—counsel 

may comply 16-113 

Arrows, use of, traffic -control signals 11-202 
Arterial street 

Definition 1-103 

Speed zoning by local authorities pre- 
scribed 11 -803 

Assemblages, local authorities may 

regulate 15-102 

Assigned risk plan 7-501 

Authorized emergency vehicle 

Ambulances 1-104, 15-111 

Audible signal 

Required 12-218 

Use of 12-401 (d), 11-405, -106 

Definition „ 1-104 

Designating certain vehicles as 1-104, 

1.5-111 

Driver of, to exercise care 11 -106(d), 

-405(b) 
Drivers of other vehicles must yield 

11 -405 (a) 
Equipment required on 

Audible signal 12-218, -401(d) 

Visual signal 12-218 

Fire vehicles 1-104, 15-111 

Following within 500 feet 11-1109 

Operation of 11-106 

Police vehicles 1-104, 15-111 

Privately-owned 1-104, 15-111 

Public employees to obey laws 16-103 

Pull over and stop for 11-405 

Siren, bell or whistle 12-218, -401(d) 

Special privileges— limitations 11 -106(b) 

Visual signal 

Required 12-218 

Use of 12-401 (d), 11-405, -106 

Written designation to be carried 

in 15-111 

Yield to 11-405 

Automatic reciprocity, when applicable 

3-402.1(j) 
Automobile liability policy or bond 
(see also, Financial responsibility) 
Security after accident, exemption .... 7-203 
Auxiliary lamps (see also, Eamps) 
Auxiliary driving and passing 

Pleight limits _ 12-217 

Number permitted ..„ „ 12-217 

Candlepower limits , 12-227 

Fog 12-217 

Multiple-beam road-lighting equipment 

12-222, -223 
Number of driving lamps permitted 12-226 
Axle -load limit (see also, Weight of 
vehicle or combination) 14-108 



Index 



253 



B 

Section 

Backing vehicle, limitations on 11-1102 

Back-up lamps (see also, Lamps) 

Colors permitted \ 2 '^fS C \ 

Number permitted ~~ ,??Jr< 

Use restricted 12- 221(c) 

Bail . . 

Forfeiture constitutes a conviction 

6- 204(c) 

Record of forfeiture required 18-101 

Schedule of W-112 

Bankruptcy, discharge in 7-315 

Basic speed rule 11-801 

Bells regulated 12-401(b), 11-1207 

Bicycle (see also, Motor-driven cycle) 

Bell required 11-1207 

Brake required 11-1207 

Carrying articles 11-1206 

Clinging to vehicle^ 11-1204 

Controlled-access highways 11-313 

Definition 1-105 

Effect of regulations 11-1201 

Application on highways and paths 

11-1201 
Parent net to authorize violation 

11-1201 

Violation a misdemeanor . ~ 11-1201 

Equipment 11-1207 

Bell or other audible signal 11-1207 

Brake 11-1207 

Lamp or reflector 11-1207 

Siren prohibited 11-1207 

Handlebars, one hand on 11-1206 

Inspection of, by local authorities 

15-102(a)8 

Lamp, rear, when required 11-1207 

I^ocal authorities, regulation by 15- 102(a) 

Number of persons riding on 11-1203 

Obey traffic laws 11-1202 

Passengers 11-1203 

Paths to be used when available .... 11-1205 

Reflector . 11-1207 

Hiding on roadways, restrictions 

Number of persons 11-1203 

Path, use when available 11-1205 

Right side, ride near 11-1205 

Two abreast 11-1205 

"Use of regular seat . 11-1203 

Right side of roadway, ride near 

11-1205 

Pules of the road apply to 11-1202 

Seat, use of required 11-1203 

Traffic laws apply to riders of .... 11-1202 

Vehicle, bicycle not a ^ 1-184 

Board of education (see State board 

of education) 
Bond (see Financial responsibility) 

Brakes, generally 12-301 to -304 

Automatic application upon breakaway 

12-301 (d) 

Bicycle requirements 11-1207 

Brakes on all wheels — exceptions 12- 301(c) 

Hydraulic brake fluid 12-304 

Inspection by police officers « 13-102 

Inspection, periodical „ 13-104 

Maintenance and adjustment 12-303 

Motorcycles 12-508 to -510 

Motor-driven cycles— powers of com- 
missioner 12-510 

Parking brakes — adequacy 12-301 (b) 

Performance ability— seven categories 

of vehicles 12-302 

Braking distance 12-302 

Braking force 12-302 

Deceleration .... 12-302 

Motorcycles 12-509 

Testing performance ability 12-302 



Section 
Brakes, generally— (Contd) 
Requirements— airbrakes .... 12-301 (f), (g). 

(0, (i) 
Requirements— vacuum brakes 

12-301(g), (i), (j) 
Reservoir capacity and safeguarding 

12-301(0, (0, (i> 

Service brakes— adequacy 12- 301 (a) 

Set on unattended vehicle 11-1101 

Two means of brake application 

12-301 (g), (h) 

Warning devices 12-301 (j) 

Bridges 

Parking, standing or stopping on 

11-1003 

Passing on approach to ll-306(a)3 

Pedestrian 11-502 (c), -503(b) 

Removal of vehicle parked on .. 11- 1002(b) 
Special speed limits on .... 11 -806(c) to (e) 
Building 
Pedestrian, drivers must yield to 

when entering or leaving 11-509 

Stop when emerging from 11-705 

Yield to vehicles when emerging 

from H-404 

Bullet, report vehicle struck by 10-111 

Bureau of Explosives 12-407 

Bus (see also, School bus) 

Additional lamps required 12-208 

Brake requirements 12-301, -302 

Coasting prohibited 11-1108 

Definition 1-106 

Electric turn signals required .... 11 -605(b), 

12-206(b) 
Investigation and test of safety .... 14-110 

Length limit exception 14- 104(b) 

Lighting requirements (see Lamps, 

generally) 
Passenger in front of white line 

11 -1104(b) 
Pedestrian soliciting ride on roadway 

11- 507(a) 
Railroad crossing, stop required .... 11-703 

Stopping on roadway 11-1001, -1003 

Vehicular hazard warning signals 

12-220, -408 

Width limit exception 14-102 

Business district (see also, Residence 
district, Urban district) 

Definition 1-107 

Emerging from alley, driveway or 

building 11-705 

Flares for disabled vehicle, excep- 
tions # 12-407, -408 

Following too closely, exceptions 

Caravans ll-310(c) 

Combinations of vehicles 11 -310(b) 

Trucks 11 -310(b) 

Pedestrians required to use cross- 
walks in 15-107 

School bus stopped for children 
Approaching drivers not required 

to stop 11 -707(a) 

Driver of, not to actuate visual 

signal 11 -707(b) 

Speed limits in „ 11-801.1 

Street-railway grade crossing 11-703 

C 
Campers, safety glass required in .... 12-406 
Cancellation (see also, Revocation, Sus- 
pension) t 
Dealer's license — when department 

may cancel „ 5-102 

Driver's license 

Definition of cancellation «... 1 - 108 

Department's authority 6-201 

Minor 6-109 

Possession unlawful 6-301(1) 



254 



UM1FUKJM Vi^JtllULj^ \jvun 



Section 
Cancellation — (Contd) 

Driver's license— (Contd) 

Return of license 6-210 

Liabilitv policy, notice to depart- 
ment 7-325 

Registration of vehicle 

Evidence to be returned 3-706 

For- rent vehicle 8- 101 (a) 

Operation while canceled unlaw- 
ful 3-702 

Candlepower restriction 12-227 

Captions, effect of 19-107 

Caravans ll-310(c) 

Certificate of title (see also, Registra- 
tion of vehicles ; Security interest ; 
Title, transfer of) generally .... 3-101 to 

-309 
Alternate provisions for states having 
no certificate of title act .... 3-301 to -309 
(Alt. A) 
Alternate provisions for states not re- 
quiring endorsement of security in- 
terests on certificates 3-301 to -309 

(Alt. B) 
Application for 

Fraudulent applications 3-110, -406 

Information required 3-104 

Registration cards and plates to 

accompany , 3-115 

Specially constructed, reconstructed 

or foreign vehicle » 3-404 

Transferred vehicle - 3-112 

Assignment or warranty of title .... 3-112 

Bond, when required 3-109 

Contents and effect 3-107 

Court review 3-210 

Dealers, not required 3-102 

Delivery, to whom 3-108 

Department, powers of 3-209 

Department to issue .. 3-106, -116 

Dismantling or wrecking vehicle, du- 
ties of owner 3-117 

Examination of records 3-105 

Expiration on transfer of title .... 3-112 to 

-114 
Failure to deliver, misdemeanor .... 4-111 

Fees 3-115, -805 to -809 

Grounds for refusing 3-110 

Information required on ; . 3- 107 

Eost, stolen or mutilated certifi- 
cates , 3-111 

New owner must obtain 3-112 

Nonresidents 3-102 

Offenses 3-701 to -706, 4-110, -111 

Optional certificates 3-103 

Prima facie evidence 3- 107(d) 

Records 3-106 

Registration without certificate 3-109 

Security interests 3-201 to -309 

Seizure of 2-311, 3-208 

Surrendered certificates, department 

to maintain file 3-116 

Suspension of 3-208, -704 

Transfer of title 3-112 to -114 

Vehicles requiring — exceptions 3-102 

Changing lanes 

Care required 11 -309(a), -604(a) 

Prohibited by devices 11 -309(d) 

Signal required 11 -604(a) 

Chauffeur's license (see License, 

driver's) 
Chemical _ tests, generally .... ll-902(b) # to (g) 
Admission of results does not limit 

other evidence ll : 902(b) 

A 1 c o h o l/'blood ratio, presumption 

based on 11 -902(b) 

Blood, qualified person to with- 
draw n-902an 



Section 
Chemical tests, generally— (Contd) 

Bodily substances used for 11-902 (b) 

Breath ll-902(b) 

Civil or criminal trials ll-902(b) 

Department of health to approve 
method of and person making 

11 -902(c) 

Implied consent 6-205,1 

Presumptions resulting from 11- 902(b) 

Refusal to submit, admissible evi- 
dence H-902 (g) 

Right to have independent test 

ll-902(e) 

Right to have results of 11-902(0 

Standard for measuring alcohol in 

blood ll-902(b) 

Urine 11 -902(b) 

Civil liability, generally 9-101 to -301 

Chemical test evidence, use of .... 11 -902(b) 
Conviction does not affect credi- 
bility 16-116 

Conviction not admissible evi- 
dence 16-115 

Financial responsibility 7-101 to 8-103 

Financial responsibility action of de- 
partment is not evidence of 7-219 

Guest, limit of liability to 9-202 

Highway damage 14-114 

Imputing negligence to owner 9-201 

Minor, parent assumes 6-107 

Operator not exempt 9-201 

Service of process 9-301 

Speed laws, effect on 11-807 

States, counties, municipalities 9- 101 

Clearance lamps (see E-amps) 

Coasting ^ prohibited 11-1108 

Combinations of vehicles 

Additional lamps required 12-208 

Brake requirements 12-301 to -303 

Distance between 11 -310(b) 

Drawbar 14-107 

Number of vehicles comprising 14-104 

Person steering towed vehicle must 

have license 6-101 

Size limits 

Height 14-104 

Eength 14-104 

Width 14-102 

Weight limits 14-108, -109 

Commercial driver training schools 
Definitions 

Commercial driver training school 

6-402(a) 

Instructor 6-402(b) 

Department shall issue licenses .... 6-404(a) 

Exemptions, certain schools 6-403 

Fees 6-404(b) 

Instructor license required 6-401 

Penalties , 6-407 

Refusal, suspension or revocation of 
license 

Grounds 6-406(a) 

Hearings 6- 405(b) 

Regulations by commissioner 

Instructors , 6-405(c) 

Schools 6-405(b) 

School license required 6-401 

Commercial vehicle defined for reci- 
procity 3- 402.1(c) 

Commercial vehicle restrictions au- 
thorized 14-113 

Commission, reciprocity 3-402.1 

Commissioner of motor vehicles, gen- 
erally (see also, Department of mo- 
tor vehicles, other topics) 2-301 to 

-314 
Administration of act 2-305 



Index 



255 



Section 
Commissioner of ' motor vehicles, gen- 
erally— (Contd) 

Appointment of subordinates 2-304 

Brakes on motor-driven cycles 12-510 

Commercial driver training regula- 
tions 6-405 

Definition 1-109 

Driver education course approval .... 6-103. 

-105 

Equipment approval procedure _ 12-102 

Financial responsibility, administra- 
tion by 7-101 

Forms, to prescribe 2-307 

Inspection program 13-104 to -112 

I^amps and reflectors 

Adjustment and aiming 12-230(c) 

Approval of, required 12-230 

Approval procedure 12-10? 

Revocation of approval 12-232 

Medical advisory board appoint- 
ments 6-118 

Motorcycle helmets and eye protec- 
tion 1 1 - 1306 

Oaths and acknowledgements 2-108 

Office created 2-302 

Offices of department 2-306 

Organization of department 2-303 

Powers and duties 2-305 

Reciprocal registration 3-402.1 

Records, destruction of 2-309 

Registration by gross weight 14-110 

Regulations, power to adopt 2-305 (b) 

Revocation or suspension (see those 
topics) 

Safety glazing materials 12-406 

School bus regulations 12-228, 15-110 

Seal, adoption of 2-305 (c) 

Seat_ belts 12-412 

Service of process records 9- 301(g) 

Summoning witnesses 2-313 

Committee, coordinating (see Highway 

safety program) 
Conduct of resident in another state .... 6-203 

Constitutionality of act 19-105 

Construction (see Highway construction 

or maintenance) 
Controlled -access highway 

Backing on, prohibited . 11-1102 

Definition 1-110 

Driving on divided highway 11-311 

Exclusion of specified traffic 11-313 

Restricted access LI -31 2 

Restrictions on use 11-313 

School bus, exception to overtaking 

and passing rule 11-706 

Vehicular hazard warning signals 

12-407, -408 
Convictions 

Civil action, not admissible in 16-115 

Court duties to department 
Forward license for major of- 
fenses 6- 204 (a ) 

Records 18-101 

Report convictions 6-204(b), 18-101 

Credibility not affected by 16-116 

Definition 6 -204(c) 

Department to record 6-117, 18- 101(f) 

Mandatory revocation, major of- 
fenses 6-205 

Nonresident, reporting to home state 

6-202O0 
Penalties (see that topic) 

Proof of financial responsibility 7-304 

Records of cases 18-101 

Report to department 6-204(b), 18-101 

Resident, in another state .... 6-203, -206(b) 



Section 
Coordination of highway safety pro- 
gram (see Highway safety program) 
Counties (see I,ocal authorities) 

Courtesy lamps 12-221 

Courtesy signal, use of electric turn 
signal as ll-604(d) 

Courts 

Accident report, securing information 

in 10- 107(f) 

Appeals to review department action 

Certificate of title matters 3-210 

Financial responsibility orders t 7-102 

Revocation or suspension of license 

6-212 

Appearance before 16-111 

Arrested person, taking before .... 16-105, 

-107 

Bail schedule established by 16-112 

Certified copy of department record, 

admissible in 2- 308(b) 

Defined 16-111 

Disposition of fines and forfeitures 

17-103 

Forward license, when required 6-204 

Nonpayment of judgment, reporting 

7-308 

Notice to appear 16-109 

Records of cases 18-101 

Report convictions to department 

6-204. 18-10! 
Service of process on nonresident .... 9-301 

Cowl or fender lamps 12-221 

Crossing fire hose restricted 11-1110 

Crosswalk 

Closing unmarked 15-108 

Definition > 1-111 

Drivers yield to pedestrians in 

Green arrow ll-202(a)2 

Green light ll-202(a)l 

Red light, while turning on .... ll-202(c)2 
Where no signal in operation .. 11 -502(a) 
Parking, standing or stopping on 

11- 1003 (a) Id 

Passing vehicle stopped at 11 502 (d) 

Pedestrian 

Cross in right half of 11-505 

Drivers yield to, in 11 -502(a), -202 

Green light, proceed across in 

ll-202(a)3 
Local authorities may require use 

of 15-107 

Outside, yield right of way .... li -503(a) 
State highway commission may re- 
quire use of 15-107 

Use of, when required 11- 503(c), 

15-107 
Standing or parking within 20 feet of 

ll-10O3(a)2c 
Stop before entering 

Flashing re d light ll-204(a)l 

Red light ll-202(c)l 

Stop sign 11 -403(b) 

Yield sign 11 -403(c) 

Stopping in, restricted 11-1003 

Curb or edge of roadway 

Bicycles, ride near 11-1205 

Drive near 11-301 (b) 

Moving vehicle away from 11-1003 

Park near 11- 1004(a), (b) 

Turn near 11 -601(a) 

Turn wheels toward 11-1101 

Curve 

Appropriate speed required 11-801 

Mountain highways 11-1107 

No passing 11-306 

U turns on 11-602 



£UO 



uiNxruAivi. V JLXll^JUIL KJVJVSL 



Section 

Darkness defined ~ 12-201 

Daytime defined 11-801.1 

Dealer (see also, Registration; Title, 
transfer of; Used parts dealers) 

Application for license 5-101 

Cancellation of license 5-102 

Definition 1-112 

Denial of license 5-102 

Duties as transferee 3-113, -503 

Established place of business 1 - 116 

Fees to be paid by 5-101, 3-804 

Incense required .... 5- 101 

Denial or cancellation 5-102 

Issuance of 5-102 

Place of business 1-116, 5-101 

Plates, special for vehicles owned 

by . ; 3-601 to -604, -705 

Purchaser, free of security interest 

created by dealer 3-201 

Records 

Special registration plates 3-604 

Vehicles received or sold 3-113, 

5-203 
Security interests in vehicles owned 

by 3-201 

Transfer of title to or by 

Certificate of title 3-113 

Registration 3-503 

Definitions, generally (see also, specific 

words and phrases herein) 1-101 

to -184 

Commercial driving school 6-402 

Conviction 6-204(c) 

Court 16-111 

Financial responsibility 

Judgment 7-303 

Motor vehicle liability policy 7-324 

Proof for the future 7-302 

Identification number 4- 107(f) 

Instructor 6-402 

Reciprocal registration 

Commercial vehicle 3-402.1 (c) 

Fleet 3- 402.1(c) 

Jurisdiction 3-402. 1 (c) 

Owner 3-402. 1(c) 

Properly registered 3 -402. 1(c) 

Department of health (see State depart- 
ment of health) 
Department of motor vehicles, gen- 
erally (see also, Commissioner of 

motor vehicles) 2-301 to -314 

Accident reports 10- 107 to - 1 15 

Bureau of vital statistics to report 

10-110 

Drivers to report 10-107 

Form of report 10-113 

Garages to report 10-111 

Police to report 10-112 

Suspension for not making 10-109 

Tabulate and analyze 10-114 

Acknowledgments 2-308 

Antitheft provisions 4-101 to -111 

Applications, granting or rejecting 

2-310 

Certificates of title 3-101 to -309, 

-703 to -706 

Convictions, courts to report 6-204, 

18-101 

Created # ,. 2-301 

Dealer licensing 5-101 

Definition ; _ 1-113 

Divisions within 2-303 

Driver licensing, generally (sec Li- 
cense, driver's) 6-101 to -305 

Equipment standards or approval 

Air conditioning 12-410 

Bicycle reflectors 11-1207 

Brake fluid 12-304 

Flares 12- 407 

Fusees „ 12-407 



Section 
Department of motor vehicles, gen- 
erally— (Contd) 
Equipment standards or approval— (Contd) 

Glazing material „ 12-406 

Hazardous materials, vehicles trans- 
porting 12-409 

Helmets and eye protection for cy- 
clists 11-1306 

Inspection, periodic 13-103 to -112 

Lamps 12-230 

Lanterns 12-407 

Motor- driven cycle brakes „ 12-510 

Procedure for approval 12-102 

. 12-230, -407 



Reflectors 
Revocation 
School bus 



of approval 12-231 

lights and design 12-228, 

15-110 

Seat and shoulder belts 12-412 

^Studded tires „ 12-405 

Financial responsibility, generally (see 

also, that topic) 7-101 to -505 

Highway patrol 2-303 

Inspection, periodic, generally (see 

also, Inspection of vehicles) 13-103 

to -112 
License to drive, generally (see also, 

License, driver's) 6-101 to -305 

Notice, giving of 2-314 

Oaths, administration of 2-308 

Offices 2-306 

Organization of „ 2-303 

Powers and duties 2-305 

Records (see also, that topic) 

Authority to destroy 

Copies;, certification of 



records 



Examination of 
Licenses, drivers 

Nonresidents, process on .... , 

Open to public inspection . ,„., 

Registration 



Surrendered certificates of title 



Registration 
Regulations, 



authority to 



.. 3-401 
adopt 



... 2-309 
.... 2-308 
.... 2-309 
.... 6-117 
.... 9-301 
„.. 2-309 
3-407 

3- 116(c) 
to -811 

2- 105(b) 



Reports (see also, that topic) 

Abandoned vehicles »...«.» 15 - 112 

Accidents 10-107 to -115 

Convictions, courts to report .... 6-204, 

18-101 
Nonresidents 

Convictions „ 6-202(b) 

Nonpayment of judgment 7-308 

Stolen vehicles , ,..., , „.. 4-105 

Suspension or revocation 6- 202(c), 

7-213 
Seizure of documents and plates .... 2-311 
Synopsis of laws, distribution of „.. 2-312 

Witnesses and testimony 2-313 

Department of Transportation (see 

United States government) 
Disabled vehicle 

Emergency flares or reflectors __ 12-408 

Excepted from standing restrictions, tem- 
porarily 11-1001 (b) 

Flashers to be actuated „ 12-408 

Police officer, removal by 11-1002 

Turn signal, use prohibited on ll-604(d) 

Disman tiers to be licensed 5-201 

Disposition of fines 17-103 

Divided highways 

Crossovers 11-311 

Disabled vehicle warning devices 

12-407, -408 

Driving ^ on „„. 11-311 

Intersections at, definition m _.... 1-126 

Median, driving in 11-311 

School bus— exception to stop rule 

11- 706(d) 
"Don't walk" , „.„. 11-203 



Index 



257 



Section 

Doors, opening; ai*d closing" 11-1105 

Double parking prohibited _ 11-1003 

Driv-ea way - towawa v operation 

Brake requirement exception .... 12-301(c)2 

Definition . 1-113.1 

Number of vehicles in combination 

14-104((1) 
Driver (see also, other specific topics) 
Accidents, duties of at the scene 

(see that topic) 
Accidents, written reports (see that 

topic) 
Authorized emergencv vehicle, driver 

of 11-106, -405 

Backing limitations 11-1102 

Coasting _ prohibited 11-1108 

Commercial driving schools 6-401 

to -407 
Consent to chemical test implied .... 6-205.1 

Definition 1-114 

Directing, to violate laws 16-102 

Disabled vehicle warning devices .... 12-408 
Driveway, emerging from .... 11-404. -509, 

-705 
Drugs, driving while under influence 

^ of' _ ':. 11-902.1 

Eluding a police officer 11-904 

Equipment laws apply to 12-101 (a) 

Excess loads, 'weighing vehicle for 

14-111 

"Financial responsibility 7-201 to -505 

Following fire apparatus 11-1109 

Following top closely 11-310 

Guests, liability for injury to 9-202 

Homicide bv vehicle 11-903 

Horn, use of 12-401, 11-504 

In s p ec lion o f ve hide 

Driver must allow 13- 103 

Notice _ of defect 13-102 

Intoxicating liquor, driving while un- 
der influence of ll-902(a) 

Liability for _ highway damage 14-114 

License required 6-101 

Meeting another vehicle 11-302 

Motorcycles # 11-1301 to -1306 

Mountain highways 11-1107 

Multiple-beam head lamps, use of 

12-223 
Obedience required to 

Police officers 11-103 

Traffic laws 11-102 

Traffic- control devices 11-201 (a) 

Obstructing view of # 11-1104 

Overtaking and passing, generally 

11-301 to -307 

Parking restrictions, generally 11-1001 

to -1004 
Pedestrians (see that topic) 

Public employees to obey laws 16-103 

Racing 11-808 

Railroad grade crossing (see that 
topic) 

Reckless driving 11 -901(a) 

Right of way (see that topic) 

Safety zone 11-508 

School bus, stop for ll-707(a) 

Soeed restrictions, generally 11-801 

to -806 

Stop sign 11- 403(b) 

Streetcar (see that topic) 

Turning left 11-402, -601(b) 

Turning, required signals 11 -604(a) 

Turning right 11 -601 (a) 

Unattended vehicle 11-1101 

Yield sign 1100.3(c) 

Driver education and training courses 
Commercial schools regulated .... 6-401 to 

-407 

Instruction permits 6- 105(c) 

Cower mini mum age for persons com- 
pleting :. 61- 103 (a) 1 

[JVC— 9 



Section 
Driver's license (see License, driver's) 
Driveway, private or public (see also, 
Private road or driveway) 

Definition 1-148 

Emerging from 11-404, -509, -705 

Parking in front of prohibited .... 11-1003 

Turning into 11-402, -509, -604(a) 

Driving on left, limitations (see also. 
Overtaking and passing) 
Approaching curve, crest, intersection, 

etc 11-3016 

Four- lane roadways 11 -301(c) 

Driving on right, general rule and ex- 

ceptions 11-301 (a) 

Drugs 
Arrest for driving while under in- 
fluence of 16-105 

Driving while under influence of 

Penalties 11-902.2 

Prohibited 11-902.1 

Prohibition applies everywhere 11 101(2) 
Habitual users 

Driving by, prohibited 11-902.1 

May not be licensed 6- 103(b) 

Lawful use of 11-902.1 

Penalties for driving while under in- 

fluence of 11 -902.2(a) 

Revocation of license required 6-205, 

ll-902.2(b) 
Drunk, driving while (see Intoxicating 
liquor, driving while under influence 
of) 



Edge of roadway (see Curb) 
Education, board of (see State board of 
education) 

Effect of headings and captions 19-102 

Effective date 19-107 

Eluding a police officer 

Arrest for 16-105 

Penalty 1 1-904 

Prohibited 11-904 

^Suspension of license tor 6-206(a) 

Emblem, slow moving vehicle 12-215 

Emergence regulations authorized 

15-102(a)22 
Emergency vehicle (see Authorized 
^emergency vehicle) 
Emerging from alley, driveway or 
building 

Stop 11-706 

Yield to pedestrians 11-509 

^ Yield to vehicles 11-404 

Employer (see also, Owner) 
Allowing unlicensed person to drive 

6-305 

Civil _ responsibility of ...9-201 

Criminal responsibility of 6-305, 

16-101, -102 
Proof of financial responsibility given 

by 7-332 

Enforcement of act (see Police officer) 
Engine 
Number (see Identifying number) 

Stop before leaving vehicle 11-1101 

Engineering and traffic investigation 

Alteration of speed limits 11-802, -803 

Arterial street speed limits 11-803 (b) 

Bridge speed limits 11-806 

Closing unmarked crosswalks , 15-108 

Combinations 'with more than two ve- 
hicles 14-104 

Minimum speed limits 11-804 

Obstruction on private property .... 15-113 
Epilepsy (see Mental disability) 
Equipment, generally (see also, specific 
types of equipment or vehicles) 

12O01 to 13-112 

Air-conditioning 12-410 

Animal -drawn vehicle 12-216 



258 



UNIFORM VEHICLE CODE 



Section 
Equipment, generally— (Contd) 

Approval of 12-230, -102, -231 

Bicycle 11-L207 

Brakes 12-301 to -304 

Bus, special lighting „ 12-207 to -212 

Effect of regulations 12-101 

Emergency warning devices 12-407 

Excepted vehicles, generally 12-101 

Farm vehicles 12-101, -215 

Federal motor vehicle safety stan- 
dards (see United States govern- 
ment) 

Flags 12-407, -213, 14-107 

Flares, fusees, when required 12-407 

Highway maintenance vehicles „ 12-229 

Horn 12-401 

Hydraulic brake fluid 12-304 

Implements of husbandry 12-215 

Inspection by police officer 13-102 

Inspection, periodic, generally 13-103 

to -112 

Equipment to be inspected 13-104 

Lamps and other lighting devices 

12-101 to -231 

Mirrors „ 12-403 

Motorcycles 12-501 to -511 

Eye protection 11-1306 

Footrests 11-1305 

Handlebar height 11-1305 

Helmet _ ... 11-1306 

Seat „ 11-1302 

Muffler 12-402 

Points not assessed for, violations 

6-206CW 
Provisions uniform throughout State 

15-101 
Reflectors and other lighting devices 

12-201 to -231, -407, 
-503, 11-1107 
Safe operating condition required 

12-101, 13-101 

Safety glass 12-406 

School bus 12-218, 15-110 

Seat belts 12-412 

Semitrailers, special lighting 12-207 

to -212 

Slow moving vehicle emblem 12-215 

Snow chains 12-405 

Snow removal equipment 12-229 

Studded tires 12-405 

Suspending registration for unsafe 

13-104. 3-704, -406 

Television restrictions 12-411 

Tire restrictions 12-405 

Trucks, special lighting _ 1-2-207 

to -212 

Vehicles without safe 13-101 to 

-104, 12-101 

Windshield wiper 12-404 

Essential parts defined 1-115 

Established place of business 

Dealers 5-101, -201 

Definition , 1-116 

Exhaust system, inspection of period- 
ically 13- 104(a) 

Excessive fumes or smoke 12- 402(b) 

Experimental regulations authorized 

15-102(a)22 
Explosives, vehicle transporting (see 
also, Ha z ar dou s mat erial s) 

Arrest for violation „...„..... ,.,..., \6-W 

Compliance with regulations required 

12-409 

Definition of explosive 1-117 

Disabled, special warning „ .,*. 12-408 

Federal regulations „ .,.. ....... 12-409 

Fire extinguishers ,...„„.„....,- 12-409 

Hazardous Material Regulations „.. 12-409 

Adoption by reference 12-409 

Penalty for violation 12-409 



Section 
Explosives, vehicle transporting — (Contd) 

Placarding 12-409 

Railroad grade crossings, stop at .... 11-703 
Special warning devices 12-407, -408 



False 

Accident report „ 10-108 

Affidavit 

Making, is perjury 6-302 

Revocation of license 6-205 

Inspection certificates 13-110 

Report of theft of vehicle 4-106 

Farm tractor (see also, Implements of 
husbandry) 

Definition 1-118 

Equipment 

Exceptions „ -.„ „ 12-101 

Requirements „ ...... 12-215 

Flashing lights required 12-215 

Lighting and reflector requirements 

12-215 

Size and weight exception 14-101 

Slow moving vehicle emblem 12-215 

Federal government (see United States 

government) 
Federal Highway Safety Act (see 

United States government) 
Federal highway safety program stan- 
dards (see United States govern- 
ment) 
Federal motor vehicle safety standards 

(see United States government) 
Fees 
Abstract of certain driving records 

7-103 

Certificates of title 3-805 to -812 

Commercial driver training schools 6-404 

Copy of department record 2-308 

Dealers - 5-101, -201 

Driver's license 6-106, -ll5 

Inspection „ .. « ._ 13- 106(c), -107 

Reciprocal, proportional registration 

3-402.1 

Registration 3-801 to -804, 

-B08 to -812 
Felony (see also, Misdemeanor) 

Arrest _ for „ 16-104 

Conviction, court to report ~. 18-101 

Penalty. 17-102 

Revocation upon conviction 6-305 

Which f offenses constitute 
Altering, forging or counterfeiting 

title 4- 1 10 

False statement in certain applica- 
tions «. r 4-110 

Receiving stolen vehicle or engine 

4-103, -107(d) 
Removing or falsifying number 4- 107(b) 

Unauthorized use of vehicle 4-102 

Fender lamps 12-221 

Financial responsibility 

Abstract of person's record 7-103 

Accident report required 10-107, -113 

Assigned risk plans ...;. 7-501 

Commissioner to administer provi- 
sions 7-101 

Court review , .>. 7-102 

Denial of license for failure to prove 

6- 103(b) 

Forged proof „ .... 7-403 

Judgments 

Breach of agreement «- 7-318 

Consent by iudgment creditor 7-312 

Definition ....,..,.„,... ~ 7-303 

Discharge in- bankruptcy ~ «i 7-315 

Disposition of security ...„ 7-217 

Installment payments- — default 7-317 

Money or securities as proof, wh«n 
not acceptable - .«-. 7-330 



Index 



259 



Section 
Financial responsibility — (Contd) 
Judgments— (Contd) 
Nonpayment, when courts to report 

7-308 

Payments sufficient to satisfy 7-316 

Release upon payment 7-210 

Suspension until paid 7-314 

Other process not prevented ~ 7-505 

Owner of for-rent vehicle 

Amounts of coverage 8-101 

Proof required 8-101 

Past application 7-504 

Proof for the future 

Alternate forms of proof « 7-320 

Amount of 7-302 

Application of deposit 7-331 

Application of requirement for „.. 7-301 

Bond as proof 7-327 

Bond, when a lien 7-328 

Breach of agreement 7-318 

Cancellation of 7-325 

Consent by judgment creditor 7-312 

Convictions, when proof required .... 7-304 
Default by nonresident insurer .... 7-323 

Defined 7-302 

Deposit, application of 7-331 

Discharge in bankruptcy 7-315 

Duration of proof „ 7-335 

Exception when insurer liable „ 7-313 

For-rent vehicle 8-101 

Forged proof — penalties 7-403 

Government vehicles excepted 7-304, 

-311 

Insurance certificate as proof .. 7-321 

Insurance of nonresident 7-322 

Judgment, meaning of 7-303 

Judgment payments, breach of 

agreement 7-318 

Judgment payments, installment .... 7-317 
Judgment payments, when sufficient 

7-316 
Judgments, when proof required .... 7-308 

to -314 

Money as proof 7-330 

Motor vehicle liability policy denned 

7-324 

Binders 7-334(k) 

Certification ... 7 -324 (a) 

Excess or additional coverage 

7-324(g) 

Multiple policies 7-324 (j) 

Operator's policy -..«-„ 7-324(c) 

Owner's policy ~ 7-324(b) 

Proration of insurance .. 7-324(i) 

Provisions incorporated in policy 

7 -324(f) 

Reimbursement provision 7- 324(b) 

Required statements in policies 

7-324(d) 

Workmen's compensation 7-324(e) 

Nonpayment of judgments, when 

courts to report 7-308 

Nonresidents . 7-309 

Notice of policy termination 7-325 

Other liability policies „ «.. 7-326 

Other proof may be required 7-334 

Owner may give for others 7-332 

Payments on judgment 7-316 

Proof, meaning of ~ ; 7-302 

Proof required for each vehicle 7-319 

Securities as proof 7-330 

State, meaning of - 7-303, 1-169 

Substitution of proof 7-333 

Suspension for nonpayment of judg- 
ment « ^ , 7-310, -314 

Suspension until proof furnished .... 7-305, 

-314 

Unlicensed person „„,.,.,..... 7-306 

Public inspection of accident reports 

10-107 



Section 
Financial responsibility— (Contd) 
Security following accident 

Accidents in other states ~ -.. 7-213 

Adjudication of nonliability 7-208 

Agreements for payment of dam- 
ages—defaults — time limit 7-209 

Amount of, department to deter- 
mine ... 7-202 

Application of requirement for .... 7-201 
Civil suits, matters not to be evi- 
dence in 7-219 

Correction of department action ..„ 7-215 

Custody of security 7-216 

Department may decrease amount 

7-214 
Department to determine amount — 
notices to persons involved ~~ m 7-202 

Disposition of security „„ 7-217 

Duration of suspension 7-212 

Exceptions from requirement of se- 
curity . 7-203 

Failure to deposit — suspensions « 7-206 

Form and amount „.. 7-205 

Insurance or bond requirements „.. 7-204 

Nonresidents 7-213 

Notice of 7-202 

Payment upon judgment 7-210 

Public inspection of reports *..... 10-107 

Release from liability 7-207 

Return of deposit 7-218 

Termination of security requirement 

7-211 

Unlicensed drivers 7-213 

Unregistered vehicles - 7-213 

Self- insurers 7-503 

Surrender of license and registration 

7-402 

Suspensions 7-206, -212, 

-305, -310. -314 

Transfer of registration 7-401 

Vehicles insured under other laws 

7-502 
Fines and forfeitures, disposition of 

17-103 
Fire apparatus (see also, Authorized emer- 
gency vehicle) 
Constitutes authorized emergency ve- 
hicle ._ 1-104 

Exemption from size and weight limits 

14-101 

Following prohibited - 11-1109 

Fire extinguisher required 12-409 

Fire hose, crossing prohibited — exception 

11-1110 
Fire hydrant, parking at prohibited 

11-1003 
Fire station, parking in front of pro- 
hibited 11-1003 

Flagman at railroad grade crossing 

ll-r01. -704 
Flags, for 

Chains between vehicles 14-107 

Disabled vehicle, warning 12-407, -408 

Projecting loads 12-213 

Flammable liquid (see also, Explosives, 
Hazardous materials) 

Definition 1-119 

Vehicle transporting 

Comply with regulations ».. 12-409 

Disablement warning devices -..— . 12-407, 

-408 

Fire extinguishers - ~. 12-409 

Placards 12-409 

Railroad grade crossing, stop at 

11-703 
Flares or other warning devices 

Certain vehicles must carry .... 12-407 

Commissioner to approve reflectors 

12-407 



wo 



UM1FUKJVL VJli.±lIUL.JKJ ^>VLm 



Section 
Flares or other warning devices — (Contd) 
Display when vehicle disabled 

Devices permitted 12-408 

Placement prescribed — exceptions 

12-408 

Types of devices permitted 12-407 

Visibility requirements 12-407 

Flashers (see Vehicular hazard warning 

lamps) 
Flashing lights 
Equipment on vehicles 

Alternately- flashing red 12-218 

Authorized emergency vehicle .... 12-218, 
11-106, -405 

Farm tractors, required on 12-215 

General prohibition 12-227(c) 

Highway maintenance vehicles .... 12-229 

School buses 12-218. -228. 

11-707 
Simultaneously flashing traffic hazard 

Any vehicle may have 12-220 

Certain vehicles to have and use 

12-220, -408, -215 

Meaning of 12-220 

Snow removal vehicles 12-229 

Turn serial 12-206, -219, 

11 -604(d), -605 
Vehicular hazard warning lamps 

12-220. -408 
Traffic -control signals 

Parking restrictions near 11-1003 

Railroad grade eras sins - 11-701 

Red 11-204 

Yellow 11-204 

Fleeing a police officer 

Arrests for 16-105 

Penalty 11-904 

Prohibited 11-904 

Suspension of license 6-206 

Fog lamps — limitations (see also, Aux- 
iliary lamps, Lamps) 12-217 

Following fire apparatus prohibited 11-1109 
Following too closely 

Caravans ll-310(c) 

Truck following truck 11 -3 10(b) 

Vehicle following vehicle 11 -310(a) 

Foreign vehicle defined 1-120 

Forfeitures 

Constitute a conviction 6-204 

Court to report 18-101, 6-204 

Disposition of 17-103 

Forms 

Accident reports 10-113 

Applications, generally „.. 2-307 

Certificate of title 3-104 

Commercial driving schools ....~ 6-405 

Dealers' and wreckers' licenses .... 5-101, 

-201 
Dealers', manufacturers' and trans- 
porters' special license plates .... 3-602 

Driver's license 6-106 

Inspection station permit 13 -106(b) 

Instruction permit „ 6-106 

Registration of vehicle 3-403 

Commissioner to prescribe „ 2-307 

Dealers' and wreckers' records 5-203 

Inspection program 13 -106(a) 

Traffic citations, quadruplicate 16-117 

For- rent vehicles, owners of 

Amounts of coverage required 8-101 

License required to rent 8-103 

Owner responsible if not insured .„. 8-102 
Owner to supply name of renter .... 8-103 

Person renting is not owner 1-141 

Proof of financial responsibility re- 
quired — penalties 8-101 

Reciprocal privileges for person rent- 
ing 3 -402. l(i) 

Records to be kept 8-102 



Section 

For -rent vehicles, owners of— (Cont 1) 
Renter not to allow another to drtve 
without owner's permission — penal- 
ties 8-101 

Funeral procession exception _ 11 -310(c) 

G 
Garages 
Inspection of vehicle in, as part of 

investigation 2-305 

Periodic motor vehicle inspection by 

(see Inspection of vehicles) 
Removal of, to 

Abandoned vehicle 15-112 

Stopped vehicle 11-1002 

Vehicle driven by person under ar- 
rest 11- 1002(c) 

Vehicle m hazardous condition 

13- 102(c) 
Vehicle reported stolen 11- 1002(c) 



10-111 

4-105 



Report by required 
Damaged vehicle .. 
Unclaimed vehicle 



Registration plate for 



. 3-410(d) 



Glaring head lights prohibited 12-222, 

-223 
Glass 

Depositing on highway prohibited 11-1111 
Removal from highway required 11-1111 
Safety glazing (see also, that topic) 

12-406 
Governor (see also, Highway safety 
program) 
Authority to establish highway safety 

program 2-101 

Chairman of coordinating committee 

2-202 

Contracting power of 2-101 

Cooperate with all agencies and organi- 
zations 2-101 

Coordinates highway safetv program 

2-102 
Coordinating committee, appoints 

members of 2-202 

Office of highway safety coordinator 

2-103 
Responsibility of, for highway safety 

program ".. .„.'■ 2-101 to -103 

Green light (see under Traffic -control 

signal legend) 
Gross weight defined (see also, Weight) 1-121 
Guest, liability for injury or death „.. 9-202 

H 

Hand and arm signals 11-606 

Handlebars 11-1206, -1302(c), -1305(b) 

Hazardous materials, transportation of 

Adoption of federal regulations 12-409 

Violation of regulations prohibited 12-409 
Plead lamps (see Lamps) 

Headings, effect of 19-102 

Highway (see also, Controlled -access 
highway, Roadway) 

Abandoned vehicles on 15-112 

Accident laws apply on and off .... 10-101, 

11-101 

Alley defined 1-102 

Application of laws to vehicles operated 

on „. 3-401, 6-101, 11-101, 12-101, 13-101 

Arterial, defined 1-103 

Authorized emergency vehicle 11-106, 

-405 

Basic speed rule „ 11-801 

Bicycle regulations, effect of „ 11-1201 

Definition 1-122 

Disabled vehicle „. 11-1001 (b), 12-408 

Divided highway 11-311 

Drive on right side of ll-301(a) 

Electric signals, when required 11 -605(b) 
Kquipment required for vehicles on 

12-101 to -412 
Following too closely 11-310 



Index 



261 



Section 
Highway— (Contd) 
Glass or injurious materials 

.Depositing or throwing on .... ll-llll(a) 
Removal from, required .... 11 -11 11(b), (c) 

Heavily -travel eel, regulations for 15- 

102(a) 14 

Inspection of vehicles operated on .... 13- 

102 to -112 

License required to drive on 6-101 

Mountain, driving on 11-1107 

No-passing zones 

Marked or signed 11-307 

Unmarked 11-306 

One-way traffic 11-30S 

Overtaking on right 11-304 

Overtaking or meeting school bus ..,. 11- 

706(a) 

Parking, angle ._ II -1004(c) 

Persons working on, exception for 11-105 
Powers of State and local agencies .... 15- 
102 to -109 
Private road or driveway, entering 

from 11-404, -509. -706 

Racing fc H-808 

Railroad grade crossings 11-701 to -704 

Registration of vehicles operated on 

3-401 

Removal of vehicle from 11-1002, 

13-102, 15-112 
Right of way 
Emerging from private road or 

driveway 11-404. -509 

Through "highway . 11 -401(b) 

Yield to vehicle on different high- 
way 11 -401 (a), -403(b), (c) 

Rules of road generally apply onlv 

on , 11-101 

School buses 11 -706(a) to (d) 

Size ami weight restrictions 14-101 

to -114 
Speed limits 

Maximum 11 -SOU, -S05. -806 

Minimum 11-804 

Speed zones 11-802. -803 

"Stop" intersection 11 -403(b), 15-109 

Stopping, standing or parking 
Outside business and residence dis- 
tricts ll-lOOl(a) 

Prohibited at specified places ...... 11-1003 

Through highway 1-175, I1-40l(b), 

15-109 

Traffic-control devices 11-201, 15-104 

to -106 

Turning position and signals 11-601 

to -606 

Unattended vehicle 11-1101 

Unauthorized signs 11-205 

"Yield" intersection 11 -403(c), 15-109 

Highway authorities, powers and du- 
ties (see also, Local authorities) 
Angle parking, when permitted .... 1.1 -1004(c) 

Approval of local devices 15 -102(b), 

-106(b) 
Combinations of three vehicles, al- 
lowing _14-KK(d) 

Co n t ra 1 Jc d - a cc e s s In g b w a v rcstricti on s 

11-313 

Crosswalks, closing unmarked 15-108 

Manual on Traffic Control Devices. 

adoption and use of 15-104 to -106 

Minimum speed limits 11 -804(b) 

No-passing zones 11-307 

Obstruction, removal of 15-113 

Official traffic -control devices, dutv 

to install 15-1(15, -106 

One-way traffic 11-308 

Parking, authority to prohibit .... 11 -1004(d) 



Section 
Highway authorities, powers and duties— 
(Contd) 
Pedestrian use oi crosswalk, requir- 
ing .' 15-107 

Permits for excess size or weight .... 14-112 
Seasonal restrictions on use or high- 
way 14*113 

Size and weight restrictions .... 14- 113(c), (d) 

Special speed limits ll-S05('cl) 

Speed limits, altering 11-802, -S0> 

Standing, authority to prohibit .... 11 -1004(d) 

'"Stop" intersections 15-109 

"Stop" railroad crossings 11-702 

Stopping, authority to prohibit .... 11 -1004(d) 
Through highways, designation of .... 15-109 
Turning positions, establishing .... 11 -601(c) 

Variable speed limits ." 11-802 

"Yield" intersection 15-109 

Highway construction or maintenance 
Drivers of vehicles engaged in 

Excepted from rules 11-105 

Serious offenses apply to 11-105 

Lights on vehicles engaged in 12-229 

Riant of wav when driving around 

11-301 (a)2 

Workmen on roadway 11-105 

Highway improvement fund 17-103 

Highway patrol 2-303 

Highway safety program (see also, Gov- 
ernor, United State? government) 

Administration, generally 2-101 to -314 

Coordination of 

Governor's responsibility 2-102 

Highway safety coordinating com- 
mittee 2-201 to -205 

Coordinator is executive director of 

2-204 

Established 2-201 

Governor is chairman of 2-202 

Membership 2-202 

Purposes of 2-205 

Highway safety coordinator, office 

created 2- !03 

Governor's powers and. duties 2-101 

to -103 

Authority to establish 2-101 

Contracts involving 2-101 

Coordination of 2-102, -202 

Highway Safety Act of 1966 

Approved, contemplated by 2-101 

(.i o v e r n o r ; s a u t h o r i i v an d ; ■ e s p o n s i - 

bility under ' 2-101. -102 

Hills 

Appropriate speed required 11-801 

Coasting prohibited 1 i - H0K 

Mountain highways 11-110™ 

Turn wheels toward curb 11 - 1 101 

U turns on „„ 11-602 

Hit and ruin generally (see Accidents, 

duties at scene) 10-102 to -105 

Hitchhiking 11-5^7(a"> 

Homicide by vehicle 

Arrest for 16-105 

Definition 1.1- 903(a) 

Mandatory revocation upon conviction 

6-205 
Penalties 1 1- 903(b) 

Hor us and audible warning devices 

Bicycle requirement 11-1207 

Requirements and limitations 12-401 

Sirens, bells and whistles .... 12-401, -21S, 

-1207 

Theft alarm permitted 12-401 

Use of 

On mountain highway 11-1107 

Pedestrian, as warning to 11-504 

Whenever reasonably necessary 12-401 



ZK)Z 



UJNIMJKM VEHICLE UODE 



Section 
Horses 

Controlled -access highway restrictions 

11-313 

Driver of horse-drawn vehicle 11-104 

Equipment required on animal -drawn 

vehicle 12-216 

Rider of to obey rules of the road 

11-104 
House trailer 

Definition 1-123 

Flares 12-408 

Riding in prohibited 11-1106 

Vehicle towing, speed limit 11-806 

Hydraulic brake fluid 12-304 

I 
Identification lamps 

Color 12-209 

Mounting- 12-210 

Permissible 12-221 

Required 12-208 

Visibility 12-211 

Identifying number 
Application for certificate of title or 

registration 3-104, -403 

Contained in certificate of title 3-107 

Contained in garage report 10-111 

Definition 1-124, 4-107 

Records of department based on .... 3-106, 

-407 

Registration under new number 3-416 

Removal or falsification of 4-107 

When department to check records 

3-105 
When department to inspect .... 3-104(c)3 

Ignition, lock and remove key 11-1101 

Implement of husbandry 

Antitheft laws do not apply to 4-101 

Certificate of title not required _ 3-102 

Con trolled -access highway restrictions 

11-313 

Definition 1-125 

Equipment exception 12-101 

Equipment requirements 12-215 

Exempt from size and weight limits 

14-101 

Flashing lights required 12-215 

Head lamps on 12-215, -224 

Registration, when not required 3-402 

Slow moving vehicle emblem 12-215 

Implied consent to chemical test 6-205.1 

Impounding vehicles 

Abandoned 15-112 

Arrest, when driver is under .... 11- 1002(c) 

Illegally parked 11-1002 

Nonpayment of registration fee 3-808 

Reported stolen 11- 1002(c) 

Unsafe condition, in 13-102 

Indexes required 
Drivers' licenses 

Applications denied , 6-117 

Applications granted 6-117 

Suspensions and revocations 6-117 

Registrations, vehicles 3-407 

Stolen vehicles 4-105 

Inspection of vehicles, generally .... 13-101 to 

-112 
Aiming and adjustment of lamps 

12- 230(c) 
Annual or periodic, required .... 13- 104(a) 

Arrest for refusal to allow 16-107 

Bicycles, local authorities may require 

15-102 

Brakes on motor- driven cycles 12-510 

Buses, tests for safety of 14-110 

Certificates of inspection 

Approval 13-102(b), -107(b) 

Authorized person may issue 13-109 



Section 

Inspection of vehicles — (Contd) 
Certificates of inspection— (Contd) 

Display of 13-108 

False 13- 110 

Furnished by department 13- 106(a), 

(c), -107(b) 

Issuance of 13-107(b) to (e) 

Issued _ in another state .... 13- 104(c), (d) 
Rejection 

Contents of 13- 107(d) 

Issuance of 13- 107(d), (e) 

Operation restricted 13 -107(d) 

Suspension for failure to secure 

13 -104(e) 

Correction of defects 13-102, -107 

Equipment 
Good working order and adjustment 

13-101, -107(b) 

To be inspected 13-104(a), -102(a) 

Fees 13- 106(c), -107(c) 

Fleet vehicles 13- 106(d) 

Foreign certificate of inspection 

13- 104(c), (d) 

Foreign vehicles 13-104(d) 

Identifying number (see that topic) 
Investigation of safety of certain ve- 
hicles 14-110, 12-510 

Notice issued by police officer 13-102 

Compliance with 13- 102(d) 

Contents of 13- 102(b) 

Owners and drivers to comply 13-103 

Periodic inspection 
Certificates of inspection .... 13-107, -108 
Equipment to be inspected .... 13- 104(a) 
Extension of time authorized .... 13-112 
Federal highway safety program 

standard 13-104 

Foreign vehicle 13- 104(d) 

Owner to comply 13-103 

Portion of registered vehicles each 

month 13-104(b) 

Reciprocity 13-104 

Required for all registered vehicles 

13- 104(a) 

Standards for performing 13- 104(a) 

Stations, official 

Application for permit 13- 106(b) 

Appointment of 13-106 

Certificates of inspection 13-107, 

-108 

Competent personnel 13 -106(b) 

Equipment of 13 -106(b) 

Forms to be supplied by com- 
missioner 13- 106(a) 

Improper representation as 13-109 

Insurance or bond 13- 106(b) 

Issuance of certificates 13- 106(a) 

Operation of 13-107 

Operators of fleet vehicles .... 13 -106(d) 

Permit not transferable ~ 13- 107(a) 

Privately owned 13-106 

Qualifications of 13-106 

Records „ 13 - 107(f) 

Signs and posters 13-111 

State owned 13-105 

Supervision of stations 13- 106(e) 

Suspension or revocation of regis- 
tration 13- 104(e) 

Suspension or revocation of station 

permit 13-106(e), -112 

Vehicles inspected in another state 

13 -104(c), (d) 
Police officer may require display of 

certificate 13-108 

Police officer may require, when 

13 -102 (a) 



Index 



263 



Section 

Inspection of vehicles— (Con td) 
Proportionally registered vehicles 

13- 104(c) 
Provisions uniform throughout State 

15-101 
Reciprocal agreements authorized 

13-104(d) 

Records of 13- 107(f) 

Registration, suspension or revocation 

of „ — 13 -104(e) 

Regulations authorized 13-112 

Standards for performing 13- 104(a) 

Tests for safety of trucks, buses and 

trailers 14-110 

Vehicles in unsafe condition 

Denial of registration 3-406 

Police officer may restrict operation 

13-102 

Prohibited . 13-101, 12-101 

Suspension of registration of „ 13- 104(e), 

3-704(3) 
Institute of Traffic Engineers, traffic- 
control devices, manual on ~ 15-104 



Instruction permit 

Age limit, minimum 

Application for — information 



Applications of minors- 
quired 

Constitutes a license 
Driver education program 



. 6-103 T -105 
required 

6-106 
formation re- 

, « 6-107 

1-128 



..... 6-105 (d) 
6-105 



Operation of vehicle under 
Instructors of commercial driving 

schools, license required 6-401 to 

-407 
Insurance, liability (see also, Financial 
responsibility, Self- insurer) 

Alternate forms of proof 7-320 

Amounts required for proof « .. 7-204 

Assigned risk plans 7-501 

Certificate of insurance as proof 



7-321 

7-322 
7-323 



Certificate of nonresident „ 

Default by nonresident insurer 
Exceptions to requirement of security 

7-203 
Motor vehicle liability policy defined 

7-324(a) to (k) 

Notice of policy termination 7-325 

Other liability policies 7-326 

Self-insurance, certificate of „ 7-203, 

-320 
requirements to qualify 

7-503 
of act, uniformity of 

19-101 



Self-insurers 

Interpretation 

Intersection 
Appropriate 
Authorized 
clear of . 



speed 11-801 

emergency vehicle, stop 

ll-405(a) 

Basic speed rule 11-801 

Crosswalk (see that topic) 

Definition 1-126 

Diagonal crossing by pedestrians 

ll-503(d) 

Driving on left, restriction ll-306(a) 

Passing near 11- 306(a) 

Pedestrians 

Control signals 11-203 

Diagonal crossing of, when per- 
mitted ll-503(d) 

Obey traffic -control signals at 

11-501 (b) 
Passing vehicle stopped for .... 11- 502(d) 
Use crosswalks when controls at 

adjacent 11 -503(c) 

Within intersection, drivers yield to 

ll-202(a)l, 2 



vehicle 



11-405 



Section 
Intersection— (Contd) 
Right of way at 
Authorized emergency 
Controlled intersection 

Flashing yellow light 11 -204(a) 

Green light 11 -202(a) 

Pedestrians 11 -202(a), -203 

Preferential right of way .... ll-403(a) 

Stop sign 11-403(5) 

Yield sign 11 -403(c) 

Left -turning vehicle 11-402 

Uncontrolled intersection 11-401 (a) 

Speed at 

Appropriate speed « 11-801 

Basic speed rule 11-801 

Establishing limits 11-802, -803 

Stop before entering 

Flashing red light ll-204(a) 

Red light - ll-202(c)l 

Stop sign 11 -403(b) 

Yield sign 11 -403(c) 

Stop intersection ll-403(b), 15-109 

Stopping, standing or parking 

Within, prohibited 11-1003 

Within 20 feet prohibited 11-1003 

Traffic within 

Yield to H -202(a) 1, 2, -403 

Traffic- control signals at, generally 

11-202 to -204 
Turning at 

Eeft turn, yield right of way .... 11-402 
Proper position and course ».. 11-601 (a) 

to (c) 

Reasonable safety 11 -604(a) 

Signal required „ ll-604(a), (b) 

Vehicle on approach of authorized 

emergency vehicle 11 -405(a) 

Vehicle within, yield to ll-202(a)l, 2, 

-403 

Yield intersection ll-403(c), 15-109 

Interstate Commerce Commission regu- 
lations (see United States govern- 
ment, Motor Carrier Safety Bureau) 
Intoxicating liquor, driving while under 
influence of 
Application on and off highway .... 11-101, 

-902 

Arrest for 16-105 

Chemical tests ll-902(b) to (ff) 

Implied consent to chemical test 

6-205.1 

Offense defined 11 -902(a) 

Penalties 11-902.2 

Prohibited 11 -902(a) 

Revocation of license 6-205, 11-902.2 

Intoxicating liquor, habitual users of not 

to be licensed 6- 103(b) 

Islands 

Divided highway »„„«„.. 11-311 

Rotary traffic 11-308 

Safety zone 11-508 



Joyriding (see Antitheft laws, unau- 
thorized use of vehicle) 

Judgment (see Financial responsibil- 
ity) 
Defined 7-303 



Key, ignition, remove from unat- 
tended vehicle _ 11-1101 



Lamps on vehicles (see also, Flares, 
Reflectors) 
Additional lamps not prohibited 12- 101(b) 



264 



UNIFORM VEHICLE UOUE 



Section 
Lamps on vehicles— (Coritd) 
Additional lamps on certain vehicles 12-208 
Adjustment, proper, required .... 12-101(a), 

13-101 
Aim and adjust under commissioner's 

regulations . 12- 230(c) 

American Association of Motor Ve- 
hicle Administrators 12-102 

Animal-drawn vehicles 12-216 

Approval by commissioner required 12-230 

Authority of commissioner .. 12-102, -232 

Authorized emergency vehicles 12-218 

Auxiliary lamps 

Auxiliary driving 12-217 (d), -222 

Auxiliary passing . 12-217 (c), . -222 

Fog 12 -217(b) 

Back-up lamps 

Color 12- 209(c) 

Number permitted 12-221 (c) 

Use restricted 12-221 (c) 

Bicycle requirements « 11-1207 

Bus 

Additional lamps 12-208 

School bus 12-218, -228 

Vehicular hazard warning 12-220(b), 

-408(a) 

Candlepower restrictions 12-227(a) 

Clearance lamps 
Color 

Front 12-209 

Rear 12-209 

Height limitations 12-210 

Obstructed lights not required 12-212 

Requirements on 
Buses and trucks 80 Inches wide 12-208 

Pole trailers 12-208 

Trailers and semitrailers 80 inches 
wide 12-208 

Color requirements, front 

Animal-drawn vehicles 12-216 

Authorized emergency vehicles .... 12-218 

Bicycles 11-1207 

Clearance lamps 12-209 

Courtesy lamps 12-221 

Cowl or fender lamps 12-221 

Farm tractors, implements of hus- 
bandry 12-215 

Identification lamps 12-209 

Parked vehicles 12-214 

Red restricted 12-227 (b) 

School buses 12-218 

Side marker lamps 12-209 

Turn signal lamps 12-219 

Vehicular hazard warning signal 12-220 

Color requirements, rear 

Animal -drawn vehicle 12-216 

Authorized emergency vehicle 12-218 

Back-up lamps 12-209 

Bicycles 11-1207 

Clearance lamps 12-209 

Farm tractors, implements of hus- 
bandry 12-215 

Identification lamps 12-209 

Parked vehicles 12-214 

Registration plate lamp 12 -204(c) 

School bus 12-218 

Side marker lamps 12-209 

Stop lamps 12-219 

Tail lamps 12-204 

Turn signal lamps 12-219 

Vehicular hazard warning signal 12-220 

Commissioner's authority 

Approval procedure 12-102 

Approval required 12-230 

Lists of approved lamps 12-102 

Revocation of approval 12-232 

Trade mark or name 12-230 



Section 
Lamps on vehicles — (Contd) 
Courtesy lamps 

Colors permitted 12-221 

Glare prohibited 12-221 

Number permitted 12-221 

Courtesy or "do pass" signal .... ll-604(d) 
Cowl or fender lamps 

Colors permitted 12-221 

Glare prohibited 12-221 

Number permitted 12-221 

Darkness defined 12-201 

Driving lamps, number required or 

permitted 12-203, -217(d), -226 

Farm tractors 12-215 

Federal motor vehicle safety stan- 
dards 12-101, -102, -228 

Fender or cowl lamps 12-221 

Flashers 12-220, -215, -408 

Flashing 
Authorized emergency vehicle ...... 12-218 

Farm vehicles * 12-215 

Highway maintenance „ 12-229 

School bus 12-218 

Turn signal 12-206, -219, 11-604 

Vehicular hazard warning .... 12-220, -215, 

-408 

Fog lamps 12-217(b) 

Head lamps 

Alternate 12-225 

Auxiliary lamps, use with 12-221 

Driving lamps, number required or 

permitted 12-226 

Height limitations 12-203 

Lighted, when required 12-201 

Motorcycles 12-506 

Motor- driven cycles 12-507 

Multiple- beam equipment 

Beam indicator 12-222( c ) 

Glaring lights 12-223, -506 

Requirements and limitations .... 12-222, 

-506 

Use of equipment 12-223, -506 

Number required 12-203, -506, -507 

Parked vehicles 12-214(d) 

Single -beam equipment 12-224 

Height requirements 

Auxiliary driving lamps 12-217 

Auxiliary passing lamps 12-217 

Clearance lamps 12-210 

Fog lamps 12-217 

Head lamps 12-203, -506 

Measurement of 12-202 

Tail lamps _ 12-204, -502 

Highway maintenance vehicles 12-229 

Identification lamps 

Color 12-209 

Mounting 12-210 

Optional 12-221 (d) 

Required 12-208 

Visibility „ 12-211 

Implements of husbandry 12-215 

Inspection, periodic to include .... 13-104(a) 

Lanterns, electric 12-407, -408 

Lighted, when required 12-201 

Motorcycle, requirements .... 12-501 to -506 
Motor-driven cycle head lamps .... 12-507, 

11-805 

Night defined # 12-201 

Number of driving lamps restricted 12-226 

Obstructed lights not required 12-212 

Parked vehicles, when lights re- 
quired 12-214 

Performance standards (see Visibility 
distance requirements, herein) 

Pole trailer, required on 

Additional lamps required 12-208 

Stop lamps „ 12-206 

Tail lamps 12-204 



Index 



265 



Section 
Lamps on vehicles— (Contd) 

Semitrailers, requirements— (Contd) 

Turn signals 12-206, 11-605 

Vehicular traffic hazard 12 -220(b) 

Projecting load, lamps or flags on .... 12-213 

Proper condition and adjustment re- 
quired 12-101, -201_, 13-101 

School buses, special lighting equip- 
ment 12-218, -228, 15-110 

Semitrailers, requirements 

Additional lamps 12-208 

Stop lamps 12-206 

Tail lamps 12-204 

Turn signals 12-206, 11-605 

Vehicular hazard warning lamps 

12-220(b) 

Side marker lamps 
Color 

Front 12-209 

Rear 12-209 

Mounting of 12-210 

Required 

Buses and trucks 80 inches 

wide 12-208 

Pole trailers 12-208 

Trailers and semitrailers 12-208 

Simultaneous! v flashing lamps 12-220, 

-408, -215 

Snow removal equipment, standards 
for lights 12-229 

Special restrictions on lamps 12-227 

Spot lamps — limitations 12-217 

Stop lamp or lamps 

Color limitations 12-219 

Obstructed lights not required .... 12-212 
Required on all buses and trucks 

12-206, 11-605 

Required on motor vehicles 12-206 

Trailers and semitrailers 12-206 

Visibility requirements 12-219 

Tail lamps 

Color required 12-204 

Height limitations 12-204 

Number required 12-204 

Rear registration plate illumina- 
tion _ 12-204 

Visibility distance requirements .... 12-204 

Trailers, requirements 

Additional lamps 12-208 

Stop lamps „ 12-206 

Tail lamps 12-204 

Turn signal lamps 12-206, 11-605 

Vehicular hazard warning lamps 12-220 

Turn signal lamps 

Color limitations 12-219(b) 

Required 12-206, 11-605 

Visibility requirements 12-219(b) 

Vehicular hazard warning lamps 

Buses, required on 12-220(b) 

Color limitations 12-220{c) 

Disabled vehicle to use, when l2-408(a) 

Farm tractors, required on 12-215 

Meaning of 12-220(c) 

Stopped vehicle to # use, when .... _12-408(a) 
Trailers and semitrailers, required 

on 12-22000 

Trucks, required on _ 12-220Cb) 

Visibility distance requirements 

Alternately flashing lamps 12-218 

Animal -drawn vehicles 12-216 

Bicycles 11-1207 

Clearance lamps 12-211 

Farm vehicles 12-215 

Head lamps 

Alternate 12-225 

Multiple-beam 12-222. -506 

Single -beam 12-224 

Identification lamps 12-211 

Measurement of, when and how -.. 12-202 



Section 
Visibility distance requirements— (Contd) 

Motorcycles 12-502, -504, *506 

Motor-driven cycles 12-507 

Parking lights 12-214 

Projecting load, lamp on 12-213 

Side marker lamps 12-211 

Stop lamps 12-219(a) 

Tail lamps 12-204 

Turn signal lamps 12- 219(b) 

Vehicular hazard warning lamps 12-220(c) 
Lane (see also, Laned roadway) 
Center, in three-lane highway .... ll-309(b), 

-301 (a)3 
Change restriction authorized .... 11 -309(c), 

(d) 

Changing lanes 

Care required ll-309(a), -604(a) 

Prohibited by devices „ 11 -309(d) 

Signal required _ ~ 11 -604(a) 

Direction- control signals 11-204.1 

Disabled or stopped vehicles^ drivers 
of certain, to place warning de- 
vices in center of 12-408 

Drive within one lane ll-309(a) 

Motorcycles 

Entitled to full use of m 11 -1303 (a) 

Passing restrictions — 11 -1303(b), (c) 

Two abreast in 11- 1303(d) 

Off-center lanes .... 11-204.1, -3QL(e), -309(c) 
Proper turning position .... 11-601 (a) to (c) 
Return to authorized lane after pass- 
ing 11-305 

Reversible flow of traffic in 11 -308(a) 

Right hand, use of required 11 -301(b) 

Size limits affected by width of .... 14-102 
Truck and slow moving vehicle ll-309(c), 

-310(b) 
Turns, proper position and course for 

left 11 -601(b) 

Laned roadway (see also, Lane and 
Roadway) 

Defined 1-127 

Drive in one lane «.... 11 -309(a) 

Four-lane roadways ll-301(c) 

Lane restrictions 

Changing may be prohibited „.. 11 -309(d) 

Slow moving vehicle 11 -309(c) 

Use of designated II -309(c) 

Motorcycle operation on 11-1303 

Three-lane roadways .... 11-30900, -301(a)3 
Larceny (see Antitheft) 
Law enforcement officer (see Police 

officer) 
Learner's permit (see Instruction 

permit) 
Leased vehicles (see For- rent vehicles) 
Left side, driving on (see Driving on 

left, Overtaking and passing) 
Left turn 
Center of intersection, go left of 11-601 (b) 
Course to follow within intersec- 
tion 11 -601(b) 

Crossovers on divided highways .... 11-311 
Excepted from 
Driving on left side prohibition ll-301(c) 

Requirement to keep right ll-301(c) 

Restrictions in no-passing zones 11-306, 

-307 

Using _ right lane ll-301(b) 

Overtaking and passing (see that 

topic) 
Passing to right of vehicle mak- 
ing ". 11-304 

Red light, on ll-202(c)2 

Required position and method of 
Alteration of by devices ........ 11 -601(c) 

General rule for 11-60*1 (b) 

Right of way 11-402 



zoo 



Uniform Vehicle Code 



Section 
I,eft turn— (Contd) 

Three-lane roadway 11 -309(b) 

Turn signal required 11 -604(a) 

Duration of # ~ 11- 604(b) 

Method of giving 

Electric signal lamps 11-605 

Hand and arm 11-605, -606 

U turns - 11-602 

legend (see Traffic-control signal 

legend) 
Inability (see Civil liability) 
license, driver's, generally „.. 6-101 to -305 

Abstract of records 7-103 

Age, minimum, generally 6-103(a) 

Driver education graduates .... 6-103 (a)l 

General minimum age 6- 103(a) 

Instruction permits .... 6-103(a)3, 4, -105 
Motorcycle instruction permit 6-103(a)4 

Nonresidents 6-102(2), (3) 

Restricted licenses ~ 6-103(a)2 

School bus drivers 6- 104(c) 

Student enrolled in driver education 

course 6-103(a)3, -105(c) 

Transporting persons for com pen- 

sation „ „ 6- 104(c) 

Appeals to court 6-212, 7-102 

Application for, generally 6-106 

Approval or rejection of 2-310 

Contents of „ 6-106 

Examination of applicant required 

6-110, -115, -208(b) 

Expiration and renewal 6- 115(a) 

False statement in 6-301(5) 

Fee to accompany 6- 115 (a), -106(a) 

Form of ... 6- 106(a), 2-307 

Instruction permit « - 6-106 

Minors under 18 6-107 

Required — 6-106 

Synopsis of laws may be supplied 2-312 
Armed Forces members 

Deferral of expiration date 6- 115(c) 

Exemption from license - 6-102 

Bus drivers 6- 104(c) 

Cancellation 

Authority for » — 6-201 (a) 

Definition 1-108 

Misdemeanor to fail to surrender 

license after 6-301(4) 

Surrender of license card after 6-210(b) 

Upon death of parent 6-109 

Upon withdrawal of parental con- 
sent 6-108 

Carry license 6-112, -105, -102(2) 

Change of address or name 6-116 

Chauffeur -opera tor distinction 6-101 

Classes of licenses based on type of 
vehicle 

Bus drivers - 6- 104(c) 

Department to establish — 6- 104(b) 

Examination according to „ 6- 110(a), 

-115 
Instruction permits for different .... 6-105 
Must be licensed for vehicle be- 
ing driven 6-101 (a) 

Permitting driving by person not 

properly licensed ..... 6-305 

Re-examination according to 6-1 15(b) 

Restrictions as to, upon re-exami- 
nation 6-207 

School bus drivers 6- 104(c) 

Shown on license card .... 6-104(a), -111(a) 

Towed vehicles 6-101 (b) 

Transportation of persons for com- 
pensation 6- 104(c) 

Commercial driver training schools 
(see that topic) 

Contents of 6-111 

Conviction denned — 6-204(c) 



Section 
Incense, driver's, generally — (Contd) 
Courts, duties of 

Appeals to 6-212, 7-102 

Forward record of convictions and 

forfeitures to department 6-204(b), 

lS-101(b) to (d) 

Records of traffic cases 18-101(a) 

Report nonpayment of judgments .... 7-308 

Require surrender of license 6-204(a) 

Suspension, may recommend 6-204(b) 

Definitions 

Driver's license 1-114.1 

License 1-128 

Nonresident's operating privilege .„. 1-338 
Denial of 

Appeal from » 6-212 

Grounds for „ 6-103 

Department to issue ..,-» „ 6-111 

Display of (see Exhibition of, herein) 

Disqualifications, generally 6-103(b) 

Failure to prove financial respon- 
sibility „ , 6-103(b)6 

Habitual drunkards and drug 

users 6-103(b)3 

Mental incompetency ^6-103^)4 

Persons required to take examina- 
tion 6-103(b)5 

Physical or mental disability .... 6-103(b)7 
Suspension _ or revocation .... 6-103(b)l, 2 
Driving while license suspended or 
revoked 
Additional period of suspension or 

revocation ...._ 6-303 (b) 

Penalty 6-303 (a) 

Duplicate license 6-114 

Employer not to allow unlicensed 

person to drive 6-305 

Examination and re-examination 

For cause 6-207 

On renewal of license „ ,..,. 6-115 

Original application 6-110(a) 

Suspension hearing, after 6-206(c) 

Exemption from license, generally .... 6-102 
Armed Forces member licensed by 

home state 6-102(4) 

Armed Forces member with over- 
seas military license 6-102(5) 

Federal employees operating gov- 
ernment vehicles 6-102(1) 

Nonresident licensed by home juris- 
diction 6-102(2) 

Residents of jurisdictions not re- 
quiring license 6-102(3) 

Exhibition of 
At scene of accident, ream" red 10- 104(a) 
Canceled or suspended license, 

prohibited 6-301(1) 

License of another, prohibited .... 6-301(3) 

Required upon demand 6-112 

Expiration and renewal 

Armed Forces members 6- 115(c) 

Denial of renewal, when autho- 
rized 6- 103(b) 

Re-examination required 6-1 15(b) 

Time of expiration 6- 115(a) 

False affidavit, action ami penalty for 

making 6-205(6), -302 

Foreign license, operation under dur- 
ing: suspension or revocation pro- 
hibited 6-211 

Forms, commissioner to prescribe .... 2-307 
For-rent vehicle (see Owners of for- 
rent vehicles, herein) 

Fraudulent use of ~ 6-301, -206 (a) 5 

Hearings A „ ^ , 

Appeals after 6-212, -205.1 (e 

Implied consent revocation .... 6-205.1 (d] 
Suspension 6 -206(c), -113(c, 



Index 



267 



Section 
Incense, driver's, generally — (Contd) 

Information required 6-106, -111 

Instruction permits 6-105 

Interstate aspects of licensing 

Conviction defined 6-204(c) 

Nonresident 
Conviction reported to home 

state 6-202(b) 

Definitions 1-137, -138, -128 

Exemption 6-102(2) to (4) 

Foreign license, operation under 
during suspension or revoca- 
tion 6-211 

Nonpayment of judgment re- 
ported 7-309 

Record forwarded to new state 

6-106(d) 
Suspension or revocation of privi- 
leges 6-202(a), -203(a), 7-213, 

-307, -310 
Suspension or revocation reported 

to home state 6 -202(c) 

Resident 
Conduct in another state .... 6-203(b) 
Conviction in another state .... 6-203 (a), 
-206(b) 
Denial of license for foreign sus- 
pension or revocation 6-103(b)2, 

7-213(c) 

One license concept 6- 101(c) 

Points assessed for foreign con- 
viction 6-206(b) 

Record received from prior state 

6-106(c) 
Serious otfense committed in an- 
other state 6-206 (a)6 

Surrender license issued by prior 

state of residence 6- 101(c) 

Suspension based on misconduct 

in another state 6-203, -206(a)6, 

-206(b) 

Incense required 6-101 

Local authorities may not require 

6-101 (d) 

Mandatory revocation 6-205 

Medical advisory board 
Advise department on individual 

cases 6-1 18(c) 

Advise department on licensing 

standards 6-1 18(b) 

Civil liability 6-11 8(d) 

Confidentiality 6-118(e) 

Creation of 6- 118(a) 

Examination of individuals 6-1 18(c) 

Military personnel (see Armed 

Forces, herein) 
Minor under 18 (see also, Age, mini- 
mum, herein) 
Cancellation of license upon death 

of parent 6-109 

Driver education required 6- 103(a) 

Parental consent 6-107 

Permitting unauthorized minor to 

drive , 6-304 

Proof of financial responsibility 6- 107(c) 

Withdrawal of adult's consent' 6-108 

Motorcycles 

Instruction permits ; 6- 105(b) 

Special class of license authorized 

6-104(b) 
Special examination authorized 

6-104(b), -110. -115(b) 

Nonresidents 1-138. 6-102. -202. -211, 

7-206, -213, -307, -309, -310 

Offenses 6-301 to -305 

One license concept 6-10l(c) 

Operator -chauffeur distinction 6-101 

Owner not to allow unlicensed per- 
son to drive 6-305 



Section 
License, driver's, generally— (Contd) 
Owners of for-rent vehicles 

Inspect license of lessee 8- 103(b) 

Record of license number 8- 103(c) 

Rent only to properly licensed 

drivers ,- 8- 103 (a) 

Parental responsibility for minors .... 6-107 

to -109, -304 

Perjury, action and penalt3 r for .... 6-205(6), 

-302 
Permitting unauthorized person to 
drive 
Any person not legally authorized 6-305 
Any person not properly licensed 6-305 
Minor under 18 driving in viola- 
tion of law 6-304 

Unlicensed minor under 18 6-304 

Photograph may be required 6- 111 (a) 

Point system 6-206(b) 

Provisional 6-111 (b) 

Qualification according' to type of 
vehicle (see Classes of licenses, 
herein) 

Records (see also, that topic) 6-117 

Re- examination authorized 6-115, -207, 

-206(c) 
Renewal (see Expiration and re- 
newal, herein) 
Reports (see that topic) 

Required 6-101 

Restricted licenses 

Authority to issue 6- 113 (a) 

Form of _ 6- 113(b) 

Lower minimum age permissible 

6-103(a)2 
Restrictions imposed after re -exam- 
ination 6-207 

Suspension for violation of re- 
strictions 6- 113(c) 

Revocation (see also, Suspension, 
herein) 
Accident, failure to perform duties 

at scene of 6-205(5), 10- 102(c) 

Appeals 6-205. 1(e), -212 

Conduct in another state 6- 203(b) 

Conviction in another state 6- 203 (a) 

Court to forward license to depart- 
ment 6-204(a) 

Defined 1-155 

Discretionary 6-206 

Driving bv a drug addict 6-205(3), 

11-902.2 

Driving while license revoked 6-303 

Driving while under the infl uence 

of alcohol _ 6-205(2). 11-902.2 

Driving while under the influence 

of drugs 6-205(3), 11 -902.2 

Duration of 6-20S, 7-305 

False information to department 

6-205(6) 
Felony in which _ vehicle is used 6-205(4) 
Hearing, revocation after suspen- 
sion 6-206(c) 

Homicide by vehicle ....■ 6-205(1) 

Implied consent — refusal of chemi- 
cal test 6-205.1 

Investigation prior to reinstate- 
ment 6-208(b) 

leaving scene of certain accidents 

6-205(5), 10- 102(c) 

Mandatory 6-205 

Manslaughter or homicide by ve- 
hicle .; 6-205(1) 

Misdemeanor auto theft 6-205(7) 

New license to be denied during 

revocation period 6-103 (Vn 

Nonresident operating privilege 6-202 

Nonresident, report, to home state 

6-202 (c) 



268 



Uniform Vehicle Code 



Section 
License, driver's, generally— (Contd) 
Revocation — (Contd) 

Period oi" 6-208, 7-305 

Perjury „ 6-205(6) 

Re-examination, failure to pass .... 6-20? 
Ke- examination, failure to submit 

to 6-207 

Removal of cause for revocation 

6-20S(a) 

Restrictions, violation of 6-113(c) 

Surrender license to court 6 -204 (a) 

Surrender license to department .... 6-210 
Unauthorized use of a vehicle .... 6-205(7) 

School bus drivers 6- 104(c) 

Seizure of license authorized 2-311 

Surrender of license 

Department shall require 6-210(a) 

Licensee shall surrender card .... 6-210(b), 

7-402(a) 
Misdemeanor to fail to surrender 

6-301(4) 
.Penalty for failure to surrender 7 -402(b) 

When court shall require 6- 204(a) 

When issued new license 6- 101(c) 

Suspension (see also, .Revocation, 
herein) 

Appeals from „ 6-212, 7-102 

Conviction or conduct in another 

state 6-203 

Court may recommend 6 -204(b) 

De hint ion 1-174 

Driving- while license suspended 

Increased period of suspension 6-303 (b) 

Penalty for 6-303(a) 

Duration of 6-209,_ 7-212, -305, -314 

Foreign license, use of during .... 6-211 
Grounds for 
Accident report, failure to fiie 10-109 
Breach of agreement to pay dam- 
ages 7-209(c) 

Breach of agreement to pay 

judgment 7-3LS 

Commission of serious offense 

6-206(a)I, fc 
Driving- while license suspended 

6-303 (b) 
Failure to deposit security after 

accident 7-206 

Failure to take or pass examina- 
tion 6-207 

Fleeing from police officer .... 6 -206(a) 7 
I'Vermcml: convictions of serious 

violations 6-206(a)2 

Habitually reckless or negligent 

driving ' ..., 6-206(a)5 

Incompetent to drive „ 6-206(a>1 

Nonpayment of judgment 7-310 

Permitting unlawful use of li- 
cense 6-206(a)5 

Point system 6-206(b) 

"Racine 6-206fa)P 

Restrictions, violation of 6-1 13(c) 

Hearing required upon request 6-206(c) 
No license issued during- foreign 

suspension _ 6-103(b)2 

No license issued d urine suspen- 
sion 6- 103(b)! 

Period of 1-174. 6-209. 10-109, 7-212. 

-213(c). -305. -314. -335(c) 
Record kept by department .... 6-117(a)3 
Synopsis of laws, distribution to ap- 
plicants 2-31? 

Taxicab drivers 6- 104(c) 

Temporary licenses 6-105(d~) 

Towed vehicle, person steering- must 

be licensed 6-101 (b) 

Transportation of persons for com- 
pensation 6-104(c) 



Section 

license, driver's, generally — (Contd) 
Type of vehicle that may be driven 

(see Classes of licenses, herein) 
Unlawful use of license, generally .... 6-301 
Display license not issued to holder 

6-301(3) 
Display of canceled or suspended 

license 6-301(1) 

Fail to surrender license upon law- 
ful demand 6-301(4) 

Fending license 6-301(2) 

Permit unlawful use of license .... 6-301(6) 
Use false name or commit fraud in 

application 6-301(5) 

License plates (see Registration) 
Lien holder 
Certificate of title, when to receive 3-109 

Definition 1-129 

Duties of owner and lienholdcr 3-203 

Duties to owner and transferee of 

vehicle „ 3-112 

Dntv to disclose pertinent informa- 
tion 3-206, -309 

Duty upon satisfaction of security in- 
terest 3-205 

Optional certificate 3-103 

Owner is not 1-140 

Release of security interest .... 3-205, -308 
Security interest, assignment by .... 3-204, 

-30/ 

Security interest of 3-104 

Security interest, when perfected .... 3-202 
Liens (see also, Security interest) 

Certificate of title to show 3-107 

Lights 
On vehicles (see Damps) 
Traffic (see Traffic -control signals) 
Liquor (see Intoxicating liquor) 
Load on vehicle or combination 
Excess load 
Officers may weigh and require 

removal 14-111 

Refusal to permit, arrest tor 16-107 

Gross weight of vehicle and .... 14-108, -109 

Hazardous materials 12-409 

Leaking or other escaping prohib- 
ited 14-106 

Officers may weigh and require re- 
moval of excess weight 14-111 

Projecting loads 

Commercial vehicle 14-105 

Lamp or fl:ig_ 12-213 

Passenger vehicle 14-103 

Secure fastening required 14-106 

Size limits of vehicle include 14-102, 

-104, -105 
Local authorities, generally (see also, 

Highway authorities) _ 15-101 to -106 

Accident reports, file with 10-115 

Adoption of model ordinance b} r 

reference 15-103 

Bicycles, regulation of 15 -102(a)? 

Bridge speed limits 11-806 

Civil liability, immunity to waived 9-101 
Combinations of three vehicles, al- 
lowing 14-10^ 

Definition 1-130 

Disposition of penalties 17-103 

Emergency regulations authorized 

15-I02(a)22 
Experimental regulations authorized 

" 15-102(a)22 

Pines, disposition of . ; ... 17-103 

FTeavilv traveled streets, restrictions 

on ..'. 1 5-10200 H 

Highway improvement fund created 17-103 

LiceiTdmr drivers bv State only 6-101 

Modrl Traffic Ordinance, adopt by 
reference 15-103 



Index 



269 



Section 
I/Dcal authorities, generally — (Contd) 

Officers and employees to obey rules 16-103 

Ordinance riot to cover matters in 
State laws 15-101 

Parades and assemblages 15 -102 (a) 3 

Play streets, establishing and regu- 
lating 15-102(a)l7 

Powers listed 15 -102(a) 

Powers requiring ordinance 

Angle parking, permitting 11- 1004(c) 

Commercial vehicle restrictions 14- 113(c) 
Controlled -access highway restric- 
tions 11-313 

Pedestrians, requiring use of cross- 
walk . 15-107 

Seasonal weight restrictions .... 14 -113 (a) 

Size and weight limits 14- 113(c) 

Truck routes 14- 113(c) 

Width of bus 14-102 

Written accident reports 10-115 

Powers that do not require ordinance 

Closing unmarked crosswalk ^'^5 

No-passing zones, designating 11-307 

Obstruction, notice to require re- 
moval from private property .... 15-113 

One-way roadways 11- 308, t 15-102(a)4 

Permits for excess size or weight 14-112 

Reversible now traffic 11-308. 

15-102OO4 

Speed limits 

Altering 11-803 

Establish, for arterial streets 11 -803(b) 

Minimum, establishing ....11-804 

Stop intersections, designating .... 15-109 

Stop railroad crossings 11-702 

Through highways 15-109 

Turning restrictions or prohibitions 

15-102009 
Turns, altering position and course 

11- 601(c) 

Yield intersections, designating ..., 15-109 

Preemption of certain ordinances .... 15-101 

Provisions of State laws apply in .... 15-101 

Push carts, regulation of 15-1020020 

School district, obey school bus regu- 
lations 15-110 

Skaters, sleds and coasters, regulat- 
ing 15-102(a)21 

State approval for, on State highways 

Angle parkin gt 11 -1004(c) 

Placing traffic -control devices 15- 105(b) 

Requiring stops by drivers 15- 102(b) 

Speed zones 1 1-803 (d) 

Temporary regulations authorized 

15-1020022 

Traffic- control devices installed bv 

Authorized 15-106, -102002 

Conform to State manual 1.5-106 

M 

Mail, to 

Definition 1-131 

Notices sent by, given effect 2-314 

Mandatory revocation (see Revocation) 
Manslaughter (see Homicide by vehicle) 
Manual on uniform traffic- control de- 
vices (see also, Official traffic-con- 
trol devices) 
Adoption and conformance required 

15-104 to -106 
Manufacturer 

Definition 1-132 

Records to be maintained by 3-604 

Special registration plates for .... 3-601 to 

-603 



Section 
.Markings, roadway (see also, Official 
traffic- control devices. I.aued road- 
way) 
Constitute official traffic- control de- 
vices, when 1-139, 15-104 

Divided highways 11-311 

No-passing zones 11-307 

Obedience to 11-20100 

Stop line 11- 202(c)!, -204, -403(10. (c) 

Unauthorized 11-205 

Median, driving into 11-311 

Medical advisor v board 6-118 

Meeting vehicle 11-302 

Mental disability — driver license dis- 
qualification '. 6- 103(b) 4. -110(a). -115. 

-US, -207 
Metal tires 

Defined # 1-133 

Restrictions against 12- 405(b) 

Military (see Armed Forces) 
Minor (see also. License, driver's) 
Adult to sign driver's license applica- 
tion 6-107 

Cancellation of license on death of 

adult signer 6-109 

Provisional license 6- 111(c) 

Release of adult from liability 6-108 

Mirrors on motor vehicles 12-403 

Misdemeanor (see also. Felony, Viola- 
tions) 
Accident involving damage, failure to 

perform duties 10-103 

Accident report, failure to file 10-109 

Bicycle rules, failure to obey 11-1201 

Certificate of title offenses 4-111. 

3-703 
Commercial driving school violations 

6-407 
Dispositions of fines and forfeitures 

17-103 

Driver licensing offenses 6-301. -303 

Driving unsafe vehicle 12-101 

Driving while license suspended or 

revoked 6-303 

Equipment violation constitutes 12-101 

For-rent vehicle, unlawful use of .... 8-101 
Identification of. vehicle, concealing 

4-107 
Notice to appear in court, when issued 

16-109 

Penalties 17-101 

Refusal to permit weighing of vehicle 

14-111 
Registration offenses .... 3-401, -701 to -703. 

4-111 

Size or_ weight violation 14-101 

Tampering with or damaging a vehicle 

4-104 
Traffic citation, improper disposition 

of 16-119 

Traffic laws, failure to obey 11-102 

Unauthorized use of a vehicle 4-102 

Mobile borne (see House trailer) 
Model Traffic Ordinance (see also, that 
index) 

Adoption by reference authorized .... 15-103 
Money deposit (see Financial responsi- 
bility) 
Motor Carrier Safety Regulations (see 
United States government) 

Motorcade 11-301 (c) 

Motorcycle (see also, Motor- driven cycle) 

Brake requirements 12-503, -509 

Carrying article in hand restricted 

ll-1302(c) 

Clinging _tc other vehicles 11-1304 

Commissioner to approve equipment 

11 -1306(c), 12-201, 32-230 



KJ xx ir US\X\l V Hj£1 1KJU& VjVD& 



Section 

Motorcycle— (Con td) 

Denned 1-135 

Driver's license required 6-101, -104, 

-110, -111, -115 
Equipment requirements .... 12-501 to -511, 

-101(d) 
Eye protection for operator of 

11 -1306(b) 
Footrest required for passenger 

ll-1305(a) 

Handlebar height regulated 11 -1305(b) 

Head lamps on 12-501, -506, -507 

Helmet required for riders 11-1306 

Horn required 12-511 

Instruction permits for 6- 105(b) 

Lane, use of full width by 11- 1302 (a) 

Lanes, driving between 11-1303 

Mirror required 12-511 

Muffler required 12-511 

Passenger, interfering with operation 

11- 1302(d) 
Passing restrictions, special .... ll-1303(b), 

(c) 
Police officers excepted from certain 

rules 11 -1303(e) 

Reflector required 12-503 

Ride on permanent and regular seat 

11-1302 

Seat, ride on 11-1302 

Side -saddle, riding prohibited .... 11 -1302(b) 
Special rules of the road applicable 

to 11-1301 to -1306 

Stop lamp required 12-504 

Tail lamp required 12-502 

Traffic laws apply to operators of 

11-1301 

Two abreast in single lane 11 -1303(d) 

Motor-driven cycle (see also, Motor- 
cycle) 

Approval of braking system 12-510 

Brake performance 12-509 

Constitutes a motorcycle 1-135, -136 

Defined 1-136 

Head lamp requirements 12-507 

Special speed restriction 11-805 

Motor scooter (see Motor -driven cycle) 
Motor vehicle (see other topics, gen- 
erally) 

Certificate of title required 3-101 

Definition 1-134 

Driver's license ^ required 6-101 

Equipment requirements .... 12-101 to -511 

Inspection required 13-101 to -112 

Registration required 3-401, -402 

Size and weight restrictions 14-101 to 

-114 
Motor vehicle department (see Depart- 
ment of motor vehicles) 
Motor vehicle inspection (see Inspec- 
tion) 
Motor vehicle safety standards (see 
United States government) 

Mountain highways, driving on 11-1107 

Muffler required 12-402, -511 

Municipalities (see Local authorities) 

N 

Narcotic drugs, habitual user of (see 
also, Drugs) 

Driving prohibited— penalties 11-902.1, 

-902.2 

Not to be licensed 6- 103(b) 

Revocation of license for driving by 

6-205, 11-902.2 
National Association of Counties, traf- 
fic-control devices, manual on 15-104 



Sectioa 

National Highway Safety Bureau (se* 

United States government) 
National League of Cities, traffic-control 

devices, manual on 15-104 

National Traffic and Motor Vehicle 
Safety Act (see United States govern- 
ment) 

Negligent homicide 11-903 

Night denned 12-301, 11-801.1 

Nonresident 

Arrest of , _ 16-108 

Denned 1.137 

HJxemptions 

Certificate of title „ 3-102 

Driver licensing „ 6-102 

Registration ..... 3-402, -402.1 

Failure to deposit security after acci- 
dent „ 7-206 

Financial responsibility applies to .... 7-213 
Insurance as financial responsibility 

7-322 

Insurer, default by 7-323 

Judgment, failure to pay 7-309, -31? 

Operating privilege defined .... 1-138 

"License" includes „ 1- 128 

Reports to home state of 

Conviction , „ 6- 202(b) 

Suspension or revocation 6- 202(c), 

7-213 

Unpaid judgment 7-309 

Service of process , 9-301 

Suspension or revocation of operating 

privileges 6 -302(a), 7-206, -307, -310 

No-passing zones . 11-307, -306 

Notice, giving of 2-314 

Nuisance, prohibited traffic-control de- 
vices as „ ll-205(d) 



Oaths, administering , „ 2-308 

Obedience to 

Police officer „ ,„ „.. 11-103 

Traffic laws .... „ 11-102 

Traffic laws by public employees .... 16-103 

Traffic -control devices 11-201, -501 

Obstruction, driving around „ 11-301 (a)2 

Obstruction on private property, notice 

to remove 15-113 

Obstruction, removal of vehicle causing 

11- 1002(b) 
Obstruction to driver's view or opera- 
tion 
By material on windows prohibited 

12-404 

By passengers prohibited „ 11-1104, 

-1302(d) 
Occupant (see Passenger) 
Off-center lane (see Lane) 
Offenses (see particular subject, Misde- 
meanor, Felony) 
Official traffic- control devices (see also, 
Railroad sign or signal, Signs, Traf- 
fic-control signals, Markings) 

Advertising on, prohibited „ ll-205(b) 

Altering, prohibited 11-206 

Authority to install 15-105, -106 

Authorized emergency vehicle excep- 
tion 11-106 

Changing lane prohibition „ „ ll-309(d) 

Controlled -access highway restrictions 

11-313 
Crosswalks, closing unmarked ........ 15-108 

Crosswalks, requiring use of . 15-107 

Defacing 11-206 

Denned 1-139 

Diagonal pedestrian crossing at inter- 
section 11- 503(d) 



Index 



271 



Section 
Official traffic-control devices — (Contd) 
Display of unauthorized 

Advertising on 11 -205(b) 

Imitation or interference _ 11 -205 (a) 

Public nuisance 1 1 - 205 (d) 

Removal of 11 -205(d) 

Divided highways 11-311 

Examination for license to include .... 6-110 
Flashing- signals 
Railroad grade crossing .... 11-701, -204(b) 

Red - H- 204(a) 

Yellow 11 -204(a) 

Four-lane roadways ...... ll-301(c) 

Heavily-traveled street restrictions 

15-102 

Imitation prohibited 11 -205(a) 

Injuring 11-206 

Interference with «. ll-205(a), -206 

Knocking down, prohibited 11-206 

Lane use 11 -309(c), (d) 

Lane- direction control „. 11-204.1, - 101(c), 

-309(c) 
Licensing examination to include 

knowledge of 6-110 

Manual on, conformance required .... 15-104 
Markings (see that topic) 

No-passing zones 11-307 

Nuisance, prohibited as 11- 205(d) 

Obedience to 11 -201(a), -501 

Off-center lanes - -....« 11-301 (c), -309(c) 

One-way traffic ll-308(aj 

Parking restrictions 11-1003, -1004(d) 

Pedestrian 

Closed crosswalk » 15-108 

Control signals 11-203 

Diagonal crossing by 11- 503(d) 

Obedience to 11-501 

Placing and maintaining 

Authority for 15-105, -106 

legibility and proper position re- 
quired 11 -201(b) 

Presumption of validity 11- 201(c) 

Unauthorized 11-205 

Play streets 15-102 

Presumptions concerning 

Authority to install 11 -201(c) 

Compliance with law 11-201 (d) 

Private property, signs on 11 -205(c) 

Prohibited devices 11-205 

Railroad grade crossings _ 11-701, 

-204(b), -702 

Removal of prohibited 11 -205(d) 

Required 

When „ ll-201(b), 15102(c) 

When not 11 -201(b) 

Signs (see also, that topic) 
Legibility and position essential 

ll-201(b) 

When required 11 -201(b) 

Size restrictions „ „ 14-113 

Slow- moving vehicles 11 -309(c) 

Speed limits 

Bridges 11- 806(d) 

Fixed or variable 11-802 

Highway commission 11-802 

Local authorities -..» 11-803 

Parks 15-102 

Standing or parking signs 11-1003, 

-1004(d) 

Stop signs - 11-403 (b) 

Stopping, standing or parking signs 

11-1003, -1004(d) 

Three-lane roadways 11 -309(b) 

Through highways 11 -401(b) 

Traffic and engineering investigation 

11-802, -S03 



Section 
Official traffic-control devices — (Contd) 
Traffic-control signal legend, generally 

(see also, that topic) 11-302 

Turn restrictions ll-202(a), 15-102 

Turns, proper position and course 

U-601(c) 

Unauthorized 11-205 (a), (b) 

Weight restrictions „ 14-113 

One-way roadway (see also, Roadway) 

Designating 11-308, 15-102 

Driving rule when signed 11-308 

Exception to driving on right side 

ll-301(a) 

Parking on ll-1004(b) 

Passing on left, exception to restric- 
tions on „ 11 -306(b) 

Passing on right permitted _ ll-304(a)3 

Opening and closing door 11-1105 

Operator (see Driver or License, 
driver's) 

Ordinances (see Local authorities) 
Overtaking and passing 
Center line, driving to left of .... ll-301(c), 
^ . f -305 to -307 

Duties of overtaken driver 11 -303(b) 

Duties of overtaking driver ll-303(a), 

-305 
Exception to driving on right side or 

* ane , ; •; ll-301(a), (b) 

General rules for 11-303, -305 

Head lamp, low beam required .... 12-223 
Left turn, passing restrictions do not 

apply to 11 -301(c), -306, -307 

Limitations on 11-303 to -307 

No-passing zone 

Marked or signed 11-307 

Unmarked 11-306 

Obstruction ll-301(a)2 

On left 11 -303 (a), -305 

On right H.304 

Prohibitions 11-305, -306, -307, -502(d) 

School bus ll-706(a) 

.three-lane roadways „ ll-309(b) 

Vehicle stopped at crosswalk .... 11- 502(d) 
Vehicular hazard warning indicates 

need for care in „ 12-220 

Owner 

Abandoned vehicle, notice of removal 

Accident report, when required ...... 10-107 

Allowing unlicensed person to drive 

prohibited ^.305 

Certificate of title 

Required to apply for „ 3-101 

When, to receive 3-108 

Civil liability for operation by another 
« - . « 9-201 

Conspiracy to violate laws 16-101 

Criminal responsibility of 16-102, -101 

defined 1-140, 3-402.1 (c) 

Equipment, allowing improper 12-101 

Financial responsibility requirements 

For- rent vehicles 8-101 to -103 

Inspection laws, must comply with 

13-103 

Insurance policy „ 7-324(b) 

Liability for highway damage 14-114 

Negligence, when imputed to 9-201 

Operation contrary to law, allowing 

16-102 
Proof of financial responsibility for 

others 7.332 

Real property 

Notice to remove obstruction .... 15-113 
Rights of in regulating traffic .,„ 15-114 



272 



Uniform Vehicle Code 



Section 
Owner— (Contd) 
Registration 
Allowing operation of vehicle with- 
out ..'. 3-401, -701, -702 

ReciDrocity 3-402.1 

Required 3-401, -403 

Return -when suspended or revoked 

3-706 
School district, compliance with regu- 
lations »» 15-110 

Security following an accident .... 7-201 to 

-219 
Security interest 

Creation by 3-203 

Duties on creation 3-203 

Perfection, to be valid against 3-202 

Size and weight limits 
Allowing operation of vehicle ex- 
ceeding ■ H-101 

Inability for highway damage .... 14-114 

Theft of vehicle, report by 4-105 

Transfer of vehicle by 3-112 to -114, 

3-501 to -504, /-401 
Unsafe vehicle, allowing operation of 

12-101 

P 

Parades, regulation by local authorities 

15-102(a)3 

Parent 
Application of minor for license to 

be signed by ■ % 

Liable for minor's negligence 6-10/ 

Permitting unlicensed child to drive 

6-304 
Responsible for bicycle violations 

11-1201 
Park, parking (see also, Standing ve- 
hicle and Stop, stopping^ 

Additional parking regulations 11-1004 

Angle parking ""^c) 

Authorized emergency vehicle li-iuo 

Brakes , , 

Adequacy 12-301(b; 

Set when vehicle unattended 11-1101 

Courts not to report convictions 

6-204(b), 18-101 (b) 

Defined J" 14 } 

Disabled vehicle excepted 11 -1001(b) 

Distance from curb ll-1004(a), (b.) 

Double, prohibited 11-1003U)1 

Fire, parking in same block 11 -1109 

For- rent vehicles, records of 8-103 

Lamps required 12-214 

Local authorities may regulate 

ll-1004(c), 15-102 

Moving another vehicle 11 -1003(b) 

Outside of urban area 11-1001 (a) 

Points not to be assessed for, viola- 
tions 6- 206(b) 

Prohibited at specified places 11-1003 

Removal of illegally parked vehicle 

11-1002 
Securitv after accident, when not re- 
quired ■;■■■•■ 7-203(6) 

Special restrictions or prohibitions 

11 -1004(d) 

Starting parked vehicle I}*?? 3 

Turn signal, when prohibited 11 -604(d) 

Turn signal, when required _ 11 -604(a) 

Vehicular hazard warning signal ex- 
ception 12-408(a) 

When lights required on parked ve- 
hicle 12-214 

Wrong- way, prohibited 11 -1004 (a), (b) 

Parking lots ,.,,., 

Owner of, to report unclaimed vehicle 

4-105 
Provisions that apply on 11-101(2) 



Section 
Parties to a crime (see also, Arrest 

procedure) 16-101, -102 

Passenger 
Accident, give notice of to police .... 10-106 

Bicycle 11 -1203(b) 

House trailer, prohibited 11-1 106 

Interfering with driver 11- 1104(b) 

Learner to be accompanied by 6-105 

'Liability for injur v to guest 9-202 

Motorcycle * 11-1502, -1305, 

-1306 

Opening door 11- 1105 

Passenger car defined 1-142 

Passing (see Overtaking and passing) 
Peace officer (see Police officer) 
Pedestrians 

Appropriate speed for 11 -S01, -502(a) 

Avoid striking 11-504 

Blind pedestrians 1.1-504 

Business, soliciting- by 11-507 

Children, driver's duty toward 11-504 

Confused, driver's duty toward 11-504 

Controlled -access highway 11-313 

- Crossing at other than crosswalk .... 11-503 
Crosswalks 

Closing, authority for 15-108 

Drivers yield to pedestrians in 

ll-202(a), (c), -502(a) 
Local authorities may require use of 

15-107 

Outside, pedestrians yield ll-503(a) 

Passing vehicle stopped at 11- 502 ( d * 

Required use of 11- 503(c), 15-107 

Stop by drivers be (ore 11 -202(c), 

-204. -403 

Walk in right halt of 11-505 

Definition 1-143 

"Don't Walk" _ 11-203 

Driver to exercise due care 11-504 

Duties of, generally 11-501 to -508 

Employment, soliciting 11-507 

Guarding vehicle, soliciting 11-507 

Hitchhiking on roadway 1 1-507 

Horn, sound when necessary 11-504 

Incapacitated 11-504 

intersection 
Crosswalks at (see that topic) 

Diagonal _ crossings ll-503(d) 

Drivers yield to pedestrians in 

ll-202(a), (c) 

Green light ll-202(a)3 

Obey signals at 11-501 

Passing vehicle stopped at ll-502(d) 

Pedestrian-control signals 11-203 

Red light .' 11-202 (c)3 

Yellow light ll-202(b)2 

Local authorities, powers of 15-107, 

-108 

Obey traffic-control devices 11-501 

Overhead crossing 11 -503(b), 

-502(c) 

Pedestrian -control signals 11-203 

Points not assessed for conviction of 

6- 206(b) 

Ride, soliciting 11 -507(a) 

Pight of way in crosswalks 

Defined 1-156 

Driver to yield ll-502(a). 

-202(a), (c) 

Exceptions ll-502(c), (b) 

Passing stopped vehicle ll-502(d) 

Pedestrian to yield, when 11 -502(c), 

1-156 
Running into path of vehicle .... 11 -502(b) 
Walking into path of vehicle .... 11 -502(b) 
Right of way, outside crosswalk must 

yield U-503(aj 

Rights of, generally 11-501 to -508 

Roadway 

Standing in to solicit 1.1-507 

Walking along 11 -506(b) 



Index 



273 



Section 
Pedestrians— (Contd) 
Running into path of vehicle .... 11002(b) 

Safety zones 11-508 

Sidewalks _ ^,, . 

Use, when available 11 -506(a) 

Yield to pedestrian on 11-509 

Soliciting a ride, business or employ- 
ment 11-507 

Speed, reduce for 11-801, 

-502(a), -504 

Subject to traffic regulations 1 1 - 501 

Traffic- control devices, to obey 11-501 

Traffic-control signals 

Drivers yield to pedestrians 

ll-202(a). (c) 

Flashing lights, generally 1 1-204 

Green light ll-202(a)3 

Green turn arrow ll-202(a)3 

Obedience to 11-501 

Pedestrian -control signals 11-203 

Red light ll-202(c)3 

Yellow light ll-202(b)2 

Traffic, definition includes 1-177 

Tunnel 11 -503(b). -502(c) 

Vehicle emerging from driveway .... 11-509 

"Wait" 11-203 

"Walk" 11-203 

Walking on roadway 11 -506(b) 

Watching vehicle, soliciting 11-507 

Working on highway 11-105 

Yield right of way outside crosswalks 

11 -503 (a) 
Penalties 
Accident involving death or injury — 

failure to stop 10-102 

Disposition of 17-103 

Driving while license suspended or 

revoked _ .. ; 6-303 

Drugs, driving while under influence 

of _ . . 11-902.2 

Eluding or fleeing a police officer 11-904 
Failure to report unclaimed vehicle 

4- 105(c) 
Failure to surrender license and regis- 
tration 7-402 

False accident reports 10-108 

Felony, general 17-102 

Forged proof of financial responsibility 

7-403 
For- rent vehicle, unlawful use of 

S-I01( ff ) 

General 17-101, -102 

Hazardous materials violations 12-409 

Homicide by vehicle 11-903 

Intoxicating liquor, driving while un- 
der influence of 11-902.2 

Late delivery of title or application 3-810 
Mandatory revocation of license .... 6-205 

Misdemeanor, general 17-101 

Obstruction on private property, fail- 
ure to remove 15-113 

Reckless driving 11-901 

Second or subsequent offense, p-eneral 

17-101 
Periodic motor vehicle inspection (see 

Inspection) 
Perjury 

Making false affidavit 6-302 

Mandatory revocation on conviction 

6-205 
Permit (see also, License, driver's) 

Excess size and weight 14-112 

Play street 15-102(a)17 

Play vehicle (see also, Bicycle) 

Regulation by local authorities 15-102(a)21 

Point system authorized 6-206(b) 

Pole trailer (see also, Semitrailer, 
Trailer) 

Brake requirements 12-301 

Certificate of title not required 3-102 

Definition 1-146 



Section 
Pole trailer— (Contd) 
Inspection of 

Inspection by officers 13-101 

Periodical inspection — 13-104 

Unsafe operation prohibited 12-101, 

13-101 
Projecting load, limitations, excep- 
tions 14-105, 12-213 

Reflectors 12-205, -208 

to -211 

Registration required— -exceptions 3-402 

Size limits 

Height H-104 

Length, when exempt 14-104, -105 

Width ,. 14-102 

Special lamp requirements 12-208 

Stop lamps - 12-206 

Tail lamp requirements 12-204 

Turn signal lamps 12-206 

Vehicular hazard warning lamps 12- 220(b) 
Police officer 
Abandoned vehicle, removal and re- 
port 15-112 

Accidents 

Arrest powers at 16-110 

Garages report damaged vehicles to 

10-111 

Give information to, at scene 10-104 

Immediate notice to 10-106, -105, 

-104(b) 

Report by 10-112 

Arrest powers and procedures 16-104 

to -120 
Authorized emergency vehicle opera- 
tion 11-106, -405 

Chemical test at request of 11 -902(d) 

Implied consent to 6-205.1 

Revocation for refusal 6-205.1 

Dealer records, inspection by 3- 113(b) 

Defined 1-147 

Driver's license, show at request of 

6-112, 10-104 

Eluding or fleeing from 11-904 

For-rent vehicle records, inspection 

by 8-103 

Plighway patrol 2-303 

Inspection certificate, display to .... 13-108 

Inspection of equipment by 13-102 

Local authority may regulate traffic 

by 15-102(a)2 

Motorcycle passing rules, exception 

11-1303 
Obedience to, bv all persons required 

11-103 
Obey traffic-control device, unless 

otherwise directed by 11-202, 

-403(b), -311 

Public officers to obey laws 16-103 

Pursuit of actual or suspected violator 

11-106 
Railroad crossing stop exception _„ 11-703 
Registration card, display on demand 

of 3-409 

Removal of vehicle 11-1002 

Security deposit after accident not re- 
quired when vehicle was directed by 

7-203(9) 
Stolen vehicle, report to department 

4-105 
Stopping, standing and parking re- 1 
strictions do not apply when di- 
rected by 11-1003, 1-171 

Traffic citations 16-109, - 112 

Vehicular hazard warning signal ex- 
ception „.. 12-408 

Weight of vehicles, authority concern- 
ing 14-111 

Police vehicle (see Authorized emer- 
gen cv vehicle) 

Preemption 
Traffic ordinances, by state laws .... 15-101 



UINirUKM VflliKJUfc UUUJfi 



Section 

Presumptions 

Abandoned vehicle « 15-112 

Chemical test « „ 11 -902(b) 

Failure to yield right of way ..„ 11 -403(c) 

Traffic-control devices, concerning 11- 

201(c), (d) 

Private property 

Abandoned vehicles on „ 15-112 

Accident laws apply on „ 10-101 

Obstruction on, notice to remove .... 15-113 
Rights of owner 15-114 



Serious offenses apply on 
Signs on 



11-101(2) 
11 -205(c) 



Private road or driveway 

Definition ~ 1-148 

Emerging from « 11-404, -509, -705 

Owner, rights of „ ,- 15-114 

Parking in front of 11-1003 

Rules of road, extent of applicabil- 
ity 11-101, 10-101 

Traffic-control signals ll-202(d) 

Turning into 11-402, -509, -604(a) 

Excepted from restrictions against 

driving ewi left side 11 -301(c), -306, 

-307 
Procedure upon arrest (see Arrest 

procedure) 
Processions, local authority may regu- 
late 15-102(a) 

Program (see Highway safety pro- 
gram) 
Proof of financial responsibility (see 

Financial responsibility) 
Proportional registration of fleets 

3-402.1(g), (k), (p) to (x) 
Vehicles excepted from periodic in- 
spection, when 13- 104(c) 

Public officers and employees to obey 

rules 16- 103 

Push cart regulations authorized 15-102(a)20 
Putting injurious matter on highway 11-1111 



Racing 

Arrest for 

Penalty 

Prohibited 



16-105 

11-808, 17- 101(c) 
11-808 



Suspension of license for - 6-206(a) 

Railroad — definition 1-149 

Railroad grade crossing 
All vehicles to stop at certain cross- 
ings 11-702 

Certain vehicles to stop at all cross- 
ings 

Exception v .... 11 -703(b), (c) 

Passenger vehicle for hire 11 -703 (a) 

School bus H-703(a) 

Vehicle carrying explosives or 

flammable liquids ll-703(a) 

Driving through gate prohibited 11- 701(b) 

Flagman 11-701, -704 

Flashing signals 11 -204(b), -701 

Moving heavy equipment, special pre- 
cautions 
Flagman to direct crossing .... ll-704(d) 

Heavy equipment 11 -704 (a) 

Notice to railroad station agent ll-704(b) 

Operator to stop and listen 11 -704(c) 

Warning of approach of train ll-704td) 

Overtaking and passing at ll-306(a)3 

Parking within 50 feet of prohibited 

1 1-1003 (a)3 
Signal indicating approach of train 

Audible signal .... 11-701 (a)3 

Crossing gate or flagman „ 11-701 (a)2 

Electric or mechanical *. ll-70Ka)l 

Visible train 11 -701^4 

Speed, appropriate required .. 11-801 

Stop signs at - ~ « « «» It -702 



Section 
Railroad grade crossing — (Contd) 

Stopping on tracks 1 1 - 1003 

Traffic- control signals at 11 -202(d), 

-703(b) 
Railroad signs and signals 

Definition 1-150 

Flashing signals - 11 -204(b), -701 

Injuring or removing 11-205 

Interference with 11-205 (a) 

Obedience to 11 -201 (a) 

Unauthorized 11 -205 (a) 

Railroad train denned 1-151 

Rebuilders (see Used parts dealers) 

Reciprocal inspection agreements 13-104 

Reciprocal registration agreements (see 

also, under Registration) 3-402.1 

Reckless driving 

Application of prohibition 11-101(2) 

Arrest for ~ „ 16-105 

Definition .™ 11 -901 (a) 

Penalty 11 -901(b) 

Suspension of license for 6-206 

Reconstructed vehicle defined « 1-152 

Records (see also, Reports) 

Commercial driving schools 6-405 

Court „ 18-101 

Dealers 3- 113(b) 

Dealers, manufacturers, transporters 3-604 
Department 

Abstract of person's driving 7-103 

Accident involvement 6-117, -206(a), 

7-103 

Admissible as evidence 2-308(b) 

Authority to destroy „ 2-309 

Certificates of title 3-106, -306 

Convictions > 6-117(b), 18- 101(f) 

Copies, certification of ... 2-308 

Examination of records „..„..„ 2-309 

Furnish to other states „ « 6- 106(d) 

Licensing, driver 6-117 

Nonresident service of process „ 9-301 

Open to public inspection , „ 2-309 

Powers and duties 2-105 

Received from another state .... 6- 106(c) 

Registration 3-407, -418 

Stolen and unclaimed vehicles .... 4- 105(d) 
Surrendered certificates of title 3 -116(c) 

Inspection stations 13 -107(e) 

Owners of for-rent vehicles 8-103 

Owners of proportionally registered 

vehicles 3-402.1(x) 

Received from another state 6-106(c) 

Traffic citations 16-117 to -119 

Used parts dealers, wreckers and 

rebuilders 5-203 

Red light (see Traffic- control signal 

legend, Flashing lights, Lamps) 
Re-examination of drivers, generally 

(see also, License, driver's) .... 6-115, -207 
Reflectors (see also, Flares, Lamps) 
Additional requirements, certain ve- 
hicles 
Buses and trucks 80 inches wide 

12- 208(a), (e) 

Pole trailers 12-208(e) 

Trailers and semitrailers 80 inches 

wide v 12-208(b) 

Animal - drawn vehicles 12-216 

Approval of reflectors by commis- 
sioner reauired „ - «.. 12-230 

Bicycles, when required „,.....™ 11-1207 

Color requirements, front 

Vehicles — 12-209(a) 

Color requirements, rear 

Bicycles « 11-1207 

Vehicles # 12- 209(b), (c), -503 

Commissioner's authority over 

Approval procedure 12-102 

Trade mark or name required 12-230(b) 



Index 



276 



Section 
Reflectors— (Contd) 
Disabled vehicles, portable reflectors 
for 

Alternatives 12-407 

Coruniissioner to approve 12-407 

Placement of, on roadway 12-408 

Farm tractors, farm equipment, im- 
plements of husbandry 12-215, -216 

Height limitations 12-205 (b), -210 

Motorcycles 12-503 

Reflective tape 12-215 

Required on motor vehicles .... 12-205, -503 

Slow moving vehicle emblem 12-215 

Visibility distance requirements 

Bicycles 11-1207 

Certain motor vehicles 12-21 1(a) 

Motor vehicles, general 12-205 (a) 

Portable emergency warning 12-407 

Registration of vehicles (see also, 
Certificate of title; Title, transfer 
of) t 
Application for 
Foreign vehicle in interstate op- 
eration -.....„ ™ 3-404 

Information required _ -„ .. 3-403 

Special plates . „ 3-602 

Specially constructed, reconstructed 

or foreign vehicles , 3-404 

Bicycles, by local authority .... 15-102(a)8 

Bulletins— department may issue 3-418 

Card 

Carry and show to officer 3-409 

Seizure of „ .... 2-311 

Change of address or name 3-414 

Change of motors, regulations gov- 
erning 3-417 

Dealer plates « 3-601 to -604 

Definition 1-153 

Denial of 3-406, 2-310 

Duration of suspension for failure to 

deposit security 7-212 

Effect of provisions relating to 3-401 

Exceptions 3-402 

Expiration annually 3-412 

Expiration on transfer of title 3-501 

Fees 3-801 to -312 

For-rent vehicles « - 8-101 

Gross weight 14-110 

Grounds for refusing „ 3-406 

Identifying number 3-403, -104, -416 

Improper use of evidences of 3-703 

Indexes of 3-407 

Motor- driven cycles, brakes on .... 12-510 
Nonresident owner, when exempt 

3-402, -402.1(b) 

Offenses 3-401, -701 to -706, 4-110, -111 

Operation when canceled, suspended 

or revoked 3-702 

Operation without evidences of 3-401, -701 
Proof of financial responsibility for 

each vehicle 7-313 

Reciprocity, generally « 3-402.1 

Agreements to be filed - 3-402.1 (m) 

Automatic „ 3-402.1 (b), (j) 

Base state registration „ 3 -402. 1(f) 

Commission 3 -402.1(d) 

Declaration of extent „ - 3-402.1 (h) 

Declaration of policy _ 3 -402. 1(a) 

Definitions in connection with 3-402.1 (c) 
Effect on existing agreements 3-402.1 (n) 

Exemptions 3- 402.1(b) 

Leased vehicles 3-402.1(0 

Powers of commissioner, commis- 
sion 3-402. Ke) 

Proportional registration of fleets 

3 -402.1(g), (p) to (x) 

Records^ 3-402. Hw) 

Suspension of benefits 3-402.1(1) 

Trip permit . 3-402.1 (k) 



Registration of vehicles — (Contd) 
Registration card 
Department to issue 



Section 



3-408 
3-408 
14-110 



Information required on ™»„> 

Gross weight ~~~ 

Loss of or damage to - - 3-415 

To accompany certificate applica- 

t ion 3 - 1 IS 

To be signed, carried and shown 

on demand— exception 3-409 

Registration for permissible gross 

weight 14-110 

Registration plates 

Department to furnish .. — 3-410 

Display of 3-411 

Gross weight - — ~- 14-110 

Illumination of — 12-204 (c) 

Information required on .. — ^-410 

Toss of or damage to »....-. 3-415 

Number of 3-410 

Special, for manufacturers, trans- 
porters, dealers .... 3-601 to -604, -705 
To accompany certificate applica- 
tion „ — ~. 3 - 1 15 

Renewal — application for ~ 3-413 

Return of evidence for scrapped 

vehicle 3-505 

Revocation, authority of depart- 
ment « -.. 3-704 

Seizure of — . 2-311 

Surrender when registration sus- 
pended — penalties , 3-706, 7-402 

Suspension of 

Authority of department „ » 3-704 

Judgments, until paid ..«. 7-310, -314 

Proof of financial responsibility un- 
til furnished 7-304, -305 

Safety glass, if not equipped with 12-406 
Security following accident — 7-206, -212 

Stolen, vehicle reported as 4- 105(e) 

Unsafe vehicle _ 3-704(2), 13 -104(e) 

Temporary permit « — — 3-405 

Transfer of title . 3-501 to -505 

Transfer to evade financial responsi- 

bilitv 7-401 

Trip permits 3-402.1 (k) 

Unregistered vehicles, denial of dur- 
ing suspension 7-213 

Unsafe vehicle 

Denial of 3-406(2) 

Suspension of ... : .- 3-704(2), 13- 104(e) 

Weight, registration by 14-110 

When permissible without certificate 3-109 
Registration plates (see under Regis- 
tration of vehicles) 
Regulations of the department 
Adoption of federal regulations by 

reference -..»..„._„ 12-409 

Authority of commissioner to adopt, 

general „. 2-305 

Commercial driving school 6-405 

Equipment standards and specifica- 
tions 

Air- conditioning 12-410 

Brake fluid 12-304 

Helmets for motorcycle riders «.. 11-1306 

Lamps and reflectors 12-230 

Portable emergency warning de- 
vices „.. 12-407 

Safety glazing „ 12-406 

Seat belts 12-412 

Federal (see United States govern- 
ment) 
Hazardous materials regulations .... 12-409 

Inspection program 13-112 

Removal of 

Abandoned vehicle 15-112 

Disabled, illegally stopped vehicles 11-1002 



276 



Uniform Vehicle Code 



Section 
Removal of — (Contd) 
Obstruction on private property, no- 
tice for ' 15-113 

Prohibited devices _ 11 -205(d) 

Substances from highway 11-1111 

Rental of vehicles (see also, For-rent 

vehicles) 8-101 to -103 

Repeal 19-106 

Reports (see also. Forms, Records) 
Abandoned vehicle, to department .... 15-112 
Accident, generally (see Accidents, 

written reports) ^ 10-107 to -115 

Court, of convictions, to department 

6-204. 18-101 
Court, of unpaid judgment, to depart- 
ment 7-308 

False report of theft 4-106 

Inspection stations 13- 107(f) 

Medical advisory board 6-118 

Nonresident, to home state, by depart- 
ment 

Conviction 6- 202(b) 

Nonpayment of judgment 7-308 

Suspension or revocation 6-202(c), 

7-213 
Pohce officers, reports to department 
by 

Abandoned vehicle 15-112 

Refusal of person to submit to 

chemical _test 6-205.1 (c) 

Stolen vehicle 4-105 

Registration bulletins 3-418 

Resident, received from other state 
Conviction or conduct, giving effect 

to 6-203, -206(b) 

Failure to deposit security 7-21 3(c) 

Prior driving record 6- 106(c) 

Traffic citation summary 16- 119(c) 

Residence district (see also, Business 
district. Urban district) 

Definition 1-154 

Emerging from alley, driveway or 

building 11-705 

Following too closely, exceptions .... 11-310 
School bus 

Stop not required in 11 -706(a) 

Visual signals not to be used in 

11 -706(b) 

Speed limits in 11-801.1 

Stopping, standing or parking outside 

of ....!: 11-1001 (a) 

Street-railway grade crossing .... 11 -703(c) 
Resident (see also. Nonresident) 

Service of process on absent 9-301 

Resolutions (see Highway authorities) 

Reversible flow of traffic 11-308 

Revocation (see also, Cancellation, Sus- 
pension) 
Certificate of title 

Department may revoke 3-208, -704 

Commercial driving school or in- 
structor license 6-406 

Dealer's license or plates S-202, 3-705 

Driver's license, generally (see Revo- 
cation under license, driver's) ... 6-205 

Equipment approval certificate 12-231 

Inspection station permit 13- 106(e) 

Registration of vehicle 

Authority of department 3-704 

Dealer's plates ._ 3-705 

Motor-driven cycle, inadequate 

brakes 12-51C 

Surrender of required 7-402, 3-706 

Unsafe or uninspected vehicle .... 13-104, 

3-704(2) 
Used parts dealer license S-20? 



Section 

Right of way 

Authorized emergency vehicle 11-405 

Crosswalk, vield to pedestrian in 

ll-502(a), -202(a), (c) 

Definition of 1.-156 

Exception to general rule 11 -401(b) 

Flashing signals 11-204 

Green light, when yielding required 

ll-202(a)l, 2 
Intersection, stop clear of for emer- 
gency ^ vehicle 11-405 

Intersection, two vehicles approaching 

11-401 (a) 
Intersection, yield to traffic in. on 

green and red light 11- 202(a), (c* 

Lawful conduct as affecting 1-156. 

11-202 
Left, driver on. vield to otie on right 

11 -401(a) 

Left turning driver to yield 11-402 

Obstruction, driving around 11 -301(a) 

Pedestrian in crosswalk 11-502 

Pedestrian not in crosswalk 11- 50.3 

Pedestrian on sidewalk 11-509 

Pedestrian, vield to on green or red 

light ;.... 11 -202(a). (c) 

Pedestrian-control signals 11-203 

Preferential ! 11 -403(a) 

Prima facie evidence of failure to vield 

11 -403(c) 
Private road or driveway .... 11-402. -404. 

-509. -706 
Stop intersection, driver entering 11 -403(b) 

Streetcars 11-405 

Through highways 11 -401(b) 

Traffic-control signal legend, generally 

D-202 
Green light 

Driver yield, to traffic .... 11 -202(a)!, 2 
Red light 
Turning driver vield, to traffic 

ll-202(c)2 
"Walk," yield to nedestrian facing 

11 -203(a) 
Yield intersection, driver entering 11 403(c) 

Right, passing on 11-30'"' 

Right side, driving on (see Driving on 

right, Overtaking and passing) 
Right turn 

Red light, on _ ll-202(c)2 

Required position and course .... 11 -601 (a) 

Authorities may change 11 -601(c) 

Turn signal required 11 -604(a) 

Duration of signal „ 11 -604(b) 

Method of giving 11- 605(a) 

Hand and arm 11-606 

When electric signal required 

11 -605(b) 
Road machinery exempt from size and 

weight limits 14-101 

Road tractor (see also, Farm tractor, 
Truck-tractor) 

Definition 1-157 

Roadway (see also, Highway, I v ane, 
Laned roadway) 

Abandoned vehicles on 15-112 

Bicycles 
Paths to be used where available 

11- 1205(c) 

Ride near right side of 11-1205 

Roadway use restrictions 11-1205 

Traffic laws apply 11-1202 

Clinging to vehicles 11-1204, -1304 

Controlled -access 11-312, -313 

Definition 1 - 158 



Index 



277 



Section 
Roadway— (Contd) 

Disabled vehicle on 11- 1001(b) 

Emergency warning signals 12-408 

Removal of 11-1002 

Divided highways 11-311 

Drive near right edge of on mountain 

highways 11-1107 

Drive on right side — exceptions 

11 -301(a) 

Driving on left— limitations 11-305 to 

-307 

Following too closely 11-310 

Four- lane roadway 11 -301(c) 

Intersection, definition of 1-126 

Laned roadways 11-309 

Meeting and passing on 11-302 

Motorcycle rules 11-1301 to -1306 

Narrow or winding, appropriate speed 

on 11-801 

No-passing zones 11-307 

Off-center lanes 11 -301(c), -309(c) 

One-way traffic 11-308 

Overtaking on left, limitations 

Duty of' overtaken driver 11 -303(b) 

Duty of overtaking driver .... 11- 303 (a), 

-305 
Overtaking on right, when permitted 

11-304 
Overtaking or meeting school bus. ex- 
ception " ll-706(d) 

Parking- 
Angle parking 11 -1004(c) 

Distance from curb 11 -1004 (a), (b) 

Lamp, use when stopped on 12-214 

Special regulations and restrictions 

ll-1004(d) 

Pedestrian 

Crossing diagonally 11- 503(d) 

Crossing other than on crosswalk 

11-503 

Drivers to exercise care 11-504 

Pedestrian -control signals 11-203 

Right of way in crosswalks 11- S02 

Soliciting rides or business prohib- 
ited ..' 11-507 

To use sidewalk if anv 11- 506(a) 

To walk on left 11- 506(b) 

Traffic- control signal legend .... 11 -202 (a) 3 
Person driving animal-drawn vehicle 

11-104 

Person riding animal 11-104 

Removal of vehicle from 11-1002 

Reversible flow of traffic on 11-308 

Rotary traffic islands 11-308 

Rules of the road, generally (see 

specific topics) 11-101 to -1404 

Slower -moving vehicle. ris?ht side of 

11 -301(b) 

Stop signs 11 -403(b) 

Stopping, standing or parking prohib- 
ited at specified places 11-1003 

Three-lane roadway ll-301(a) 

Turning at intersections 11-601 

Turning movements 11-604 

Yield signs 11 -403(c) 

Rotary traffic island 11-308 

Rules of the road, generally (see also, 
subheads below for more details; 
Accidents, duties at scene; Equip- 
ment) 11-101 to -1404 

Animals and animal- drawn vehicles 

11-104 
Applicable on high wavs— exceptions 

11-101 



Section 
Rules of the road, generally— (Contd) 
Authorized emergency vehicles 

Driver's exemption from rules .... 11-106 
Duties of other drivers on approach 

of H-405 

Backing vehicle, limitations on .... 11-1102 
Bicycles and play vehicles .... 11-1201 to 

-1207 

Coasting prohibited 11-1108 

Divided highways ■ 11-311 

Doors, vehicle, opening and closing 

11-1105 

Drive on right — exceptions 11 -301(a) 

Driving left of center, prohibitions 

11-305 to -307 
Drugs, driving while under influence 

of 11-902.1 

Eluding or fleeing a police officer .... 11-904 
Emerging from allev, drivewav or 

building 1 1-404, -509, -706 

Fire apparatus, follow 7 ing prohibited 

11-1109 

Fire hose, crossing restricted 11-1110 

Following too closely 11-310 

Glass, etc., putting on highway pro- 
hibited 11-1111 

Homicide by vehicle 11-903 

Intoxicating liquor, driving while un- 
der influence of 11-902 

leaned roadways 11-309 

Meeting vehicle 11-302 

Miscellaneous 11-1101 to -1111 

Motorcycles 11-1301 to -1306 

Mountain highways, driving on .... 11-1107 
Multiple -beam road -lighting equip- 
ment, use of '. '. 12-223 

No-passing zones 11-307 

Obedience to police officers 11-103 

Obedience to traffic laws 11-102 

Obstruction to driver's view or driv- 
ing mechanism 11-1104 

One-way roadways 11-308 

Overtaking on left— -limitations .... 11-303, 
-305 to -307 
Overtaking on right, when permitted 

11-304 

Parking 11-1001 to -1004 

Pedestrians' rights and duties .... 11-501 to 

-509 

Penalties, general 17-101 

Persons working on highways — excep- 
tions :. 11-105 

Provisions uniform throughout State 

15-101 

Racing 11-808 

Railroad grade crossings .... 11-701 to -704 

Reckless driving— penalties 11-901 

Reversible flow of traffic 11-308 

Right of way at intersection .... 11-401 to 

-403 

Rotarv traffic islands 11-308 

Safety zones 11-508, -1003 

School bus, overtaking and passing 

11-706 

Serious traffic offenses 11-901 to -904 

Sidewalks, driving on 11-1103 

Special stops 11-701 to -706 

Speed restrictions 11-801 to -807 

Stop intersection 11 -403(b) 

Stopping, standing and parking .... 11-1001 

to -1004 

Streetcars 11-1401 to -1404 

Synopsis of, department may publish 

2-312 

Three-lane roadways ll-301(a), -309 

Traffic -control devices 11-201 to -206 



278 



Uniform Vehicle Code 



Section 
Rules of the road, generally— (Contd) 

Traffic- control signal legend 11-202 

Turning vehicle '. 11-601 to -606 

Unattended motor vehicle _ 11-1101 

Yield intersection „ .... 11 -403(c) 

Running-board courtesy lamps 12-221 

S 

Saddlemount (see Driveaway-towaway) 

Safety belts and harnesses 12-412 

Safety glass (see Safety glazing' materials) 
Safety glazing materials 

Commissioner to approve » 12-406 

Definition 12-406 

Federal motor vehicle safety standard 

12-406 
Required in new motor vehicles and 

campers 12-406 

Suspend registration of vehicle with- 
out 12-406 

Safety program (see Highway safety 

program) 
Safety zone 

Definition 1-159 

Driving through prohibited „ 1 1 - SOS 

Parking prohibitions at 11-1003 

Passing streetcar at 11-1403 

Sale of vehicle (see Title, transfer of) 
School bus 

Color of 1-160 

Controlled -access highway 11 -706(d) 

Defined 1 - 1 60 

Divided highway, exception to stop 

rule 11 -706(d) 

Duration of stop by drivers 11 -706(a) 

Flashing lights on, required 12-218 

Actuation of 11 -706(b) 

Drivers to stop when displayed 

ll-706(a) 
Stopped drivers to proceed when 

t discontinued ll-706(a) 

Railroad grade crossings, stop at .... 11-703 
Regulations pertaining to 

Design and operation 15-110 

Lights 12-228 

Sign requirements and use .... ll-706(b), (c) 
Stop for required, when and where 

ll-706(a) 

Visual signals 11 -706(a), (b), 

12-218(b) 
When stopped drivers may proceed 

ll-707(a) 
School districts to comply with bus reg- 
ulations .. 15-110 

Seal of department ~ 2-305 

Seat 

Bicycle 11-1203 

Motorcycle 11-1302, -1305(b) 

Overcrowded front 11- 11 04(a) 

Seat belts and shoulder harnesses .... 12-412 
Second or subsequent offense, generally 

(see Penalties) 17-101 

Sections of Uniform Vehicle Code re- 
vised or added in 1968 (see Table of 
Contents and Table of Amendments) 
Securities (see Financial responsibility) 
Security agreement 
Application for certificate, information 

required 3 - 104 

Definition , 1-161 

Security following accident (see Finan- 
cial responsibility) 

Security interest 
Application for certificate, information 

required 3-104 

Assignment by lienholder 3-204, -307 

Court review - _.... 3-210 

Definition - - 1-162 

TCxam ination of record 3-306 



Security interest— (Contd) 
Excepted liens and security 



Section 



interests 

3-201 

Exclusiveness of procedure 3-207 

Filing and record of notices - „.„„ 3-306 

Perfection of 3-202 

Previously certificated vehicle .... 3-301 to 
-30? (Alt. B) 

Previously registered vehicle 3-301 to 

-309 (Alt. A) 

Release of 3-205, -308 

Surrender of certificate „ 3 -306(c) 

Transfer of vehicle 3-112 to -114 

Unsatisfied security interest in pre- 
viously certificated vehicle 3-305 

(Alt. B) 
Unsatisfied security interest in pre- 
viously registered vehicle _ 3-305 

, , (Alt. A) 

When perfection not effective ... 3-103 

Self-insurer (see also, Financial respon- 
sibility) 

Proof requirements 7-320 

Qualification as self- insurer 7-503 

Security following accident, exemp- 
tion 7-203 

Semitrailer (see also, Pole trailer, 
Trailer) 

Additional lamp requirements „ „ 12-208 

Brake requirements 

All wheels l2-301(a), (c) 

Maintenance and adjustment 12-363 

Performance ability „., 12-302 

Definition 1-163 

Disabled, special warning devices 

12-407, -408 

Farm vehicles 12-215 

Inspection of vehicles 

Inspection by police officers 13-102 

Periodical inspection 13-104 

Unsafe operation prohibited „„..,.„ 13-101, 

12-101 

Obstructed lights not required „ 12-212 

Parking lamps , 12-214 

Projecting load, limitations and lamps 
14-105, 12-213 

Reflectors required 12-205, -208 

^ . to -211 

Registration required— exceptions .... 3-402 

Safety investigaton and test 14-110 

Size limits 

Height 14- 104(a) 

Length 

Combination of vehicles ~ 14-104(c), 

(d) 

Single vehicle 14- 104(b) 

Width 14-102 

Stop lamps 12-206 

Tail lamp requirements „ „ 12-204 

Turn signals required 12-206 

Vehicular hazard warning lamps .... 12-220 
Serious traffic offenses 
Accident, failure to perform duties at 

scene 10- 102(a) 

Apply throughout State .- 10-101, 

11-101 
Drugs, driving while under influence 

of „ 11-902.1 

Eluding or fleeing a police officer 11-904 

Hazardous materials, improperly 

transporting ~ 12-409 

Homicide by vehicle 11-903 

Intoxicating liquor, driving while un- 
der influence of _ ll-902(a) 

Racing 11-808 

Reckless driving „ 11-901 

Service brakes required „.. 12-301 (a) 

Sheriff (see Police officer) 

Shopping centers, rules that apply on 

10-101, 11-101(2) 



Index 



279 



Section 

.... 19-103 



Short title of act « 

Shoulder (see also, Highway) 
Backing on controlled- access .... 11 -1102(b) 
Disabled vehicle on, special warning 

devices - 12-408 

Not part of roadway 1-158 

Passing on right, use of prohibited 

11-304 

Pedestrian, walk on left 11 -506(b) 

Stop, stand or park on, when prac- 
ticable ll-lOOl(a) 

Sidewalk 

Definition ..„ .. 1-164 

Driving on prohibited «.— 11-1103 

Parking on prohibited 11-1003 

Pedestrian on, yield right of way to 

11-509 

Pedestrian use required -.. 11-506 

Vehicle must stop at 11-705 

Signal lamps and devices (see Lamps, 
Stop,_ Turn signals, Vehicular hazard 
warning signal lamps) 
Signals (see Official traffic-control de- 
vices, Railroad sign or signal, Traffic- 
control signals, Traffic-control signal 
legend) 
Signs (see also, Official traffic-control 
devices) 

Advertising on, prohibited _ 11 -205(b) 

Authority to install .. 15-105, -106 

Authorized emergency vehicle excep- 
tion v H-106 

Defacing, injuring, removing 1 1 - 206 

Emblem on farm vehicles - 12-215 

Fixed or variable speed 11-802 

Flashing lights in — 11-204 

Imitation 11-205 (a) 

Legibility and proper position .... 11 -201(b) 
Local authorities, restrictions t as to 
placing signs on state highways 

ll-803(d), 15402(b), 
-105(b), -106(b) 
Manual on uniform, conformance to 

required 15-104 to -106 

Nuisance, prohibited signs are .... 11 -205(d) 

Obedience to required 11 -201 (a) 

Official traffic-control devices include 

1-139 
Parking, standing and stopping, pro- 
hibited by : ; 11-1003 

Pedestrian compliance with sign .... 11-501 

Pedestrian- control signals 11-203 

Presumptions of validity .... 11-201 (c). (d) 
Red light, turns on when indicated by 

ll-202(c)2 

Removal of prohibited ll-205(d) 

Required to designate, when „ 11 -201(b) 

Changing lane prohibition 11 -309(d) 

Closed crosswalk 15*108 

Controlled-access highway restric- 
tions 11-313 

Lane use restrictions 11 -309(c), (d) 

Local traffic regulations „ 15- 102(c) 

No-passing zones 11-307 

One-way roadways 11-308 

Parking restrictions 11- 1004(d) 

Pedestrian use of crosswalk 15-107 

Preferential right of way 11 -403(a) 

Railroad grade crossings, hazardous 

11-702 

School bus 11-707, 1-160 

Size restrictions - 14-113 

Speed limits 11-802, -803, -806(d) 

Stop intersection 11-403 (b) 

Stop railroad grade crossing 11-702 

Through highways 1-175 

Turn, method of making 11 -601(c) 

Turn prohibition 11 -202(a) 1 

Unauthorized 11-205 

Weight restrictions 14-113 



Section 
Signs-(Contd) 
Required to designate, when — (Contd) 
When and where not required 1 1-201 (b) 

Yield intersection 11- 403(c) 

Siren, authorized emergency vehicle 

Effect , of ,. 11-106, -405 

Prohibited on other vehicles ~ « 12-401, 

11-1207 

Required „„„ 12-218 

Use of and standards for _ 12-401 

Size of vehicle or combination and load 
(see also, Weight) 

AASHO, policy on 14-101, -102 

Authorities may restrict .... 14- 113(c), (d) 

Exempt vehicles 14-101 (b) 

Height limit - 14- 104(a) 

Length limit 
Combination of vehicles 

Three vehicles ~ ™ 14- 104(d) 

Two vehicles ~ 14- 104(c) 

Single vehicle 14- 104(b) 

Liability for damage caused by ex- 
ceeding limits 14-114 

Permits for excess size - 14-112 

Pole ^ trailers . 14-105 

Provisions uniform throughout State 

15-101 

Violation of limits prohibited 14-101 

Width limits 14-102 

Projecting load on passenger car 14-103 
Skaters, regulation of authorized 

15-102(a)21 
Slow moving vehicle 

Controlled-access highway restriction 

H-313 

Distance between ll-310(b) 

Emblem 12-215 

Keep in right lane .. 11 -301(b) 

Lanes designated for 11 -309(c) 

Railroad grade crossing, at „ 11-704 

Solid tire vehicle „ 11 -806(b) 

Unreasonably slow speed 11-804 

Slow moving vehicle emblem _ 12-215 

Smoke, excessive prohibited 12- 402(b) 

Snow chains authorized 12-405 

Snow on windshield „ 12-404 

Snow removal vehicles, lights on .... 12-229 
Society of Automotive Engineers, stan- 
dards and specifications for 

Air-conditioning 12-410 

Hydraulic brake fluid 12-304 

Portable vehicular hazard warning 

devices 12-407 

Safety glazing 12-406 

School bus lamps „ 12-228 

Special mobile equipment 
Certificate of title not required ™ 3-102, 

Definition , _ 1-166 

Registration not required -„ „ 3-402 

Specially constructed vehicle 

Application for registration „ 3-404 

Definition „ „ 1-167 

Speed restrictions, generally „ 11-801 to 

-807 

Altering general limits 11-802, -803 

Appropriate, when required -.. 11-801 

Arterial streets ,„„ H -803(b) 

Authorized emergency vehicle may 

exceed 11-106 

Basic speed rule 11-801 

Bridges - 11 -806(c) to (e) 

Business district 11-801.1 

Charging violations „ 11 -807(a) 

Civil actions, effect of excess speed 

in , 11 -807(b) 

Curve, appropriate speed for „ 11-801 

Cushion tire vehicle ll-806(b) 

Day -night distinction in limits .... 11-801.1, 

Daytime* defined w ..., 11-801.1 



280 



Uniform Vehicle Code 



Section 
Speed restrictions, generally— (Contd) 

Decreasing- general limits 11-802, 

-803 
Engineering and traffic investigation 

11-802, -803, -804, -806 

Establishing speed zones 11-802, 

-803 
Hills, appropriate speed at crest .... 11-801 

House trailers ll-806(a) 

Increase in when being, passed .... 11 -303(b) 

Increasing general limits 11-802, -803 

Intersection, appropriate speed at 11-801 
Local authorities, power to alter 

11-803, 15- 102(a) 

Maximum limits 11-801.1 

Alteration of 11-802, -S03 

Minimum speed 

Impeding traffic 11 -804(a) 

Limits 11 -804(b) 

Motor-driven cycle 11-805, 12-50/ 

Narrow or winding roadway 11-80] 

Negligence, effect of excess speed on 

11-807 (b) 

Night, reduced limits during 11-801.1. 

-802 

"Nighttime" defined 11-801.1 

Parks, local authorities may regulate 

speed t in 15-102(a) 

Pedestrian, appropriate speed for 

11 -SOU, -504, -502(a) 

Penalties 17-101 

Provisions uniform throughout State 

15-101 

Racing 11 -80S 

Railroad grade crossing, appropriate 

speed at 11-801 

Reasonable and prudent 11-801 

Reduced speed required 11-801, -801.1 

Residence district 11-801.1 

Rule in civil actions 11 -807(b) 

Signs required to indicate altered 

limits 11-802, -803 

Slow speed (see also, Slow moving ve- 
hicle) 

Impeding traffic 11 -804(a) 

Lane use 11 -301(b), -309tc) 

Solid tire vehicles : ll-806(b) 

Special speed limitations 

Bridges 11 -806(e) to (e ) 

Cushion or solid tire vehicles .. ll-806(b) 

House trailers lt-806(a) 

Motor-driven cycles 11-805 

Traffic and engineering study 11-802, 

-803, -H(M(M 

Trucks, limits for 11-802 

Urban area 11-8.01.1 

Weather conditions 11-801, -802 

Zoning 11-802, -803 

Spot lamps— -limitations (see also, 
Lamps) 

Aiming of beam 12-217 

Glare ' prohibited J 2-227 

Standards (see particular topic, Equip- 
ment, .Lamps, Regulations, Society 
of Automotive I\ngincers) 
Standards, highway safety program (see 

United States government) 
Standards, motor vehicle safety (see 

United States government) 
Standing vehicle (see also, Stop, stop- 
ping: Park, parking) 

Definition 1-168 

Disabled vehicle, special warning de- 
vices 12-408 

Disabled vehicle temporarily excepted 

from restriction , ll-lOOl(b) 

Local authorities may regulate .... 15- 102(a) 

Moving another's vehicle 11 -1003(b) 

Outside business or residence district 

11-lOOKa) 



Section 
Standing v e li i c le— ( Co n td ) 

Parking lights on 12-214 

Prohibited at specified places 11-1003, 

-1004(d) 

Removal of by officer 11-1002 

Starting, safety required 11-603 

Unattended 31-1101 

Starting parked vehicle 11-603 

State board of education 
Driver education courses approved by 

6- 103 (a), -105(c). -403 

School bus regulations 15-110 

State defined 1-169, 7-303 

State department of health 

Bureau of vital statistics 10-110 

Chemical test procedures approved bv 
. .. H -902(c) 

^ Medical advisory board 6-118 

State highway commission (see Highway 
authorities) 

State highway patrol 2-303 

Steering inspection of 13-104 

Stolen and recovered vehicles, generally 

(see also, Antitheft) 4-101 to -109 

Abandoned vehicle, report to depart- 
ment 15-112 

Department _ action 4-105. 3-406 

Owner or lienholder may report 4-105 

Police to report to department 4-105 

Receiving stolen vehicle a felony ... 4-103 
Removal of vehicle reported stolen 

11- 1002(c) 
"Stop" (see Traffic-control signal leg- 
end) 
Stop lamps 

.Required 12-206, -504, 11-605 

Visibility and color of 12-219 

Stop sign or intersection (see also, Yield 
sign or intersection, Through high- 
way) 
Authorized emergency vehicle .... 11 -106(b) 

Designation of 15-102, -109 

Parking restrictions near 11-1003 

Railroad grade crossing 11-702 

Right of' way at 11 -403(b) 

Signs required ll-403(a), (b) 

Stop required 11 -403(b) 

Through highway designated by .... 1-175, 

15-109 

Where vehicle shall stop 11 -403(b) 

Stop signal, driver must give (see also, 

Stop lamps; Stop, stopping) .... 11-6040:) 
Stop, stopping (see also, Park, parking; 
Standing vehicle) 
Accidents, stop so as not to obstruct 

traffic 10-102, -103, -105 

Authorized emergency vehicle ex- 
cepted 11-106 

Definitions .1-170, -171 

Distance from curb 11 -1004 (a), (b) 

Flares and other special warning de- 
vices 12-408 

Lamps 12-206, -219, -504, 11-605 

Local authorities may regulate 

15- 102(a) 
Parking lights on stopped vehicle .... 12-214 

Removal of stopped vehicle 11-1002 

Signal required, when 11 -604(c) 

H-diul and arm _ signal ! 1-606 

Manner of giving , 11-605 

Starting stopped vehicle 11-603 

Vehicular hazard warning signal, 

when required 12-408 

When prohibited 
Disabled vehicles excepted .... 11- 1001(b) 
JRoadwav outside urban area 

11 -1001 (a) 



Index 



281 



Section 
Stop, stopping- — (Contd) 
When prohibited — (Contd) 

Signs, by 11-1003, -1004(d) 

Specified places 11-1003 

When required 

Accidents 10-102(a), -103, -105 

Authorized emergency vehicle 11-405 

Emerging from alley, driveway .... 11-705 

Flashing' lights 11-204 

Obedience to police officer 11-102. 

14-110, 13-102 
Obedience to traffic- control devices 

11 -201 (a) 

Pedestrians, stop for 11-504, -502(a) 

Railroad grade crossings 11-701 to 

-704 

Red light 11 -202(c) 

School bus ll-706(a), (d) 

Special stops, generally .... 11-701 to -706 

Stop sign 11 -403(b) 

Streetcar, passing on right 11-1403 

Yield sign ll-403((c) 

Street (see also, Highway, Roadway) 

Definition 1-172 

Streetcar 
Authorized emergency vehicle ap- 
proaching 11-405 

Bicycle rider attaching to 11-1204 

Defined 1-173 

Obstructing motorman's view .... 11- 1104(b) 

Overtaking and passing 11-1402, -1403 

Rules of the road apply to 11-1401 

Special rules pertaining to 11-1401 to 

-1404 

Tracks, driving on 11-1404 

Studded tires ....' 12-405 

Summon witnesses, department may 

2-313 
Suspension (see also, Cancellation, Rev- 
ocation) 
Certificate of title, department may 

suspend 3-208, -704 

Commercial driving school or in- 
structor, license 6-406 

Dealer's license or plates 5-202, 3-705 

Driver's license, generally (see Sus- 
pension under License, driver's) .... 6-206 

Equipment approval certificate 12-231 

Inspection station permits 13- 106(e) 

Registration of vehicle 

Authority of department 3-70- 1 

Conviction, when registration to be 

suspended 7-304 

Duration of 7-305 

Dealer's plates 3-705 

Failure to deposit security after 

accident 7-206 

Duration of 7-212 

Financial responsibility .... 7-206, -304. 

-310 
Motor- driven cycle, inadequate 

Ju-akes 12-510 

Nonpayment of judgment 7-310 

Duration of 7-314 

Safety glass, vehicle without 12-406 

Stolen, vehicle reported as 4- 105(e) 

Surrender of required 7-402, 3-706 

Unsafe or uninspected vehicle .... 13-104(e), 

3-704(2) 

Used parts dealer license 5-202 

Synopsis of laws, department may 
publish 2-313 



Tail lamps (see also, Lamps) .... 12-204, -502 
Tampering with or damaging vehicle 4-104 
Tandem axle weights — 14*108, -109 



Section 

Television receivers 12-411 

Temporary regulations authorized 15-102(a)22 
Theft of vehicle (see Antitheft laws, 
Stolen and recovered vehicles) 

Three persons in front seat 1.1-1104 

Three-lane roadway 11 -301 (a), -309(b) 

Through highway 

Definition 1-175 

Local and State officials may desig- 
nate 35-102. -109 

Right of way rules modified at .... 11-401 tb) 

Stop or yield at entrance to 11-403 

Time of taking effect 19-107 

Tire 

Chains, when permitted 12-405 

Metal 

Definition 1-133 

Operation prohibited 12-405 (b) 

Pneumatic, definition 1-145 

Protuberances restricted 1 2-405 (c) 

Solid 

Definition b^ 

Minimum thickness of surface 12-405 (a) 
Speed limit for vehicles with .... 1 1-806 (b) 

Studded, regulated 12-405 

Title, transfer of 

Assignment by benh older 3-204, -307 

By operation of Inw 3-11.4, -504 

Certificate of title 3-112 to -114 

Dealers, duties of 3-113 

Department, duties of 3-203, -20S 

Expiration of certificate 3-112 to -114 

Expiration of registration .... 3-501 to -505 
Idenholder, rights ^nd duties .... 3-1 12(c), 
-203. -205. -206, -308 -309 
Owner not liable for ^ne ration after 

transfer 3 -11 2(e) 

Owner, rights a no 1 duties .... 3-203, -501 to 

-505 

Registration 3-501 to -505 

Transferee, duties of 3-112 to -114, 

3-502 to -504 

When not prejudiced 3-1C3 

Towed vehicle (see ai«o, Trailer. 
Semitrailer, Pole trailer, Drive- 
a w a y - 1 o w a w a v one r a t i o n , Combi- 
nations of vehicles) 
Person steering must have license .... 6-101 
Tov vehicle (see also. Bicycle) 
^Peculation by local authorities 15-102(a)21 
Trackless trolley coach 

Definition 1-176 

Registration not required 3-402 

Size limit exceptions 14-102, -104 

Tractor (see Farm tractor. Road trac- 
tor. Truck tractor) 
Traffic and engineering investigation 
(see Engineering and traffic investi- 
gation) 
Traffic citations (see also, Arrest pro- 
cedure) 

Audit of records 16-119 

Disnosition of 16-118 

Failure to obev 16-113 

Form for 16-117 

Ti legal cancellation a misdemeanor 16-119 

Issuance of 16-109. -112 

Rccnrds of v 16-118 

When copy of citation a law fid 

complaint 16-120 

Traffic -control devices (see Official 

traffic -control devices) 
Traffic-control signal legend, generally 11-202 

Arrow, green .*". 11-202(a)2, 3 

Colors of, generally ll-202fa) to (c) 

Flashing 

Red ! 11-204 

Yellow 11-204 



zxz 



UNIFORM VEHICLE (JODE 



Section 
Traffic -control signal legend, generally— 
(Contd) 
Green light, arrow 

Drivers facing ll-202(a)2 

Yield to traffic .. — ll-202(a)2 

Pedestrians facing ll-202(a)3 

Green light, circular 

Drivers facing .. ll-202(a)l 

Yield to traffic 11- 202(a) 1 

Pedestrians facing ll-202(a)3 

Green light, lane control .. 11-204.1 

Obedience to by drivers required 11-201 (a) 
Obedience to by pedestrians re- 
quired 11-501 

Pedestrian-control signals . 11-203 

Precedence over other signals 11- 

202(a)3, (b)2, (c)3 
Pedestrians 

Drivers yield to 11-202(3), (c) 

Green light ..... mm ll-202(a)3 

Green turn arrow ll-202(a)3 

Obedience to signals -..«. — 11-501 

Red light ll-202(c)3 

Yellow light ll-202(b)2 

Presumption of validity 11 -201(c), (d) 

Provisions uniform throughout State 

15-101 

Railroad grade crossing ll-202(d), 

-204(b), -206, -703 
Red light 

Driver facing ll-202(c)l 

Flashing 11-204 

I^ane control 11-204.1 

Pedestrian facing ll-202(c)3 

Right (or left) turn ll-202(c)2 

Shown with green arrow ....—. ll-202(a)2 

Where driver must stop 11 -202(c) I 

Right turn on red light ll-202(c)2 

Signals other than at intersections 

ll-202(d) 

Turns, signs prohibiting ll-202(a")1 

Unauthorized 11-205 

Yellow light 

Driver facing 11 -202(c)! 

Flashing „ 11-204 

Pedestrian facing ll-202(c)2 

Traffic-control signals (see _ also, Of- 
ficial traffic-control devices. Rail- 
road signs and signals, Traffic-con- 
trol signal legend) 

Advertising on 11-205 (b) 

Authorized emergency vehicle ex- 
ception H -106 

Constitute official traffic-control de- 

vices^ 1-139 

Definition 1-178 

Flashing signals (see also, Flash- 
ing lights, Traffic -control signal 
legend) 
Railroad grade crossings 11-701, -204(h) 

Red „.... 11-204 

Yellow _. 11-304 

Imitation ™ 11 -205(a) 

Interference with ~. 11 -205(a). -206 

I,ane-direction 11 -204.1 

Obedience to 11-201 (a) 

Parking near - 11-1003 

Pedestrian v 11-203 

Railroad grade crossing exception to 

stop requirement v .... 11-703 

State approval of local installation .... 15- 
102(b), -105(b) 

Unauthorized 11-205 

Traffic denned 1-177 

Traffic hazard warning signal lamps 

12-220, -408 
Traffic investigation (see Engineering 
and traffic investigation) 



Traffic laws (see also, specific topica) 
Obedience to 



Section 

11-102 

Ordinances may not cover matter in 15-101 

Uniform throughout State 15-101 

Trailer (see also, Combinations of ve- 
hicles, House trailer, Pole trailer, 
Semitrailer) 

Additional lamp requirements 12-208 

to -211 

Animal -drawn vehicles „ 12-216 

Brake requirements, generally „.„.. 12-301 

Gross weight 3,000 pounds 12-301(c) 

Maintenance and adjustment —,..... 12-303 

Performance ability .. 12-302 

Definition 1-179 

Disabled, special warning devices 12- 

407, -408 
Drawbar 

Adequate strength required „..„ 14-107 

Length limit — exception „ m , m 14-107 

Farm vehicles 12-215 

Inspection of vehicles 

Inspection by officers .... 13-102 

Periodical inspections 13-104 to -112 

Unsafe operation prohibited .... 13-101, 12- 

101 

Obstructed lights not required 12-212 

Parking light .... 12-214 

Projecting load, limitations and lamps 

14- 105(a), 12-213 

Reflectors 12-205, -208 to -211 

Registration required — exceptions ........ 3-402 

Safety investigation and test 14-110 

Size limits 

Height 14- 104(a) 

Length 

Combination of vehicles .... 14-104(c). (d) 

Single vehicle „ 14- 104(b) 

Width 14-102 

Stop lamp and turn signals 12-206 

Tail lamp requirements 12-204 

Vehicular hazard warning signals 12-220 
Train (see railroad topics or Combina- 
tions of vehicles) 
Transfer (see Certificate of title; Reg- 
istration; Title, transfer of) 
Transportation, U.S. Department of 

(see United States government) 
Transporter 

Definition - 1-180 

Records to be maintained - 3-604 

Special registration plates for .... 3-601 tn 

-604 
Truck (see also, Motor vehicle) 

Additional lighting requirements .... 12-20-? 

Coasting prohibited 11-1108 

Definition 1-181 

Following another, too t closely .... 11-310(V 
Gross weight, registration based on 14-110 

Routes 14-113 

Safety investigation and test 14-110 

Truck-tractor (see also, Farm tractor, 
Motor vehicle) 
Additional lighting requirements .... 12-20P 

Definition 1-182 

Gross weight, registration based on 14-110 

Obstructed lights not required 12-212 

Tunnel 

Parking in prohibited 11-1003 

Passing near 11-306 

Pedestrian ll-503(b), -502(c) 

Removal of vehicles from ; . 11 -1002(b) 

Turn signals (see also, Turning ve- 
hicle) 

Duration of - 11 -604(b) 

Electric 

Mav be used 11 -605 (a) 

Prohibited uses of 11 -604(d) 

When required to be used - 11 -605(b) 



Index 



283 



Section 
... 11-606 



Turn signals— (Contd) 

Hand and arm ... «.... w .™ 

Lamps 

Required 12-206, -605(b) 

Visibility, mounting and color 12- 219(b) 

Manner of giving 11-605 

Starting parked vehicle 11-603, -604(a) 

Vehicular lizard warning lamps .... 12-220, 

-406(a) 

When required 11 -604(a) 

Turning vehicle (see also, Overtaking 
and passing, Right of way, Left 
turn, Right turn, Turn signal, U 
turn) 
Authorized emergency vehicle excep- 
tion 11-106 

Curve or hill crest, prohibited 11-602 

Electric turn signals required .... ll-605(b), 

12-206 
Local authority may regulate .... 15 -102 (a )9 
Required -position and method of 

Left turn 11-601 (b) 

Power to alter „ 11 -601(c) 

Right turn 11 -601 (a) 

Restrictions against driving on left 

side do not applv to 11 -301(c), -306, 

-307 

Safety required 11 -604 (a) 

Signals, generally 11-604 to -606 

Duration of S 11 -604(b) 

Electric 11-605 

Hand and arm 11-606 

Method of giving 11-605 (a) 

Prohibited use of ll-604(d) 

When required 11 -604(a) 

Starting parked vehicle 11-603 

U 
U-Hire, U-Rcnt (see For -rent vehicles) 
Unattended vehicle 

Driver of 11-1101 

Driver striking „ - 10-105 

Removal of „ 11-1002 

Unauthorized signs and signals 11-205 

Unclaimed vehicles (see Abandoned ve- 
hicles, Antitheft laws) 
Uniformity 

Interpretation of act . 19-101 

Provisions apply throughout State 15-101 
United States government (see also, 
Highway safety program) 
Armed Forces of the 
Driver licensing exemption for per- 
sons in 6-102 

Extension of license expiration 6-115 

License issued overseas by 6-102 

Certificate of title, when not re- 
quired 3-102 

Drivers must obey traffic laws 16-103 

Employee, when driver's license not 

required 6-102 

Federal Highway Administrator 

Inspection standards of 13 -104(a) 

Standards on traffic -control devices 

issued or endorsed by 15-104 

Hazardous Materials Regulations, 

adoption of 12-409 

Highway Safety Act of 1966 (see also, 
the Foreword) 
Governor's authoritv and responsi- 
bility under .. 2-101, -102 

Program standards issued under 

Periodic motor vehicle inspection 13-104 
State highway safety program con- 
templated by 2-101 

Interstate system of highways, sizes 

and weights on .. „ 14-101 

I,ien of, not affected by perfection of 
security interest 3-201 



Sectioa 
United States government— (Contd) 
Motor Carrier Safety Bureau regula- 
tions 
Emergency warning reflector stan- 
dards „ 12-407 

National Traffic and Motor Vehicle 
Safety Act of 1966 

limitation on states 12-101, -102 

Motor vehicle safety standards is- 
sued under 12-101, -102 

Hydraulic brake fluid „„ 12-304 

Safety glazing 12-406 

School bus lights „ „ 12-228 

Seat belts »....» ~ „ 12-412 

Nonpayment of judgment, exception 7-311 
Security following accident, exemp- 
tion 7-203(8) 

Suspension and proof of responsibil- 
ity, extent of inapplicability to .... 7-304 
United States of America Standards 
Institute, inspection procedures, stan- 
dard on „ 13- 104(a) 

Urban district (see also, Business dis- 
trict, Residence district) 
Alley, a type of street located in .... 1-102 

Denned 1- 183 

Disabled vehicle need not display 
warning devices when lawfully 

parked in 12-408 

Speed limit in 11-801.1 

Increasing or decreasing ll-803(a) 

Used parts dealers, wreckers and 
rebuilders 
Department may suspend or revoke 

license 5-202 

License required 5-201 

Records to be maintained 5-203 

Vehicle purchased as scrap 3-117, -505 

U turn 

Divided highways 11-311 

On crest or grade * 11-602 

Where prohibited „ 11-602 

V 
Vacuum brakes — requirements 12- 301(g), 

Ci), (J) 
Vehicle (see also, Motor vehicle, Semi- 
trailer, Streetcar, Trailer, and other 
topics) 

Deanition 1-184 

Foreign vehicle, definition of «- 1-120 

Reconstructed vehicle, definition of „„ 1-152 
Vehicle combinations (see Combina- 
tions of vehicles) 
Vehicle inspection (see Inspection of 
vehicles) 

Vehicular hazard warning lamps 12-220, 

-408(a) 
W 

"Walk" H-203 

Warning devices on motor vehicles 

(see Brakes, Flares, Horns, Eamps) 
Weight of vehicle or combination (see 
also, Size) 
Additional restrictions authorized .... 14-113 

Axle limits 14-108, -109 

Excepted vehicles 14-101 

Gross weight defined 1-121 

Gross weight including load „ 14-109 

Inability for damage 14-114 

Eocal powers 14-113 

Officers may weigh and require re- 
moval of excess load 14-111 

Permits for excess weight 14-112 

Provisions uniform throughout State 

_ . . 14-101. 15-101 

Registration according to permissible 

gross weight 14-110 

Seasonal restrictions on highway use 14-113 
Single- axle load limit „. 14-108 



284 



Uniform Vehicle Code 



Section 

Wheels, turn front to curb 11-1101 

Whistles on motor vehicles (see Siren) 

Width (see also t Size) 14-102 

Windshields or windows 
Obstructions to driver's view prohib- 
ited „ 12-404(a> 

Safety glazing materials required in 

new motor vehicles „ -.. - 12-406 

Wiper prescribed 12- 404(b) 

Witnesses 

Accident — 2- 305(d), 10-112 

Summoning 2-313 

Workmen on roadway „ 11-105 

Wreckers (see Used parts dealers) 
Written accident reports, generally 
(see also. Accidents, written reports) 

10-107 to -115 



Y 

Section 
Yellow light (see Traffic -control signal 

legend, Flashing lights) 
Yield sign or intersection (see also, 
Stop sign or intersection, Through 
highway) 

Designating through highway 1-175, 

15-109 

Right of way at , 11-403 (c) 

Where vehicle shall stop when stop 
required „ 11 -403(c) 

2 

Zones, speed, establishment by 

lyOcal authorities '„., 11-802 

State highway commission _. — . 11-803 



MODEL TRAFFIC ORDINANCE 



Revised— 1968 



FOREWORD 

This volume contains the 1968 revised editions of the Model 
Traffic Ordinance and Uniform Vehicle Code. Although pub- 
lished together, these are two separate documents and each has 
its own Foreword, Table of Contents and Index. 

Earlier editions of the Ordinance and Code were published in 
separate booklets and republished each time they were revised. 1 
Under the new format, future revisions will be published in a 
pocket supplement to be used with this book. 

This format was conceived, in part, to emphasize the impor- 
tance of traffic ordinances and the necessity for considering 
them in the context of state vehicle codes. 2 

Because the 1968 revisions in the Ordinance, as well as those in 
the Code relating to traffic ordinances, 3 were fairly extensive, 
particular attention should be given to a section of this Foreword 
entitled "1968 Revisions." 



THE MODEL TRAFFIC ORDINANCE 

The Model Traffic Ordinance is a specimen set of motor vehicle 
ordinances for a municipality and is consistent with the recom- 
mended state law embodied in the Uniform Vehicle Code, The 
provisions of the Ordinance are designed as a guide or standard 
for municipalities to follow in reviewing their traffic ordinances 
or considering the development or revision of a model traffic ordi- 
nance. 

The question of adequate traffic laws and ordinances is inti- 
mately related to the problem of moving people and goods safely 
and efficiently. From the standpoint of the public, observance of 



1 The Code and Ordinance were first published in 1926 and 1928, re- 
spectively, and have been revised and republished at two- to six-year in- 
tervals since then. A complete history of these documents is published in 
the Uniform Vehicle Code: Rules of the Road with Statutory Annotations, 
National Committee on Uniform Traffic Laws and Ordinances (1967 and 
Supp.). ... 

2 Particularly portions of state vehicle codes comparable to provisions 
appearing in UVC §§ 10-101 to 10-115 on accidents and accident reports, 
UVC §§ 11-101 to 11-1404 on rules of the road, and UVC §§ 15-101 to 
15-114 on the powers of local authorities. 

3 See UVC §§ 15-101 to 15-103. 



traffic rules is largely conditioned on clarity, reasonableness, uni- 
formity and knowledge of the regulations. From the standpoint 
of the official, traffic administration can be effective only to the 
degree that essential functions are properly synchronized, with 
authority and responsibility fixed by law. 

Non-uniform laws and ordinances are a source of inconven- 
ience and hazard to the motorist and pedestrian alike. They con- 
tribute to accidents, traffic snarls and congestion. They increase 
the administrative and enforcement burdens of governmental 
agencies and, even more importantly, raise serious barriers to 
interstate mobility and commerce. 

It was in recognition of these problems, and in the interest of 
safe and efficient highway transportation, that the Uniform Ve- 
hicle Code for states and the Model Traffic Ordinance for mu- 
nicipalities were developed and recommended for adoption by all 
jurisdictions. 

1968 REVISIONS 

The 1968 revisions in the Model Traffic Ordinance were pre- 
ceded by an extensive review of the Ordinance and Code by the 
staff and a subcommittee of the National Committee. 

Duplicatory Sections Deleted 

Prior editions of the Ordinance duplicated many, but not all, 
of the basic rules of the road appearing in Chapter 11 of the 
Uniform Vehicle Code. This edition duplicates none of those rules 
and is limited to sections which implement powers outlined in 
the Code, supplement Code provisions, or deal with matters not 
covered by the Code. The deletion of duplicatory provisions from 
the Ordinance required some rearrangment and revision in the 
remaining sections. 4 

One State-wide Traffic Law 

Implicit in this revision of the Ordinance is the recommenda- 
tion of the National Committee that there should be one compre- 
hensive traffic law of state-wide application and that an ordi- 
nance should not conflict with, duplicate, or cover any matter 
adequately encompassed in a state vehicle code provision. 5 



4 All sections revised in 1968 are shown in the text and Table of Con- 
tents, but renumbered or repositioned sections are not indicated. 
6 See UVC § 15-101. 



Foreword v 

With the exception of a few states that have for years thus 
defined the scope of traffic ordinances, the adoption of this ap- 
proach and its attendant reliance on one state-wide, pre-emptive 
law containing basic rules of the road may require consideration 
of state constitutional provisions, the power of municipal police 
officers to enforce state traffic laws or make arrests for their 
violation, 6 the jurisdiction of municipal traffic courts to try per- 
sons charged with having violated a state traffic law, the disposi- 
tion of fines and forfeitures, 7 and any other related question in- 
volving procedural or substantive law. 

In this connection, it should be noted that the recently-issued 
Highway Safety Program Manual 8 suggests that state and local 
agencies should consider relying on one state-wide traffic law 
and eliminating duplicatory traffic ordinances. 

Model Traffic Ordinance Recommended for Each State 

As an additional means of fostering a high degree of intra- 
state uniformity, the National Committee recommends the prep- 
aration and continuous maintenance of an appropriate and com- 
prehensive model traffic ordinance. 9 Preferably, the ordinance 
should be adopted in the form of an enabling act by the state 
legislature but, in any event, municipalities should be granted 
express authority to adopt the state model by reference. 10 This 
procedure increases the accessibility and knowledge of basic mu- 
nicipal traffic regulations, facilitates reporting convictions on 
both an intrastate and interstate basis, reduces drafting and 
printing costs for each municipality, and expedites the adoption 
of sound, uniform provisions. 



« See UVC §§ 1-147 and 16-105 to 16-112 and MTO §§ 2-2 and 3-1 con- 
cerning the power of local police officers to enforce or make arrests for 
violations of the state vehicle code. 

7 See UVC § 17-103 relating to the disposition, by a municipal court, 
of any fine or forfeiture involving violation of the state vehicle code. 

s Volume 6, Chapter IV, page 2, issued by the National Highway Safety 
Bureau on January 17, 1969. This Manual is designed to provide guidance 
to state and local governments in designing and implementing a highway 
safety program under the Highway Safety Act of 1966. For a more com- 
plete discussion of this Act and the highway safety program standard on 
uniform traffic laws and ordinances, see the Foreword to the Uniform 
Vehicle Code at footnotes 3 to 9. 

9 The development of a model traffic ordinance in each state is also rec- 
ommended by the Highway Safety Program Manual, Volume 6, pages 2-3, 

10 See UVC § 15-103. In addition, state constitution?] and statutory pro- 
visions relating to adoption by reference generally should be consulted. 



In the event duplication of state traffic laws by some or all 
local authorities is necessary, it is recommended that municipal- 
ities be expressly empowered to adopt appropriate portions of 
the state vehicle code by reference n and that the model ordi- 
nance be limited to provisions that implement or supplement pro- 
visions in the state vehicle code. A less desirable alternative 
would be to add state vehicle code provisions to the model traf- 
fic ordinance. 

In formulating a state model traffic ordinance, two additional 
points should be noted : 

(1) Even though a state traffic law differs from its counter- 
part in the Uniform Vehicle Code, the state law should be fol- 
lowed* 

(2) If the state vehicle code has no counterpart for a given 
rule of the road in the Uniform Vehicle Code, consideration 
should be given to including that rule in the model ordinance. 12 

Although these comments relate largely to the development of 
a model ordinance, many of the principles apply to the review 
or preparation of traffic ordinances for a particular municipal- 
ity. 

Clearly, a judicious use of both the Ordinance and Code by 
municipalities and states will lead to the desirable level of uni- 
formity. 

SUGGESTED ORDINANCE FOR ADOPTION 

BY REFERENCE 

If municipalities have been empowered to adopt a model traffic 
ordinance by reference, the ordinance might provide : 13 

(City) of 

Ordinance Number 



11 At least 30 states have general statutes dealing wim municipal power 
to adopt by reference and they should be consulted to determine whether 
municipalities already have the power to adopt state laws by reference. 

12 See the Uniform Vehicle Code : Rules of the Road with Statutory An- 
notations (1967), and its most recent supplement, for a comparison of all 
state vehicle codes with each rule of the road in the Uniform Vehicle Code. 

13 It is suggested that a suitable ordinance for adoption by reference, 
taking into account all pertinent requirements, be drafted for use by 
municipalities in each state. Additional sections should be added in the 
went the enacting jurisdiction amends a portion of the model. Also, it may 
oe necessary or desirable to complete and publish some or all of any sched- 
ules like those in MTO §§ 21-1 to 21-9 and 5-2 to 5-5. 



Foreword vti 

An ordinance adopting the (name of State) Model 
Traffic Ordinance to regulate traffic upon the public 

streets of the (City) of and repealing 

ordinance number and all other ordinances 

and sections of ordinances in conflict herewith. 

It is ordained by as follows: 

§ 1 — Adoption by reference 

Pursuant to (add citation to law most 

comparable to UVC § 15-103), that certain ordinance 
known as the "(name of State) Model Traffic Ordi- 
nance" (include any further description of the ordi- 
nance that may be necessary) is hereby adopted as and 
for the traffic ordinance of this (city) with like effect as 
if recited at length herein (except as provided in § 2). 

§ 2— Sections not adopted 

The following sections of the "(name of State) Model 
Traffic Ordinance" are not so adopted and are expressly 
deleted : 

(The adopting municipality should list the deleted 
sections by number only* 

§ 3— Penalties 

Unless another penalty is expressly provided by law, 
every person convicted of a violation of any provision 
of this ordinance shall be punished by a fine of not more 

than dollars or by imprisonment for not more 

than days or by both such fine and imprison- 
ment. 

§ 4 — Publication of ordinance 

The (city clerk) shall certify to the passage of this 

ordinance (, cause the same to be published in ,) 

and (continue to) make not less than three copies avail- 
able for inspection during regular business hours. 

§ 5— Repeal 14 

§ 6— Effective date 14 



14 For these and other general provisions relating to the effect and short 
title of ordinance, see MTO §§ 20-1 to 20-9. 



mxkjueju x rv^vr x- j.v^ \jixuxn aim ^nt 



THE NATIONAL COMMITTEE ON UNIFORM TRAFFIC 
LAWS AND ORDINANCES 

The custodian of the Uniform Vehicle Code and Model Traffic 
Ordinance is the National Committee on Uniform Traffic Laws 
and Ordinances, an independent, non-profit, voluntary associa- 
tion. 

The Committee is a carefully selected group of more than 100 
representatives of federal, state and local governmental units 
(legislators, police officers, traffic engineers, highway officials, 
motor vehicle administrators, governors' highway safety repre- 
sentatives, judges, prosecutors, city attorneys, educators, physi- 
cians, mayors, county officials and attorneys general), insurance 
companies, motor clubs, safety councils, manufacturers, dealers, 
trade associations, unions, national transportation associations 
and other individuals and groups interested in achieving sound, 
uniform motor vehicle laws and regulations. 15 

Members of the Committee are people in daily contact, as offi- 
cials or otherwise, with the complex problems of highway trans- 
portation. The broadly representative membership, representing 
all groups and all sections of the country, precludes undue in- 
fluence by any one viewpoint or interest. 

The Committee operates through careful studies and reports 
made by a number of subcommittees on various subjects, each 
composed of officials and others best qualified in that particular 
field. In addition, the Committee maintains a full-time staff of at- 
torneys to keep abreast of developments in highway safety and 
motor vehicle legislation and to provide information necessary 
for a complete and accurate determination of the best legal prin- 
ciples. 



15 The entire membership of the National Committee is published in the 
most recent supplement to the Uniform Vehicle Code: Rules of the Road 
with Statutory Annotations. 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Foreword in 

Tht Model Traffic Ordinance m 

1968 Revisions IV 

Duplicatory Provisions Deleted IV 

One State-wide Traffic Law IV 

Model Traffic Ordinance Recommended for each State v 

Suggested Ordinance for Adoption by Reference VI 

The National Committee on Uniform Traffic Laws and Ordi- 
nances VIII 

Article I — Words and Phrases Defined 

§§ 1-1 to 1-9— Definitions* 1 

Article II — Traffic Administration 

§ 2-1 — Police administration 2 

§ 2-2—Duty of traffic division (Revised, 1968.) 2 

§ 2-3 — Records of traffic violations 3 

§ 2-4 — Traffic division to investigate accidents 3 

§ 2-5 — Traffic accident studies 3 

§ 2-6 — Traffic accident reports 3 

§ 2-7 — Drivers' files to be maintained (Revised, 1968.) 3 

§ 2-8 — Traffic division to submit annual traffic safety report 4 

§ 2-9 — Traffic division to designate method of identifying funeral pro- 
cessions 4 

§ 2-10 — City traffic engineer 4 

§ 2-11 — Emergency and experimental regulations 5 

§ 2-12 — Traffic commission — powers and duties 5 

Article III — Enforcement and Obedience to Traffic Regulations 

§ 3-1 — Authority of police and fire department officials (Revised, 

1968.) 7 

§ 3-2 — Required obedience to traffic ordinance (Revised, 1968.) 7 

§ 3-3 — Obedience to police and fire department officials 7 

§ 3-4 — Certain nonmotorized traffic to obey traffic regulations (Re- 
vised, 1968.) 7 

§ 3-5 — Use of coasters, roller skates and similar devices restricted (Re- 
vised, 1968.) g 

§ 3-6 — Public employees to obey traffic regulations (Revised, 1968.) .... 8 

§3-7 — Authorized emergency vehicles (Revised, 1968.) 8 

§ 3-8— Written report of accident (Revised, 1968.) 8 

§ 3-9— When driver unable to report (Revised, 1968.) 9 



♦Section 1-1 (a) was revised and § 1-1 (b) was added in 1968. 



Article IV — Traffic-control Devices 

Page 

§ 4-1 — Authority to install traffic-control devices (Revised, 1968.) ....... 9 

§ 4-2-— Manual and specifications for traffic-control devices 9 

§ 4-3 — Obedience to official traffic-control devices (Revised, 1968.) 10 

| 4„4 — When official traffic-control devices required for enforcement 

purposes 10 

§ 4-5 — Official traffic-control devices — presumption of legality 10 

§ 4-6 — Authority to establish play streets , 10 

§ 4-7— Play streets , 11 

§ 4-8 — City traffic engineer to designate crosswalks and establish safety 

zones , 11 

§ 4-9— Traffic lanes (Revised, 1968.) , 11 

Article V— Speed Regulations 

§ 5-1— State speed laws applicable 11 

§ 5-2 — Decrease of State speed limits at certain intersections 12 

§ 5-3 — Increasing State speed limits in certain zones 12 

§ 5-4 — Decrease of State law maximum speed (Revised, 1968.) 13 

§ 5-5 — Speed limits on arterial streets (New, 1968,) 14 

Alternate §§ 5-2, 5-3, 5-4 and 5-5 14 

§ 5-6 — Regulation of speed by traffic signals 15 

Article VI — Turning Movements 

§ 6_i — Authority to place devices altering normal course for turns (Re- 
vised, 1968.) 15 

§ 6-2 — Authority to place restricted turn signals 15 

§ 6-3 — Obedience to no-turn signs 16 

§ 6-4— Limitations on turning around 16 

Article VII — One-way Streets and Alleys 

§ 7-1 — Authority to sign one-way streets and alleys 16 

§ 7_2 — One-way streets and alleys ., , 16 

§ 7-3— Authority to restrict direction of movement on streets during 

certain periods (Revised, 1968.) 17 

Article VIII — Stop and Yield Intersections 

§ 8-1— Through streets designated 17 

§ 8-2 — Signs required at through streets 17 

§ 8-3 — Other intersections where stop or yield required (Revised, 

1968.) 17 

Article IX — Miscellaneous Driving Rules 

§ 9-1 — Stop when traffic obstructed 18 

§ 9-2 — Driving through funeral or other procession 18 



Contents xi 

Page 

1 K 

§ 9-3 — Drivers in a procession 

§ 9_4 — Funeral processions to be identified ■ i8 

§ 9-5— When permits required for parades and processions (Revised, 

1968.) • 19 

Article X — Streetcars 

§ 10-1 — Boarding or alighting from streetcars or vehicles 19 

§ 10-2— Unlawful riding ■_ 19 

§ 10-3 — Railroad trains and streetcars not to block streets (Revised, 

1968.) 1S 

§ 10-4 — Streetcar stops 19 

Article XI — Pedestrians' Rights and Duties 

§ 11-1— Crossing at right angles (Revised, 1968.) 20 

§ 11-2— Prohibited crossing (Revised, 1968.) 20 

§ H_3 — Obedience of pedestrians to bridge and railroad signals 20 

§ 11_4 — Drivers to exercise due care (Revised, 1968.) 21 

Article XII — Regulations for Bicycles 

§ 12-1— Effect of regulations 21 

§ 12-2 — License required 21 

§ 12-3 — License application 21 

§ 12-4 — Issuance of license 22 

§ 12-5 — Attachment of license plate 22 

§ 12-6 — Inspection of bicycles 22 

§ 12-7 — Renewal of license 22 

§ 12-8— Transfer of ownership 23 

§ 12-9— Rental agencies (Revised, 1968.) 23 

§ 12-10— Bicycle dealers 23 

§ 12-11 — Traffic ordinances apply to persons riding bicycles (Revised, 

1968.) 23 

§ 12-12 — Obedience to traffic-control devices (Revised, 1968.) 23 

§ 12-13— Parking 24 

§ 12-14 — Riding on sidewalks 24 

§ 12-15— Penalties 24 

Article XIII — Angle Parking 

§ 13-1 — Signs or markings indicating angle parking 25 

§ 13-2- — Obedience to angle parking signs or markings 25 

§ 13-3 — Permits for loading or unloading at an angle to the curb 25 

Article XIV — Stopping, Standing or Parking Prohibited in 
Specified Places 

§ 14-1— Parking not to obstruct traffic 26 

§ 14-2— Parking in alleys 26 



All MODEL TRAFFIC ORDINANCE 

Page 

§ 14-3 — All-night parking prohibited '. 26 

§ 14-4 — Parking for certain purposes prohibited 26 

§ 14-5— Parking adjacent to schools 26 

§ 14-6— Parking prohibited on narrow streets 27 

§ 14-7 — Standing or parking on one-way streets 27 

§ 14-8 — Standing or parking on one-way roadways 27 

§ 14-9 — No stopping, standing or parking near hazardous or congested 

places 27 

Article XV — Stopping for Loading or Unloading Only 

§ 15-1— City traffic engineer to designate curb loading zone 28 

§ 15-2 — Permits for curb loading zones 28 

§ 15-3 — Standing in passenger curb loading zone 28 

§ 15-4 — Standing in freight curb loading zone 28 

§ 15-5 — City traffic engineer to designate public carrier stops and 

stands 29 

§ 15-6 — Stopping, standing and parking of buses and taxicabs regu- 
lated 29 

§ 15-7 — Restricted use of bus and taxicab stands SO 

Article XVI — Stopping, Standing or Parking Restricted or 
Prohibited on Certain Streets 

§ 16-1 — Application of article .30 

§ 16-2 — Regulations not exclusive 30 

§ 16-3 — Parking prohibited at all times on certain streets 30 

§ 16-4 — Parking prohibited during certain hours on certain streets .... 30 

§ 16-5 — Stopping, standing or parking prohibited during certain hours 

on certain streets 31 

§ 16-6 — Parking time limited on certain streets 31 

§ 16-7 — Parking signs required 31 

Article XVII — Regulating the Kinds and Classes 
of Traffic on Certain Highways 

§ 17-1 — Load restrictions upon vehicles using certain highways 31 

§ 17-2 — Commercial vehicles prohibited from using certain streets .... 32 
§ 17-3 — Size restrictions upon vehicles using certain highways (Re- 
vised, 1968.) 32 

| 17„4 — Restrictions upon use of streets by certain vehicles S2 

Article XVIII — Traffic Violations Bureau 
Article XIX — Penalties and Procedure on Arrest 

§ 19-1— Penalties 33 

§ 19-2 — Forms and records of traffic citations and arrests ..;..... 33 

§ 19-3— Procedure of police officers (Revised, 1968.) 33 



Contents xtri 

Page 

§ 19-4— Audit of records and reports 34 

§ 19_5 — When copy of citation shall be deemed a lawful complaint 

(Revised, 1968.) .... 34 

§ 19-6 — Failure to obey citation &5 

§ 19-7 — Citation on illegally parked vehicle (Revised, 1968.) 35 

§ 19_8 — Failure to comply with traffic citation attached to parked ve- 
hicle . 35 

§ 19-9 — Presumption in reference to illegal parking 35 

§ 19-10 — When warrant to be issued 36 

§ 19-11 — Disposition of traffic fines and forfeitures 36 

§ 19-12— Official misconduct 36 

§ 19-13— Impounding vehicles (Revised, 1968.) 37 

Article XX — Effect of and Short Title of Ordinance 

§ 20-1— Application (New, 1968.) .. 37 

§ 20-2— Uniformity of interpretation (New, 1968.) 38 

§ 20-3— Effect of headings (New, 1968.) 38 

§ 20-4— Short title (Revised, 19680 38 

§ 20-5— Ordinance not retroactive (New, 1968.) , 38 

§ 20-6— Effect of partial invalidity 38 

§ 20-7— Publication of ordinance ^Revised, 1968.) 38 

Alternate § 20-7— Publication of adoption (New, 1968.) 39 

§ 20-8— Repeal (Revised, 1968.) 39 

§ 20-9— Effective date 39 

Article XXI — Schedules of Designated Streets 
Referred to in Ordinance 

§ 21-1 — One-way streets 39 

§ 21-2— Through streets (Revised 1968.) 39 

§ 21-3 — Parking prohibited at all times on certain streets 39 

§ 21-4 — Parking prohibited during certain hours on certain streets 39 

§ 21-5 — Stopping, standing or parking during certain hours on certain 

streets prohibited 41 

§ 21-6 — Parking time limited on certain streets 41 

§ 21-7 — Load restrictions upon vehicles using certain streets 41 

§ 21-8 — Commercial vehicles prohibited from using certain streets 42 

§ 21-9 — Size restrictions on certain streets (New, 1968.) 42 

Appendix — Parking Meter Zones 43 

Index 47 



MODEL TRAFFIC ORDINANCE 

An ordinance regulating traffic upon the public streets of the 
(city of ). 

It is ordained by as follows: 

Article I— Words and Phrases Defined 
§ 1-1 — Definition of words and phrases 

(a) The following words and phrases when used in this or- 
dinance shall for the purpose of this ordinance have the mean- 
ings respectively ascribed to them in this article, except when 
the context otherwise requires. (Revised, 1968.) 

(b) Whenever any words and phrases used herein are not 
defined herein but are defined in the State laws regulating the 
operation of vehicles, any such definition therein shall be 
deemed to apply to such words and phrases used herein, except 
when the context otherwise requires, 1 (New, 1968.) 

§ 1-2 — Central business (or traffic) district. — All streets and 
portions of streets within the area described as follows : All that 
area bounded by . 2 

§ 1-3 — Commercial vehicle. — Every vehicle designed, main- 
tained, or used primarily for the transportation of property. 
(New, 1952.) 

§ 1-4 — Curb loading zone. — A space adjacent to a curb re- 
served for the exclusive use of vehicles during the loading or 
unloading of passengers or materials. 



1 If a state has not enacted definitions of all or certain words and 
phrases applicable to rules of the road, then such definitions should be 
added from chapter 1 of the Uniform Vehicle Code. Some of the more 
significant definitions would include: alley, authorized emergency vehicle, 
bicycle, business district, controlled-access highway, crosswalk, driver, 
highway, intersection, laned roadway, motor vehicle, motorcycle, official 
traffic-control devices, park, pedestrian, person, private road or driveway, 
railroad, railroad train, residence district, right of way, roadway, safety 
zone, sidewalk, stand, stop, stop or stopping, street, streetcar, through 
highway, traffic, traffic-control signal and vehicle — all of which were de- 
leted from this article when subsection (b) was added because these terms 
are defined in chapter 1 of the Uniform Vehicle Code, 

2 Some cities enact special regulations applicable in the central busi- 
ness (or traffic) district rendering it necessary that such area be defined. 



§ JL-D JYJ.ULP.Bij lKM'FlU UJKUIJNAJNUHJ 

§ 1-5 — Freight curb loading zone. — A space adjacent to a curb 
for the exclusive use of vehicles during the loading or unload- 
ing of freight (or passengers). 

§ 1-6 — Official time standard. — Whenever certain hours are 
named herein they shall mean standard time or daylight-saving 
time as may be in current use in this city. 

§ 1-7 — Passenger curb loading zone. — A place adjacent to a 
curb reserved for the exclusive use of vehicles during the load- 
ing or unloading of passengers. 

§ 1-8 — Police officer. — Every officer of the municipal police 
department or any officer authorized to direct or regulate traffic 
or to make arrests for violations of traffic regulations. 

§ 1-9 — Traffic division. — The traffic division of the police de- 
partment of this city, or in the event a traffic division is not es- 
tablished, then said term whenever used herein shall be deemed 
to refer to the police department of this city. 

Article II— Traffic Administration 

§ 2-1 — Police administration 

There is hereby established in the police department of this 
city a traffic division to be under the control of an officer of 
police appointed by and directly responsible to the chief of 
police. 

§ 2-2 — Duty of traffic division 

It shall be the duty of the traffic division with such aid as may 
be rendered by other members of the police department to en- 
force the street traffic regulations of this city and all of the State 
vehicle laws, to make arrests for traffic violations, to investigate 
accidents and to cooperate with the city traffic engineer and 
other officers of the city in the administration of the traffic laws 
and in developing ways and means to improve traffic conditions, 
and to carry out those duties specially imposed upon said divi- 
sion by this ordinance and the traffic ordinances of this city. 
(Revised, 1968.) 



Traffic Administration § 2-7 

§ 2-3 — Records of traffic violations 

(a) The police department or the traffic division thereof shall 
keep a record of all violations of the traffic ordinances of this 
city or of the State vehicle laws of which any person has been 
charged, together with a record of the final disposition of all 
such alleged offenses. Such record shall be so maintained as to 
show all types of violations and the total of each. Said record 
shall accumulate during at least a five-year period and from 
that time on the record shall be maintained complete for at 
least the most recent five-year period. 

(b) All forms for records of violations and notices of viola- 
tions shall be serially numbered. For each month and year a 
written record shall be kept available to the public showing the 
disposal of all such forms. 

(c) All such records and reports shall be public records. 

§ 2-4 — Traffic division to investigate accidents 

It shall be the duty of the traffic division, assisted by other 
police officers of the department, to investigate traffic accidents, 
to arrest and to assist in the prosecution of those persons 
charged with violations of law causing or contributing to such 
accidents. 

§ 2-5 — Traffic accident studies 

Whenever the accidents at any particular location become 
numerous, the traffic division shall cooperate with the city traf- 
fic engineer in conducting studies of such accidents and deter- 
mining remedial measures. 

§ 2-6 — Traffic accident reports 

The traffic division shall maintain a suitable system of filing 
traffic accident reports. Accident reports or cards referring to 
them shall be filed alphabetically by location. Such reports shall 
be available for the use and information of the city traffic en- 
gineer. 

§ 2-7 — Drivers' files to be maintained 

(a) The police department or the traffic division thereof shall 

3 



maintain a suitable record of all traffic accidents, warnings, 
arrests, convictions, and complaints reported for each driver, 
which shall be filed alphabetically under the name of the driver 
concerned. 

(b) Said division shall study the cases of all such drivers 
charged with frequent or serious violations of the traffic laws 
or involved in frequent traffic accidents or any serious accident, 
and report such information to the department (of motor ve- 
hicles) or other appropriate state agencies. (Revised, 1968.) 

(c) Such records shall accumulate during at least a (five- 
year) period and from that time on such records shall be main- 
tained complete for at least the most recent (five-year) period. 

§ 2-8 — -Traffic division to submit annual traffic safety report 

The traffic division shall annually prepare a traffic report 
which shall be filed with the (mayor). Such report shall contain 
information on traffic matters in this city as follows: 

1. The number of traffic accidents, the number of persons 
killed, the number of persons injured, and other pertinent traffic 
accident data ; 

2. The number of traffic accidents investigated and other per- 
tinent data on the safety activities of the police ; 

3. The plans and recommendations of the division for future 
traffic safety activities, 

§ 2-9 — Traffic division to designate method of identifying fu- 
neral processions 

The traffic division shall designate a type of pennant 3 or other 
identifying insignia to be displayed upon, or other method to 
be employed to identify, the vehicles in funeral processions. 

§ 2-10 — City traffic engineer 

(a) The office of city traffic engineer is hereby established. 
The city traffic engineer shall be a qualified engineer and shall 

be appointed by (under civil service) and he shall 

exercise the powers and duties as provided in this ordinance 
-and in the traffic ordinances of this city. (AMPLIFIED, 1952.) 



3 [fc is recommended that this pennant be white, with or without special 
4nsignia. 



Traffic Administration § 2-12 

Alternate (a) The office of city traffic engineer is hereby 
established. The (city engineer) shall serve as city traffic engi- 
neer in addition to his other functions, and shall exercise the 
powers and duties with respect to traffic as provided in this 
ordinance. 

(b) It shall be the general duty of the city traffic engineer 
to determine the installation and proper timing and mainte- 
nance of traffic-control devices, to conduct engineering analyses 
of traffic accidents and to devise remedial measures, to conduct 
engineering investigations of traffic conditions, to plan the op- 
eration of traffic on the streets and highways of this city, and 
to cooperate with other city officials in the development of ways 
and means to improve traffic conditions, and to carry out the 
additional powers and duties imposed by ordinances of this city. 
(Amplified, 1952.) 

§ 2-11— Emergency and experimental regulations 

(a) The chief of police by and with the approval of the city 
traffic engineer is hereby empowered to make regulations nec- 
essary to make effective the provisions of the traffic ordinances 
of this city and to make and enforce temporary or experimental 
regulations to cover emergencies or special conditions. No such 
temporary or experimental regulation shall remain in effect for 
more than 90 days. 4 

(b) The city traffic engineer may test traffic-control devices 
under actual conditions of traffic. 

§ 2-12 — Traffic commission—powers and duties 

(a) There is hereby established a traffic commission to serve 
without compensation, consisting of the city traffic engineer, the 
chief of police or in his discretion as his representative the chief 
of the traffic division, the chairman of the city council traffic 
committee, and one representative each from the city engineer's 
office, and the city attorney's office and such number of other 
city officers and representatives of unofficial bodies as may be 
determined and appointed by the mayor. The chairman of the 
commission shall be appointed by the mayor and may be removed 
by him. 



4 This subsection is authorized by UVC § 15-102(a)22. 

5 



§ 2-12 Model Traffic Ordinance 

(b) It shall be the duty of the traffic commission, and to this 
end it shall have the authority within the limits of the funds 
at its disposal, to coordinate traffic activities, (to carry on edu- 
cational activities in traffic matters,) to supervise the prepara- 
tion and publication of traffic reports, to receive complaints hav- 
ing to do with traffic matters, and to recommend to the legis- 
lative body of this city and to the city traffic engineer, the chief 
of the traffic division, and other city officials ways and means 
for improving traffic conditions and the administration and en- 
forcement of traffic regulations. 5 



5 There are two types of official traffic commissions, each of which has 
been found effective under certain conditions. The first type consists of 
a small number of city officials directly concerned with traffic administra- 
tion, serving ex officio, with perhaps the addition of one or two citizen 
members. The principal function of this commission is to coordinate of- 
ficial traffic activities of the several departments of the city adminis- 
tration. The safety educational activities in the community are then con- 
ducted or coordinated by an unofficial organization such as a safety coun- 
cil, or a safety committee of the chamber of commerce, motor club, or 
similar organization. 

The other type of traffic commission (sometimes called the safety com- 
mission or the traffic safety commission) is considerably larger in size, 
including other public officials and a number of citizen members in addi- 
tion to the officials mentioned above. Such a commission and its subcom- 
mittees not only perform the functions mentioned above, but also carry 
on a comprehensive program of public safety education. If this type of 
commission is desired then there should be retained in § 2-12 (b) the part 
reading, "(to carry on educational activities in traffic matters,)" but if 
the first type of commission is desired the statement with respect to edu- 
cational activities should be omitted. 

The type of traffic commission most effective in any particular com- 
munity will depend on the local conditions. Before organizing any such 
commission, advice should be had from one of the national organizations 
in this field. 

In the event the second type of commission is desired it is suggested 
that it might properly include the following personnel in addition to those 
official representatives mentioned in § 2-12: 

(1) The judicial official who handles most of the traffic cases. 

(2) A representative of the board of education. 

(3) A representative of the city planning commission. 

(4) A representative of the fire department. 

(5) A representative of the public utilities regulatory body, if any. 

(6) A number of citizens vitally interested, including the following: 

(a) Representatives of the mass-transportation companies. 

(b) One or more representatives of business organizations. 

(c) Representatives of civic and professional groups such as the 
automobile club, engineers club, local safety council, chamber of com- 
merce and junior chamber, and the parent-teachers association. 

(d) A representative of trucking interests. 

(e) A representative of taxicab companies. 

(f ) A representative of automobile insurance companies. 

(g) One or two newspaper editors. 



Enforcement and Obedience § 3-4 

Article III — Enforcement and Obedience to Traffic 
Regulations 

§ 3.1 — Authority of police and fire department officials 

(a) It shall be the duty of the officers of the police depart- 
ment or such officers as are assigned by the chief of police to 
enforce all street traffic laws of this city and all of the State 
vehicle laws. (Revised, 1968.) 

(b) Officers of the police department or such officers as are 
assigned by the chief of police are hereby authorized to direct 
all traffic by voice, hand or signal in conformance with traffic 
laws, provided that, in the event of a fire or other emergency or 
to expedite traffic or to safeguard pedestrians, officers of the 
police department may direct traffic as conditions may require 
notwithstanding the provisions of the traffic laws. 

(c) Officers of the fire department, when at the scene of a 
fire, may direct or assist the police in directing traffic thereat 
or in the immediate vicinity. 

§ 3-2 — Required obedience to traffic ordinance 

It is unlawful and a misdemeanor for any person to do any 
act forbidden or fail to perform any act required in this ordi- 
nance. (Revised, 1968.) 

§ 3-3 — Obedience to police and fire department officials 

No person shall willfully fail or refuse to comply with any 
lawful order or direction of a police officer or fire department 

official. 

§ 3-4 — Certain nonmotorized traffic to obey traffic regulations 

(a) Every person propelling any push cart upon a roadway 
shall be granted all of the rights and shall be subject to all of 
the duties applicable to the driver of a vehicle by this ordi- 
nance and by the rules of the road portion of the State vehicle 
code, except those provisions which by their very nature can 
have no application. 

(b) Every person riding an animal or driving any animal- 
drawn vehicle upon a roadway shall be granted all of the rights 
and shall be subject to all of the duties applicable to the driver 



of a vehicle by this ordinance, except those provisions of this 
ordinance which by their very nature can have no application. 
(Section revised, 1968.) 

§ 3-5 — Use of coasters, roller skates and similar devices re- 
stricted 

No person upon roller skates, or riding in or by means of any 
coaster, toy vehicle, or similar device, shall go upon any road- 
way except while crossing a street on a crosswalk and when so 
crossing such person shall be granted all of the rights and shall 
be subject to all of the duties applicable to pedestrians. This 
section shall not apply upon any street while set aside as a play 
street as authorized herein. (Revised, 1968.) 

§ 3-6 — Public employees to obey traffic regulations 

The provisions of this ordinance shall apply to the drivers of 
all vehicles owned or operated by the United States, this State, 
or any county, town, district, or any other political subdivision 
of the State, subject to such specific exceptions as are set forth 
in this ordinance or in the State vehicle code. (Revised, 1968.) 

§ 3-7 — Authorized emergency vehicles 

(a) The driver of an authorized emergency vehicle, when re- 
sponding to an emergency call or when in the pursuit of an ac- 
tual or suspected violator of the law or when responding to but 
not upon returning from a fire alarm, may park or stand, irre- 
spective of the provisions of this ordinance. 

(b) The foregoing provision shall not relieve the driver of 
an authorized emergency vehicle from the duty to park or stand 
with due regard for the safety of all persons, nor shall such pro- 
vision protect the driver from the consequences of his reckless 
disregard for the safety of others. (Section revised, 1968.) 

§ 3-8 — Written report of accident 

The driver of a vehicle which is in any manner involved in 
an accident resulting in bodily injury to or death of any person 
or total damage to all property to an apparent extent of ($25, 
$50, $100) or more shall within 10 days after such accident for- 

8 



Traffic-control Devices § 4-2 

ward to the police department a written report of such accident 
or a copy of any report filed with the department (of motor 
vehicles) . The provisions of this section shall not be applicable 
when the accident has been investigated at the scene by a po- 
lice officer while such driver was present thereat. (Revised, 
1968.) 6 

§ 3-9 — When driver unable to report 

Whenever the driver is physically incapable of making a writ- 
ten report of an accident as required in § 3-8 and such driver is 
not the owner of the vehicle, then the owner of the vehicle in- 
volved in such accident shall within 10 days after the accident 
make such report not made by the driver. (Revised, 1968.) 

Article IV— Traffic-control Devices 
§ 4-1 — Authority to install traffic-control devices 

The (city traffic engineer) shall place and maintain official 
traffic-control devices when and as required under the traffic 
ordinances of this city to make effective the provisions of said 
ordinances, and may place and maintain such additional official 
traffic-control devices as he may deem necessary to regulate, 
warn or guide traffic under the traffic ordinances of this city or 
the State vehicle code. (Revised, 1968.) 

§ 4-2 — Manual and specifications for traffic-control devices 

All traffic-control signs, signals and devices shall conform to 
the manual and specifications approved by the (State highway 
commission) (or resolution adopted by the legislative body of 
this city). All signs and signals required hereunder for a par- 
ticular purpose shall so far as practicable be uniform as to type 
and location throughout the city. All traffic-control devices so 
erected and not inconsistent with the provisions of State law or 
this ordinance shall be official traffic-control devices. 7 



6 Requiring a written accident report is authorized by UVC §§ 10-115 
and 15-102 (a) 11. 

7 Ordinances patterned after the first sentence in this section should be 
modified as may be necessary for consistency with laws comparable to 
UVC §§ 15-104 and 15-106 (a). The optional clause referring to a resolu- 
tion of the city council would, of course, be necessary when the state 
highway commission has not approved or adopted a manual or when de- 
vices will be employed that exceed minimum standards of a state manual 
or are not described therein. 



§ 4-3 MODEL TRAFFIC ORDINANCE 

§ 4-3 — Obedience to official traffic-control devices 

The driver of any vehicle shall obey the instructions of any 
official traffic-control device applicable thereto placed in accor- 
dance with the provisions of this ordinance, unless otherwise 
directed by a traffic or police officer, subject to the exceptions 
granted the driver of an authorized emergency vehicle. (Re- 
vised, 1968.) 

§ 4-4 — When official traffic-control devices required for enforce- 
ment purposes 

No provision of this ordinance for which official traffic-control 
devices are required shall be enforced against an alleged viola- 
tor if at the time and place of the alleged violation an official 
device is not in proper position and sufficiently legible to be 
seen by an ordinarily observant person. Whenever a particular 
section does not state that official traffic-control devices are re- 
quired, such section shall be effective even though no devices 
are erected or in place. (Revised, 1962.) 

§ 4-5 — Official traffic-control devices — presumption of legality 

(a) Whenever official traffic-control devices are placed in 
position approximately conforming to the requirements of this 
ordinance, such devices shall be presumed to have been so placed 
by the official act or direction of lawful authority, unless the 
contrary shall be established by competent evidence. 

(b) Any official traffic-control device placed pursuant to the 
provisions of this ordinance and purporting to conform to the 
lawful requirements pertaining to such devices fhall be pre- 
sumed to comply with the requirements of this ordinance, un- 
less the contrary shall be established by competent evidence. 
(New section, 1962.) 

§ 4-6 — Authority to establish play streets 

The city traffic engineer shall have authority to declare any 
street or part thereof a play street and to place appropriate 
signs or devices in the roadway indicating and helping to pro- 
tect the same. 

10 



Speed Regulations § 5-1 

§ 4-7— Play streets 

Whenever authorized signs are erected indicating any street 
or part thereof as a play street, no person shall drive a vehicle 
upon any such street or portion thereof except drivers of ve- 
hicles having business or whose residences are within such 
closed area, and then any said driver shall exercise the greatest 
care in driving upon any such street or portion thereof. 

§ 4-8 — City traffic engineer to designate crosswalks and estab- 
lish safety zones 

The city traffic engineer is hereby authorized: 

1. To designate and maintain, by appropriate devices, marks, 
or lines upon the surface of the roadway, crosswalks at inter- 
sections where in his opinion there is particular danger to 
pedestrians crossing the roadway, and at such other places as 
he may deem necessary; 

2. To establish safety zones of such kind and character and 
at such places as he may deem necessary for the protection of 
pedestrians. 

§ 4-9— Traffic lanes 

The city traffic engineer is hereby authorized to mark traffic 
lanes upon the roadway of any street or highway where a reg- 
ular alignment of traffic is necessary. (FORMER PARAGRAPH , -(b)- 
deleted, 1968.) 

Article V — Speed Regulations 
§ 5-1 — State speed laws applicable 

The State traffic laws regulating the speed of vehicles shall be 
applicable upon all streets within this city, except as this ordi- 
nance, as authorized by State law, hereby declares and deter- 
mines upon the basis of an engineering and traffic investigation 
that certain speed regulations shall be applicable upon specified 
streets or in certain areas, in which event it shall be unlawful 
for any person to drive a vehicle at a speed in excess of any 
speed so declared in this ordinance when signs are in place giv- 
ing notice thereof. 8 (Revised, 1956.) 



8 Sections 5-1, 5-2, 5-3, 5-4 and 5-5 are included on the assumption that 
the state legislature has enacted UVC § 11-803 authorizing local authori- 

11 



§ 5-2 Model Traffic Ordinance 

§ 5-2 — Decrease of State speed limits at certain intersections 

It is hereby determined upon the basis of an engineering and 
traffic investigation that the speed permitted by State law at the 
following street intersections is greater than is reasonable or 
safe under the conditions found to exist at such intersections 
and it is hereby declared that the maximum speed limit within 
100 feet upon every designated approach to and within those 
intersections herein designated shall be as herein stated, which 
speeds so declared shall be effective at the times specified here- 
in when signs are erected upon every approach to every such 
intersection giving notice of the maximum speed limit so de- 
clared thereat. 9 (Revised, 1956.) 



Name of street 



Maximum speed limit When limit applies 10 



§ 5-3 — Increasing State speed limits in certain zones 

It is hereby determined upon the basis of an engineering and 
traffic investigation that the speed permitted by State law upon 
the following streets is less than is necessary for safe opera- 
tion of vehicles thereon by reason of the designation and sign- 
posting of said streets as through highways and (or) by reason 



ties to alter certain limits declared by state law subject to the limitations 
and under the conditions stated in § 11-803. However, in the event a city 
does not find it necessary to exercise the powers granted in §§ 5-1 to 5-5, 
inclusive, or any one of said sections, then those sections not needed should 
be omitted from the ordinance. 

In connection with these sections and in the event a state has adopted 
UVC § ll-8Q3(d), it should be noted that no alteration of a speed limit 
on a state highway or any extension thereof in a municipality shall be 
effective unless such alteration has b.'.en approved by the t State highway 
commission. 

9 Section 5-2 is designed to apply and make effective the authorization 
contained in UVC § 11-803 (a) 1 authorizing local authorities under the con- 
ditions stated in UVC § 11-803 (a) to reduce the state law maximum speed 
limit at any intersection. 

10 In this and ensuing schedules, the times when a given limit will ap- 
ply should be specified. For instance, a limit could be made applicable at 
all times or during specified hours such as daytime, nighttime or 7 to 
9:30 a.m. and 4 to 6:30 p.m. 

12 



Speed Regulations 



I 5-4 



of widely spaced intersections and it is hereby declared that the 
maximum speed limit shall be as hereinafter set forth on those 
streets or parts of streets herein designated at the times speci- 
fied when signs are erected giving notice thereof. 11 (Revised, 
1956.) 



Name of street 



Maximum speed limit 



When limit applies 



§ 5-4 — Decrease of State law maximum speed 

It is hereby determined upon the basis of an engineering and 
traffic investigation that the speed permitted by State law out- 
side of urban districts as applicable upon the following streets 
is greater than is reasonable or safe under the conditions found 
to exist upon such streets and it is hereby declared that the 
maximum speed limit shall be (35) or (45) miles per hour as 
herein set forth on those streets or parts of streets herein desig- 
nated at the times herein specified when signs are erected 
giving notice thereof. 12 (Revised, 1968.) 



Name of street 


Maximum speed limit 


When limit applies 






















i 



11 Section 5-3 is included as authorized by and to make effective UVC 
§ 11-803 (a) 2 in urban districts on through highways or on highways or 
portions thereof where there are no intersections or between widely 
spaced intersections. 

J ~ Section 5-4 is included as authorized by UVC § 11-803 (a) 3 permitting 
local authorities after an engineering and traffic investigation to reduce 
the lawful maximum speed under state law outside of urban districts upon 
any street, provided that in no event shall the speed as declared by city 
ordinance be less than 35 miles per hour. 



13 



§ b-t) 



MODEL TRAFFIC ORDINANCE 



§ 5-5 — Speed limits on arterial streets 

Upon the basis of an engineering and traffic investigation, 
these maximum speed limits are hereby determined and de- 
clared reasonable and safe on the following arterial streets (or 
parts of streets) when signs are erected giving notice thereof. 13 
(New, 1968.) 



Name of street 



Maximum speed limit 



When limit applies 



Alternate §§ 5-2, 5-3, 5-4 and 5-5. In the event it is found 
necessary in any of the above regularly numbered sections to 
refer to or enumerate a substantial number of intersections or 
streets, then it may be desirable to recast the text of said ordi- 
nance sections, making reference to schedules to be included in 
Article XXI, as for example, as follows : 

Alternate § 5-3 — Increasing State speed limits in certain zones 

It is hereby determined upon the basis of an engineering and 
traffic investigation that the speed permitted by State law upon 

those streets or portions thereof described in schedule 

is less than is necessary for safe operation of vehicles thereon 
by reason of the designation and signposting of said streets as 
through highways, or by reason of widely spaced intersections, 
and it is hereby declared that the maximum speed limit upon 

those streets or portions thereof described in schedule 

shall be as therein stated, which speeds so declared shall be 
effective at the time specified therein when signs are erected 
giving notice thereof. (Revised, 1956.) 

Note. — Insert in Article XXI the following schedule: 

Schedule 

§ — Increased speed limits 

In accordance with § 5-3, and when signs are erected giving 



13 Section 5-5 implements UVC § 11-803 (b) requiring municipalities to 
determine appropriate speed limits for all arterial streets. 

14 



Turning Movements 



6-2 



notice thereof, the maximum speed limit shall be as set forth 
in this schedule upon those streets or portions thereof and at 
the times specified herein. (Revised, 1956.) 



Name of street (or) 
(portions affected) 



Maximum speed limit 



When limit applies 



§ 5-6 — Regulation of speed by traffic signals 

The city traffic engineer is authorized to regulate the tim- 
ing of traffic signals so as to permit the movement of traffic in 
an orderly and safe manner at speeds slightly at variance from 
the speeds otherwise applicable within the district or at inter- 
sections and shall erect appropriate signs giving notice thereof. 



Article VI — Turning Movements 

§ 6-1 — Authority to place devices altering normal course for 
turns 

The city traffic engineer is authorized to place official traffic- 
control devices within or adjacent to intersections indicating 
the course to be traveled by vehicles turning at such intersec- 
tions, and such course to be traveled as so indicated may con- 
form to or be other than as prescribed by law. 14 (Revised and 
former paragraph (b) deleted, 1968.) 

§ 6-2 — Authority to place restricted turn signs 

The city traffic engineer is hereby authorized to determine 
those intersections at which drivers of vehicles shall not make a 



14 In view of the fact that there are many intersections, including T 
intersections, where large numbers of vehicles turn left, local authorities 
and traffic officers should permit and direct vehicles to turn left in two 
lines at such intersections. For the general course for drivers to follow at 
intersections, see UVC § 11-601. Note that UVC §§ 11-601 (c) and 15- 
102 (a) 9 grant broad power to regulate turning movements, at intersec- 
tions and elsewhere, by the installation of appropriate traffic-control de- 
vices. 

15 



right, left or U turn, and shall place proper signs at such inter- 
sections. The making of such turns may be prohibited between 
certain hours of any day and permitted at other hours, in which 
event the same shall be plainly indicated on the signs or they 
may be removed when such turns are permitted. 

§ 6-3 — Obedience to no-turn signs 

Whenever authorized signs are erected indicating that no 
right or left or U turn is permitted, no driver of a vehicle shall 
disobey the directions of any such sign. 

§ 6-4 — Limitations on turning around 

The driver of any vehicle shall not turn such vehicle so as to 
proceed in the opposite direction upon any street in a business 
district and shall not upon any other street so turn a vehicle 
unless such movement can be made in safety and without in- 
terfering with other traffic. 

Article VII — One-way Streets and Alleys i5 
§ 7-1 — Authority to sign one-way streets and alleys 

Whenever any ordinance of this city designates any one- 
way street or alley the city traffic engineer shall place and main- 
tain signs giving notice thereof, and no such regulation shall be 
effective unless such signs are in place. Signs indicating the di- 
rection of lawful traffic movement shall be placed at every in- 
tersection where movement of traffic in the opposite direction is 
prohibited. 

§ 7-2 — One-way streets and alleys 

Upon those streets and parts of streets and in those alleys 
described in schedule I attached hereto and made a part hereof, 
vehicular traffic shall move only in the indicated direction when 
signs indicating the direction of traffic are erected and main- 
tained at every intersection where movement in the opposite 
direction is prohibited. 



15 Authority for these sections is contained in UVC §§ 11-308 and 15- 
102(a)4. 

16 



Stop and Yield Intersections § 8-3 

§ 7-3 Authority to restrict direction of movement on streets 

during certain periods 

The city traffic engineer is hereby authorized to determine 
and designate streets, parts of streets or specific lanes thereon 
upon which vehicular traffic shall proceed in one direction dur- 
ing one period and the opposite direction during another period 
of the day and shall place and maintain appropriate markings, 
signs, barriers or other devices to give notice thereof. The city 
traffic engineer may erect signs temporarily designating lanes 
to be used by traffic moving in a particular direction, regardless 
of the center line of the roadway. (Former PARAGRAPH (b) 

DELETED, 1968.) 

Article VIII— Stop and Yield Intersections ie 
§ 8-1 — Through streets designated 

Those streets and parts of streets described in schedule II at- 
tached hereto and made a part hereof are hereby declared to be 
through streets for the purpose of this section. 

§ 8-2 — Signs required at through streets 

Whenever any ordinance of this city designates and describes 
a through street it shall be the duty of the city traffic engineer 
to place and maintain a stop sign, or on the basis of an engineer- 
ing and traffic investigation at any intersection a yield sign, on 
each and every street intersecting such through street unless 
traffic at any such intersection is controlled at all times by traf- 
fic-control signals; provided, however, that at the intersection 
of two such through streets or at the intersection of a through 
street and a heavy traffic street not so designated, stop signs 
shall be erected at the approaches of either of said streets as 
may be determined by the city traffic engineer upon the basis 
of an engineering and traffic study. (Revised, 1956.) 

§ 8-3 — Other intersections where stop or yield required 

The city traffic engineer is hereby authorized to determine 
and designate intersections where particular hazard exists upon 



16 For municipal authority to designate through highways, stop inter- 
sections and yield intersections, see UVC §§ 15-102(a)6 and 15-109. 

17 



§ 9-1 Model Traffic Ordinance 

other than through streets and to determine (a) whether ve- 
hicles shall stop at one or more entrances to any such inter- 
section, in which event he shall cause to be erected a stop sign 
at every such place where a stop is required, or (b) whether 
vehicles shall yield the right of way to vehicles on a different 
street at such intersection, in which event he shall cause to be 
erected a yield sign at every place where obedience thereto is re- 
quired. (Revised, 1968,) 

Article IX — Miscellaneous Driving Rules 
§ 9-1 — Stop when traffic obstructed 

No driver shall enter an intersection or a marked crosswalk 
unless there is sufficient space on the other side of the inter- 
section or crosswalk to accommodate the vehicle he is operat- 
ing without obstructing the passage of other vehicles or pedes- 
trians, notwithstanding any traffic-control signal indication to 
proceed. 

§ 9-2 — Driving through funeral or other procession 

No driver of a vehicle (or motorman of a streetcar) shall 
drive between the vehicles comprising a funeral or other au- 
thorized procession while they are in motion and when such 
vehicles are conspicuously designated as required in this ordi- 
nance. This provision shall not apply at intersections where 
traffic is controlled by traffic-control signals or police officers. 

§ 9-3 — Drivers in a procession 

Each driver in a funeral or other procession shall drive as 
near to the right-hand edge of the roadway as practicable and 
shall follow the vehicle ahead as close as is practicable and 
safe. 

§ 9-4 — Funeral processions to be identified 

A funeral composed of a procession of vehicles shall be iden- 
tified as such by the display upon the outside of each vehicle 
of a pennant or other identifying insignia or by such other 
method as may be determined and designated by the traffic 
division. 

18 



Streetcars § 10-4 

§ 9-5 — When permits required for parades and processions 

No funeral, procession or parade containing (200) or more 
persons or (50) or more vehicles except the Armed Forces of 
the United States, the military forces of this State and the forces 
of the police and fire departments, shall occupy, march or pro- 
ceed along any street except in accordance with a permit issued 
by the chief of police and such other regulations as are set forth 
herein which may apply. (Revised, 1968.) 

Article X — Streetcars 17 

§ 10-1 — Boarding or alighting from streetcars or vehicles 

No person shall board or alight from any streetcar or vehicle 
while such streetcar or vehicle is in motion. 

§ 10-2— Unlawful riding 

No person shall ride on any streetcar or vehicle upon any por- 
tion thereof not designed or intended for the use of passengers. 
This provision shall not apply to an employee engaged in the 
necessary discharge of a duty, or to persons riding within truck 
bodies in space intended for merchandise. 

§ 10-3 — Railroad trains and streetcars not to block streets 

It shall be unlawful for the directing officer or the operator 
of any railroad train or streetcar to direct the operation of or to 
operate the same in such a manner as to prevent the use of any 
street for purposes of travel for a period of time longer than 
five minutes, except that this provision shall not apply to trains 
or cars in motion other than those engaged in switching. (FOR- 
MER paragraph (b) DELETED, 1968.) 

§ 10-4 — Streetcar stops 

(a) Authority is vested in the (city traffic engineer) to desig- 

17 In the event streetcars are not operated in a city adopting this ordi- 
nance, then there is no need to include the regulations in this article ex- 
cept that the provisions in reference to unlawful riding or alighting from 
a vehicle in §§ 10-1 and 10-2 and the provision applicable to railroad 
trains in § 10-3 might be transferred to and included in article IX, enti- 
tled Miscellaneous Driving Rules. If streetcars are in operation and state 
laws do not contain provisions comparable to those in UVC §§ 11-1401 
et seq., such provisions should be added to this article. 

19 



nate streetcar stops at such locations and in such number as may 
be necessary and of the greatest benefit and convenience to the 
public. Every such streetcar stop shall be designated by appro- 
priate signs. 

(b) The operator of a streetcar shall not stop such street- 
car at any place for the purpose of taking on or discharging 
passengers other than at a streetcar stop so designated as pro- 
vided herein, except in case of emergency. 

(c) No person shall stop, stand or park a vehicle at an au- 
thorized streetcar stop so designated as provided herein, or 
between the right curb and any such stop, except that the op- 
erator of a passenger vehicle may temporarily stop thereat 
for the purpose of and while actually engaged in the discharge 
of passengers or the pickup of passengers then in readiness 
at the curb. (New section, 1952.) 

Article XI — Pedestrians' Eights and Duties 
§ 11-1 — Crossing at right angles 

Except where otherwise indicated by a crosswalk or other 
official traffic-control devices, a pedestrian shall cross a road- 
way at right angles to the curb or by the shortest route to the 
opposite curb. (Revised, 1968.) 

§ 11-2 — Prohibited crossing 18 

(a) No pedestrian shall cross a roadway other than in a 
crosswalk (in the central traffic district or) in any business dis- 
trict. 

(b) No pedestrian shall cross a roadway other than in a 
crosswalk upon any of the following named (through streets) 
or (parkways) : (Former paragraphs (a) and 

(d) DELETED, 1968.) 

§ 11-3 — Obedience of pedestrians to bridge and railroad signals 

(a) No pedestrian shall enter or remain upon any bridge or 
approach thereto beyond the bridge signal, gate, or barrier after 
a bridge operation signal indication has been given. 



18 This section implements authority granted in UVC §§ 15-102(a)18 
and 15-107. 

20 



Regulations for Bicycles § 12-3 

(b) No pedestrian shall pass through, around, over, or under 
any crossing gate or barrier at a railroad grade crossing or 
bridge while such gate or barrier is closed or is being opened or 
closed. (New section, 1952.) 

§ 11-4 — Drivers to exercise due care 

Notwithstanding other provisions of this ordinance every 
driver of a vehicle shall exercise due care to avoid colliding with 
any pedestrian upon any roadway and shall give warning by 
sounding the horn when necessary and shall exercise proper pre- 
caution upon observing any child or any obviously confused or 
incapacitated person upon a roadway. (Revised, 1968.) 

Article XII — Regulations for Bicycles ie 
§ 12-1— Effect of regulations 

(a) It is a misdemeanor for any person to do any act forbid- 
den or fail to perform any act required in this article. 

(b) The parent of any child and the guardian of any ward 
shall not authorize or knowingly permit any such child or ward 
to violate any of the provisions of this ordinance. 

(c) These regulations applicable to bicycles shall apply when- 
ever a bicycle is operated upon any highway or upon any path 
set aside for the exclusive use of bicycles subject to those excep- 
tions stated herein. 

§ 12-2 — License required 

No person who resides within this city shall ride or propel a 
bicycle on any street or upon any public path set aside for the 
■exclusive use of bicycles unless such bicycle has been licensed 
and a license plate is attached thereto as provided herein. 

§ 12-3 — License application 

Application for a bicycle license and license plate shall be 
made upon a form provided by the city and shall be made to the 

(chief of police). An annual license fee of shall be paid 

to the city before each license or renewal thereof is granted. 



ie The provisions in this article are authorized by UVC § 15-102 (a) 8 

21 



kjj^j-jxj x Av^i r i\j \jiXJLri±ys\L\ KjHi 



§ 12-4 — Issuance of license 

(a) The (chief of police) upon receiving proper application 
therefor is authorized to issue a bicycle license which shall be 
effective until (the next succeeding first day of July) . 

(b) The (chief of police) shall not issue a license for any 
bicycle when he knows or has reasonable ground to believe that 
the applicant is not the owner of or entitled to the possession of 
such bicycle. 

(c) The (chief of police) shall keep a record of the number 
of each license, the date issued, the name and address of the per- 
son to whom issued, and the number on the frame of the bicycle 
for which issued, and a record of all bicycle license fees col- 
lected by him. 

§ 12-5 — Attachment of license plate 

(a) The (chief of police) upon issuing a bicycle license shall 
also issue a license plate bearing the license number assigned 
to the bicycle, the name of the city, and (the calendar year 
for which issued) (the expiration date thereof). 

(b) The (chief of police) shall cause such license plate to be 
firmly attached to the rear mudguard or frame of the bicycle 
for which issued in such position as to be plainly visible from 
the rear. 

(c) No person shall remove a license plate from a bicycle 
during the period for which issued except upon a transfer of 
ownership or in the event the bicycle is dismantled and no 
longer operated upon any street in this city. 

§ 12-6 — Inspection of bicycles 

The chief of police, or an officer assigned such responsibility, 
shall inspect each bicycle before licensing the same and shall 
refuse a license for any bicycle which he determines is in un- 
safe mechanical condition. 

§ 12-7 — Renewal of license 

Upon the expiration of any bicycle license the same may be 
renewed upon application and payment of the same fee as upon 
an original application. 

22 



Regulations for Bicycles § 12-12 

§ 12-8— Transfer of ownership 

Upon the sale or other transfer of a licensed bicycle the li- 
censee shall remove the license plate and shall either surrender 
the same to the (chief of police) or may upon proper applica- 
tion but without payment of additional fee have said plate as- 
signed to another bicycle owned by the applicant. 

§ 12-9 — Rental agencies 

A rental agency shall not rent or offer any bicycle for rent 
unless the bicycle is licensed and a license plate is attached 
thereto as provided herein and such bicycle is equipped with 
the lamps and other equipment required by the State vehicle 
code. (Revised, 1968.) 

§ 12-10— Bicycle dealers 

Every person engaged in the business of buying or selling 
new or second-hand bicycles shall make a report to the (chief 
of police) of every bicycle purchased or sold by such dealer, 
giving the name and address of the person from whom pur- 
chased or to whom sold, a description of such bicycle by name 
or make, the frame number thereof, and the number of license 
plate, if any, found thereon. 

§ 12-11 — Traffic ordinances apply to persons riding bicycles 

Every person riding a bicycle upon a roadway shall be 
granted all of the rights and shall be subject to all of the du- 
ties applicable to the driver of a vehicle by this ordinance, 
except as to special regulations in this article and except as to 
those provisions of this ordinance which by their nature can 
have no application. (Revised, 1968.) 

§ 12-12 — Obedience to traffic-control devices 

(a) Any person operating a bicycle shall obey the instruc- 
tions of official traffic-control devices applicable to vehicles, 
unless otherwise directed by a police officer, (Revised, 1968.) 

(b) Whenever authorized signs are erected indicating that 
no right or left or U turn is permitted, no person operating a 
bicycle shall disobey the direction of any such sign, except 

2? 



^ x^-xo IVLUDUJb TKAFFIC URDINANCE 

where such person dismounts from the bicycle to make any such 
turn, in which event such person shall then obey the regulations 
applicable to pedestrians. 

§ 12-13— Parking 

No person shall park a bicycle upon a street other than upon 
the roadway against the curb or upon the sidewalk in a rack to 
support the bicycle or against a building or at the curb, in such 
manner as to afford the least obstruction to pedestrian traffic. 

§ 12-14 — Riding on sidewalks 

(a) No person shall ride a bicycle upon a sidewalk within a 
business district. 

(b) The (chief of police) is authorized to erect signs on any 
sidewalk or roadway prohibiting the riding of bicycles there- 
on by any person and when such signs are in place no person 
shall disobey the same. 

Alternate (b) No person (15) or more years of age shall 
ride a bicycle upon any sidewalk in any district. 

(c) Whenever any person is riding a bicycle upon a sidewalk, 
such person shall yield the right of way to any pedestrian and 
shall give audible signal before overtaking and passing such 
pedestrian. 

§ 12-15— Penalties 

Every person convicted of a violation of any provision of 

this article shall be punished by a fine of not more than 

dollars or by imprisonment for not more than days 

or by removal and detention of the license plate from such 

person's bicycle for a period not to exceed days or by 

impounding of such person's bicycle for a period not to exceed 
days or by any combination thereof.' 20 



20 It is suggested that each city attorney determine whether this section, 
imposing- penalties, is inapplicable to juveniles by reason of state statutes 
establishing juvenile courts and special methods of dealing with juvenile 
offenders. 



24 



Angle Parking § 13-3 

Article XIII— Angle Parking 21 
§ 13-1 — Signs or markings indicating angle parking 

(a) The city traffic engineer shall determine upon what 
streets angle parking shall be permitted and shall mark or 
sign such streets but such angle parking shall not be indicated 
upon any federal-aid or State highway within this city unless 
the (State highway commission) has determined by resolution 
or order entered in its minutes that the roadway is of sufficient 
width to permit angle parking without interfering with the 
free movement of traffic. 

(b) Angle parking shall not be indicated or permitted at 
any place where passing traffic would thereby be caused or re- 
quired to drive upon the left side of the street (or upon any 
streetcar tracks). 

§ 13-2 — Obedience to angle parking signs or markings 

On those streets which have been signed or marked by the 
city traffic engineer for angle parking, no person shall park or 
stand a vehicle other than at the angle to the curb or edge of 
the roadway indicated by such signs or markings. 

§ 13-3— Permits for loading or unloading at an angle to the 
curb 

(a) The city traffic engineer is authorized to issue special 
permits to permit the backing of a vehicle to the curb for the 
purpose of loading or unloading merchandise or materials sub- 
ject to the terms and conditions of such permit. Such permits 
may be issued either to the owner or lessee of real property or 
to the owner of the vehicle and shall grant to such person the 
privilege as therein stated and authorized herein. 

(b) It shall be unlawful for any permittee or other person 
to violate any of the special terms or conditions of any such 
permit. 



21UVC §§ ll-1004(c) and 15-102(a)l provide authority for the regula- 
tion of angle parking. 



25 



§ 14 l Model Traffic Ordinance 

Article XIV — Stopping, Standing or Parking 
Prohibited in Specified Places 

§ 14-1 — Parking not to obstruct traffic 

No person shall park any vehicle upon a street, other than 
an alley, in such a manner or under such conditions as to leave 
available less than 10 feet of the width of the roadway for free 
movement of vehicular traffic. 

§ 14-2 — Parking in alleys 

No person shall park a vehicle within an alley in such a man- 
ner or under such conditions as to leave available less than 10 
feet of the width of the roadway for the free movement of ve- 
hicular traffic, and no person shall stop, stand or park a vehicle 
within an alley in such position as to block the driveway en- 
trance to any abutting property. 

§ 14-3 — All-night parking prohibited 

No person shall park a vehicle on any street for a period of 
time longer than 30 minutes between the hours of (2) a. m. and 
(5) a. m. of any day, except physicians on emergency calls. 

§ 14-4 — Parking for certain purposes prohibited 

No person shall park a vehicle upon any roadway for the 
principal purpose of : 

1. Displaying such vehicle for sale. 

2. Washing, greasing or repairing such vehicle except re- 
pairs necessitated by an emergency. 

§ 14-5 — Parking adjacent to schools 

(a) The city traffic engineer is hereby authorized to erect 
signs indicating no parking upon either or both sides of any 
street adjacent to any school property when such parking would, 
in his opinion, interfere with traffic or create a hazardous situ- 
ation. 

(b) When official signs are erected indicating no parking 
upon either side of a street adjacent to any school property as 
authorized herein, no person shall park a vehicle in any such 
designated place. (Section revised, 1952.) 

26 



Stopping in Specified Places § 14-9 

§ 14-6 — Parking prohibited on narrow streets 

(a) The city traffic engineer is hereby authorized to erect 
signs indicating no parking upon any street when the width of 
the roadway does not exceed 20 feet, or upon one side of a 
street as indicated by such signs when the width of the road- 
way does not exceed 30 feet. 

(b) When official signs prohibiting parking are erected upon 
narrow streets as authorized herein, no person shall park a ve- 
hicle upon any such street in violation of any such sign. 

§ 14-7 — Standing or parking on one-way streets 

The city traffic engineer is authorized to erect signs upon the 
left-hand side of any one-way street to prohibit the standing or 
parking of vehicles, and when such signs are in place, no person 
shall stand or park a vehicle upon such left-hand side in viola- 
tion of any such sign. 

§ 14-8 — Standing or parking on one-way roadways 

In the event a highway includes two or more separate road- 
ways and traffic is restricted to one direction upon any such 
roadway, no person shall stand or park a vehicle upon the left- 
hand side of such one-way roadway unless signs are erected to 
permit such standing or parking. The city traffic engineer is 
authorized to determine when standing or parking may be per- 
mitted upon the left-hand side of any such one-way roadway 
and to erect signs giving notice thereof. 

§ 14-9 — No stopping, standing or parking near hazardous or 
congested places 

(a) The city traffic engineer is hereby authorized to deter- 
mine and designate by proper signs places not exceeding 100 
feet in length in which the stopping, standing or parking of ve- 
hicles would create an especially hazardous condition or would 
cause unusual delay to traffic. 

(b) When official signs are erected at hazardous or congested 
places as authorized herein no person shall stop, stand or park 
a vehicle in any such designated place. 

27 



s ±0-1 



ivxyjuj^u in/irrnj wruLHiN/nxjuu 



Article XV — Stopping for Loading or Unloading Only 

§ 15-I — City traffic engineer to designate curb loading zones 

The city traffic engineer is hereby authorized to determine the 
location of passenger and freight curb loading zones and shall 
place and maintain appropriate signs indicating the same and 
stating the hours during which the provisions of this section 
are applicable. 

§ 15-2 — Permits for curb loading zones 

The city traffic engineer shall not hereafter designate or sign 
any curb loading zone upon special request of any person un- 
less such person makes application for a permit for such zone 
and for two signs to indicate the ends of each such zone. The 
city traffic engineer upon granting a permit and issuing such 
signs shall collect from the applicant and deposit in the city 

treasury a service fee of dollars per year or fraction 

thereof and may by general regulations impose conditions upon 
the use of such signs and for reimbursement of the city tor the 
value thereof in the event of their loss or damage and their 
return in the event of misuse or upon expiration of permit. 
Every such permit shall expire at the end of one year. 

§ 15-3 — Standing in passenger curb loading zone 

No person shall stop, stand, or park a vehicle for any purpose 
or period of time other than for the expeditious loading or un- 
loading of passengers in any place marked as a passenger curb 
loading zone during hours when the regulations applicable to 
such curb loading zone are effective, and then only for a period 
not to exceed three minutes. 

§ 15-4 — Standing in freight curb loading zone 

No person shall stop, stand or park a vehicle for any purpose 
or length of time other than for the expeditious unloading and 
delivery or pick-up and loading of materials in any place marked 
as a freight curb loading zone during hours when the provisions 
applicable to such zones are in effect. In no case shall the stop 
for loading and unloading of materials exceed 30 minutes. 22 



22 In the event it is deemed desirable to permit passenger vehicles to 

28 



Loading or Unloading § 15-6 

§ 15-5 City traffic engineer to designate public carrier stops 

and stands 

The city traffic engineer is hereby authorized and required to 
establish bus stops, bus stands, taxicab stands and stands for 
other passenger common-carrier motor vehicles on such public 
streets in such places and in such number as he shall deter- 
mine to be of the greatest benefit and convenience to the public, 
and every such bus stop, bus stand, taxicab stand or other stand 
shall be designated by appropriate signs. (Amplified, 1952.) 

§ 15.6 — Stopping, standing and parking of buses and taxicabs 
regulated 

(a) The operator of a bus shall not stand or park such ve- 
hicle upon any street at any place other than a bus stand so 
designated as provided herein. 

(b) The operator of a bus shall not stop such vehicle upon 
any street at any place for the purpose of loading or unloading 
passengers or their baggage other than at a bus stop, bus stand 
or passenger loading zone so designated as provided herein, 
except in case of an emergency. 

(c) The operator of a bus shall enter a bus stop, bus stand 
or passenger loading zone on a public street in such a manner 
that the bus when stopped to load or unload passengers or 
baggage shall be in a position with the right front wheel of 
such vehicle not farther than 18 inches from the curb and the 
bus approximately parallel to the curb so as not to unduly im- 
pede the movement of other vehicular traffic. 

(d) The operator of a taxicab shall not stand or park such 
vehicle upon any street at any place other than in a taxicab 
stand so designated as provided herein. This provision shall not 
prevent the operator of a taxicab from temporarily stopping 
in accordance with other stopping or parking regulations at any 
place for the purpose of and while actually engaged in the ex- 



stop temporarily for loading or unloading of passengers in a freight curb 
loading zone, then the following paragraph might be added in § 15-4: 

The driver of a passenger vehicle may stop temporarily at a 
place marked as a freight curb loading zone for the purpose of 
and while actually engaged in loading or unloading passengers 
when such stopping does not interfere with any motor vehicle 
used for the transportation of materials which is waiting to enter 
or about to enter such zone. 

29 



peditious loading or unloading of passengers. (Amplified, 
1952.) 

§ 15-7 — Restricted use of bus and taxicab stands 

No person shall stop, stand or park a vehicle other than a bus 
in a bus stop (or other than a hackney in a hackney stand), or 
other than a taxicab in a taxicab stand when any such stop or 
stand has been officially designated and appropriately signed, 
except that the driver of a passenger vehicle may temporarily 
stop therein for the purpose of and while actually engaged in 
loading or unloading passengers when such stopping does not 
interfere with any bus, (hackney) or taxicab waiting to enter 
or about to enter such zone. 

Article XVI — Stopping, Standing or Parking Restricted 
or Prohibited on Certain Streets 

§ 16-1 — Application of article 

The provisions of this article prohibiting the standing or 
parking of a vehicle shall apply at all times or at those times 
herein specified or as indicated on official signs except when it 
is necessary to stop a vehicle to avoid conflict with other traffic 
or in compliance with the directions of a police officer or official 
traffic-control device. 

§ 16-2 — Regulations not exclusive 

The provisions of this article imposing a time limit on park- 
ing shall not relieve any person from the duty to observe other 
and more restrictive provisions prohibiting or limiting the stop- 
ping, standing or parking of vehicles in specified places or at 
specified times. 

§ 16-3 — Parking prohibited at all times on certain streets 

When signs are erected giving notice thereof, no person shall 
park a vehicle at any time upon any of the streets described in 
schedule III attached to and made a part of this ordinance. 

§ 16-4 — Parking prohibited during certain hours on certain 
streets 

When signs are erected in each block giving notice thereof, 

SO 



Regulating Certain Highways § 17-1 

no person shall park a vehicle between the hours specified in 
schedule IV of any day except Sundays and public holidays 
within the district or upon any of the streets described in said 
schedule IV attached to and made a part of this ordinance. 

§ 16-5— Stopping, standing or parking prohibited during cer- 
tain hours on certain streets 

When signs are erected in each block giving notice thereof, 
no person shall stop, stand or park a vehicle between the hours 
specified in schedule V of any day except Sundays and public 
holidays within the district or upon any of the streets described 
in said schedule V attached to and made a part of this ordinance. 

§ 16-6 — Parking time limited on certain streets 

When signs are erected in each block giving notice thereof, no 

person shall park a vehicle for longer than at any time 

between the hours of a.m. and p.m. of any day 

except Sundays and public holidays within the district or upon 
any of the streets described in schedule VI attached to and made 
a part of this ordinance. 

§ 16-7 — Parking signs required 

Whenever by this or any other ordinance of this city any 
parking time limit is imposed or parking is prohibited on desig- 
nated streets it shall be the duty of the city traffic engineer to 
erect appropriate signs giving notice thereof and no such regu- 
lations shall be effective unless said signs are erected and in 
place at the time of any alleged offense. 

Article XVII — Regulating the Kinds and Classes 

of Traffic on Certain Highways 23 

(New article, 1952.) 

§ 17-1— Load restrictions upon vehicles using certain highways 

When signs are erected giving notice thereof, no person shall 
operate any vehicle with a gross weight in excess of the amounts 
specified in schedule VII at any time upon any of the streets or 



23 The provisions in this article are authorized by UVC §§ 14-113, 15- 
102(a)7 and 15-102(a)14. 

31 



§ li-Z MODEL TRAFFIC URDINANCE 

parts of streets described in said schedule VII attached to and 
made a part of this ordinance. 

§ 17-2 — Commercial vehicles prohibited from using certain 
streets 

When signs are erected giving notice thereof, no person shall 

operate any commercial vehicle exceeding pounds gross 

weight at any time upon any of the streets or parts of streets 
described in schedule VIII attached to and made a part of this 
ordinance, except that such vehicles may be operated thereon 
for the purpose of delivering or picking up materials or mer- 
chandise and then only by entering such street at the intersec- 
tion nearest the destination of the vehicle and proceeding there- 
on no farther than the nearest intersection thereafter. 

§ 17-3— Size restrictions upon vehicles using certain highways 

(a) It is hereby determined upon the basis of an engineering 
and traffic investigation that the size permitted by State law is 
greater than physical conditions will allow upon the streets or 
parts of streets described in schedule IX attached to and made 
a part of this ordinance. 

(b) When signs are erected giving notice thereof, no person 
shall operate any vehicle exceeding the dimensions specified in 
said schedule. (New section, 1968.) 

§ 17-4 — Restrictions upon use of streets by certain vehicles 

(a) The city traffic engineer is hereby authorized to deter- 
mine and designate those heavily traveled streets upon which 
shall be prohibited the use of the roadway by motor-driven 
cycles, bicycles, horsedrawn vehicles or other non-motorized 
traffic and shall erect appropriate signs giving notice thereof. 

(b) When signs are so erected giving notice thereof, no per- 
son shall disobey the restrictions stated on such signs. 

Article XVIII — Traffic Violations Bureau 

Note: In preference to legislatively providing for a traffic violations 
bureau, it is recommended that traffic courts follow the "Model Rules 
Governing Procedure in Traffic Cases," published by the National Con- 
ference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws, 1155 East 60th Street, 
Chicago, Illinois 60637. One of these Rules (1:3-7) describes the establish- 
ment and purpose of a traffic violations bureau. 



Penalties and Procedure § 19-3 

Article XIX— Penalties and Procedure on Arrest 

§ 19-1— Penalties 

Unless another penalty is expressly provided by law, every 
person convicted of a violation of any provision of this ordi- 
nance shall be punished by a fine of not more than dol- 
lars or by imprisonment for not more than days or by 

both such fine and imprisonment. 

§ 19-2— Forms and records of traffic citations and arrests 

(a) The city (financial official) shall provide books to in- 
clude traffic citation forms for notifying alleged violators to 
appear and answer to charges of violating traffic laws and or- 
dinances in the (traffic court) of this city. Said books shall in- 
clude serially numbered sets of citations in quadruplicate in 
the form prescribed and approved jointly by the (chief city 
magistrate) and the chief of police. 

(b) The city (financial official) shall issue such books to the 
chief of police or his duly authorized agent and shall maintain 
a record of every book so issued and shall require a written re- 
ceipt for every such book. 

(c) The chief of police shall be responsible for the issuance 
of such books to individual members of the police department. 
The chief of police shall require a written receipt for every 
book so issued and shall maintain a record of every such book 
and each set of citations contained therein. (Section AMPLI- 
FIED, 1952.) 

§ 19-3 — Procedure of police officers 

Except when authorized or directed under State law to im- 
mediately take a person before a magistrate for the violation 
of any traffic laws, a police officer who halts a person for such 
violation other than for the purpose of giving him a warning 
or warning notice and does not take such person into custody 
under arrest, shall take the name, address, and driver's license 
number of said person, the registered number of the motor ve- 
hicle involved, and such other pertinent information as may be 
necessary, and shall issue to him in writing on a form provided 
by the city (financial official) a traffic citation containing a no- 

2 UVC— 2 33 



§ 19-4 Model Traffic Ordinance 

tice to answer to the charge against him in the (traffic court) 
of this city at a time at least five days after such alleged viola- 
tion to be specified in said citation. The officer, upon receiving 
the written promise of the alleged violator to answer as speci- 
fied in the citation, shall release such person from custody. 24 
(Section revised, 1968.) 

§ 19-4 — Audit of records and reports 

(a) Every record of traffic citations, complaints thereon, and 
warrants issued therefor required in this article shall be au- 
dited at least (quarterly) by the city (financial official) who 
shall submit a report of such audit together with a summary 
thereof to the mayor and city council. Such reports shall be 
public records. 

(b) Such (financial official) shall publish or cause to be pub- 
lished a (quarterly) summary of all traffic citations issued by 
members of the police department, the disposition of the com- 
plaints thereon, and the issuance and disposition of all warrants 
issued therefor in at least one local daily newspaper of general 
circulation. 

(c) For the purpose of this article, the city (financial offi- 
cial) or his duly authorized representatives shall have access 
at all times to all necessary records, files and papers of the 
(traffic court) of this city, its traffic violations bureau, and the 
police department. (New section, 1952.) 

§ 19-5— When copy of citation shall be deemed a lawful com- 
plaint 

In the event the form of citation provided under § 19-2 in- 
cludes information and is sworn to as required under the gen- 
eral laws of this State in respect to a complaint charging com- 
mission of the offense alleged in said citation to have been com- 
mitted, then such citation when filed with a court having 
jurisdiction shall be deemed to be a lawful complaint for the 
purpose of prosecution. (Revised, 1988.) 



24 The procedure upon arrest as provided in this section represents rec- 
ommended practice in those municipalities where it is permissible under 
state law for the municipality to prescribe by ordinance the procedure to 
be followed upon arrest. It is recognized that in some states this matter 
is regulated by state law, and ordinances in conflict therewith would be 
invalid. 

34 



Penalties and Procedure § 19-9 

§ 19-6 — Failure to obey citation 

It shall be unlawful for any person to violate his written 
promise to appear given to an officer upon the issuance of a traf- 
fic citation regardless of the disposition of the charge for which 
such citation was originally issued. (REVISED, 1952.) 

§ 19-7 — .Citation on illegally parked vehicle 

Whenever any motor vehicle without driver is found parked, 
standing or stopped in violation of any of the restrictions im- 
posed by ordinance of this city or by State law, the officer find- 
ing such vehicle shall take its registration number and may take 
any other information displayed on the vehicle which may iden- 
tify its user, and shall conspicuously affix to such vehicle a traf- 
fic citation, on a form provided by the city (financial official), 
for the driver to answer to the charge against him within five 
days during the hours and at a place specified in the citation. 
(REVISED, 1968.) 

§ 19-8— Failure to comply with traffic citation attached to 
parked vehicle 

If a violator of the restrictions on stopping, standing or park- 
ing under the traffic laws or ordinances does not appear in re- 
sponse to a traffic citation affixed to such motor vehicle within a 
period of five days (the clerk of the traffic court) (or) (the traf- 
fic violations bureau) shall send to the owner of the motor vehicle 
to which the traffic citation was affixed a letter informing him 
of the violation and warning him that in the event such letter 
is disregarded for a period of five days a warrant of arrest will 
be issued. (Revised, 1952.) 

§ 19-9— Presumption in reference to illegal parking 

(a) In any prosecution charging a violation of any law or 
regulation governing the standing or parking of a vehicle, proof 
that the particular vehicle described in the complaint was 
parked in violation of any such law or regulation, together with 
proof that the defendant named in the complaint was at the 
time of such parking the registered owner of such vehicle, shall 
constitute in evidence a prima facie presumption that the regis- 
tered owner of such vehicle was the person who parked or 

35 



placed such vehicle at the point where, and for the time during 
which, such violation occurred. 

(b) The foregoing stated presumption shall apply only when 
the procedure as prescribed in §§ 19-7 and 19-8 has been fol- 
lowed. 25 

§ 19-10 — When warrant to be issued 

In the event any person fails to comply with a traffic cita- 
tion given to such person or attached to a vehicle or fails to 
make appearance pursuant to a summons directing an appear- 
ance in the (traffic court) (traffic violations bureau), or if any 
person fails or refuses to deposit bail as required and within 
the time permitted by ordinance, the (clerk of the traffic court) 
(traffic violations bureau) shall secure and issue a warrant for 
his arrest. (Revised, 1952.) 

§ 19-11 — Disposition of traffic fines and forfeitures 

All fines or forfeitures collected upon conviction or upon the 
forfeiture of bail of any person charged with a violation of any of 
the provisions of this ordinance shall be paid into the city trea- 
sury and deposited in a special fund to be known as the 'high- 
way improvement fund," which is hereby created and which 
shall be used exclusively in the construction, maintenance and 
repair of public streets, bridges and street structures, or 
for the installation and maintenance of traffic-control devices 
thereon. 

§ 19-12 — Official misconduct 

Failure, refusal or neglect on the part of any judicial or other 
officer or employee receiving or having custody of any such fine 
or forfeiture, either before or after a deposit in said "highway 
improvement fund," to comply with the foregoing provisions of 
this section shall constitute misconduct in office and shall be 
ground for removal therefrom. 



25 It would be preferable to obtain enactment of the substance of § 19-9 
by the state legislature, as the authority of legislative bodies of munici- 
palities to enact rules of evidence or to create presumptions may be ques- 
tioned under the state constitution in many states. 

36 



Effect of Ordinance § 20-1 

§ 19-13 — Impounding vehicles 

(a) When authorized by the laws of this State, members of 
the police department may remove a vehicle from a street or 
highway to the nearest garage or other place of safety, or to a 
garage designated or maintained by the police department, or 
otherwise maintained by this city. 26 (Revised, 1968.) 

(b) Whenever an officer removes a vehicle from a street as 
authorized in this section and the officer knows or is able to as- 
certain from the registration records in the vehicle the name 
and address of the owner thereof, such officer shall immediately 
give or cause to be given notice in writing to such owner of the 
fact of such removal and the reasons therefor and of the place 
to which such vehicle has been removed. In the event any such 
vehicle is stored in a public garage, a copy of such notice shall 
be given to the proprietor of such garage. 

(c) Whenever an officer removes a vehicle from a street un- 
der this section and does not know and is not able to ascertain 
the name of the owner, or for any other reason is unable to 
give the notice to the owner as hereinbefore provided, and in 
the event the vehicle is not returned to the owner within a 
period of three days, then and in that event the officer shall 
immediately send or cause to be sent a written report of such 
removal by mail to the State department whose duty it is to 
register motor vehicles, and shall file a copy of such notice with 
the proprietor of any public garage in which the vehicle may be 
stored. Such notice shall include a complete description of the 
vehicle, the date, time, and place from which removed, the rea- 
sons for such removal, and name of the garage or place where 
the vehicle is stored. 27 

Article XX — Effect of and Short Title of 
Ordinance 

§ 20-1 — Application 

The provisions of this ordinance relating to the operation of 
vehicles refer exclusively to the operation of vehicles upon high- 

- 6 As to when an officer may impound a vehicle, see UVC S§ 11-1002 
and 15-112. 

- 7 For the procedure to be followed by an officer impounding an aban- 
doned vehicle, however, see UVC § 15-112. 

37 



ways except where a different place is specifically referred to 
In a given section. (New, 1968.) 

§ 20-2 — .Uniformity of interpretation 

This ordinance shall be so interpreted and construed as to ef- 
fectuate its general purpose to make uniform the law of those 
local authorities which enact it. (New, 1968.) 

§ 20-3— -Effect of headings 

Article and section headings contained herein shall not be 
deemed to govern, limit, modify or in any manner affect the 
scope, meaning or extent of the provisions of any article or 
section hereof. (New, 1968.) 

§ 20-4— -Short title 

This ordinance may be known and cited as the , 

(Model) Traffic Ordinance. (Revised, 1968.) 

§ 20-5— Ordinance not retroactive 

This ordinance shall not have a retroactive effect and shall not 
apply to any traffic accident, to any cause of action arising out 
of a traffic accident or judgment arising therefrom, or to any 
violation of the motor vehicle ordinance of this city, occurring 
prior to the effective date of this ordinance. (New, 1968.) 

§ 20-6— Effect of partial invalidity 

If any part or parts of this ordinance are for any reason 
held to be invalid, such decision shall not affect the validity of 
the remaining portions of this ordinance. 

§ 20-7— Publication of ordinance 

The (city clerk) shall certify to the passage of this ordinance 

(and cause the same to be published in the ) (and 

cause all or such parts hereof to be published as may be required 
by the constitution and laws of this State). (Revised, 1968.) 

38 



Schedules § 21-1 

Alternate § 20-7 — Publication of adoption 

The (city clerk) shall certify to the passage of this ordi- 
nance, cause (notice of its passage) (a summary of its con- 
tents) to be published in the and make not less than 

three copies available for inspection by the public during reg- 
ular business hours. 28 (New, 1968.) 

§ 20-8— Repeal 

The (existing ordinances covering the same matters as em- 
braced in this ordinance) are hereby repealed and all ordi- 
nances or parts of ordinances inconsistent with the provisions 
of this ordinance are hereby repealed. (Revised, 1968.) 

§ 20-9— Effective date 

This ordinance shall take effect from and after the 

day of 

Article XXI — Schedules of Designated Streets 

Referred To in Ordinance 

Note — The primary purpose of setting forth the following schedules is 
to enable a city to publish and issue the major text of the traffic ordinance 
as an entity and issue sexmrately the schedules which commonly are re- 
vised or added to with great frequency. Technically, the schedules are a 
part of the ordinance and ordinarily action of the city authorities by ordi- 
nance is necessary to amend or add to a schedule. In some instances city 
attorneys have approved of amendments to a schedule by resolution of the 
city legislative body, provided such resolution is published as required in 
reference to an ordinance. 

Schedule I 

§ 21-1— One-way streets 

In accordance with § 7-2 and when properly signposted, traf- 
fic shall move only in the direction indicated upon the following 
streets : 



28 The alternate section, which does not require publication of the en- 
tire ordinance, should be utilized only when such publication is not re- 
quired by the constitution and laws of a particular state. 



39 



AW V^J-UA/iA 



Name of street 



Direction of traffic movement 



Schedule II 

§ 21-2— Through streets 

In accordance with the provisions of § 8-1 and when signs 
are erected giving notice thereof, drivers of vehicles shall stop 
or yield at every intersection before entering any of the follow- 
ing streets or parts of streets: (Revised, 

1968.) 

Schedule III 

§ 21-3 — Parking prohibited at all times on certain streets 

In accordance with § 16-3 and when signs are erected giving 
notice thereof, no person shall at any time park a vehicle upon 
any of the following described streets or parts of streets: 



§ 21-4- 
streets 



Schedule IV 
-Parking prohibited during certain hours on certain 



In accordance with § 16-4, and when signs are erected giving 
notice thereof, no person shall park a vehicle between the hours 
specified herein of any day except Sundays and public holidays 
within the district or upon any of the streets or parts of streets 
as follows: 



Name of street or district 



Hours parking prohibited 



40 



Schedules § 21-7 

Schedule V 

§ 21-5 — Stopping, standing or parking during certain hours on 
certain streets prohibited 

In accordance with § 16-5, and when signs are erected giving 
notice thereof, no person shall stop, stand or park a vehicle be- 
tween the hours specified herein of any day except Sundays and 
public holidays within the district or upon any of the streets 
or parts of streets as follows : 



Name of street or district 



Hours stopping, standing 
or parking prohibited 



Schedule VI 

§ 21-6 — Parking time limited on certain streets 

In accordance with § 16-6 and when signs are erected giving 
notice thereof, no person shall park a vehicle for a period of 

time longer than hours between the hours of 

a. m. and p. m. of any day except Sundays and public holi- 
days within the district or upon any of the streets or parts of 
streets as follows: 

Schedule VII (New, 1952.) 

§ 21-7 — Load restrictions upon vehicles using certain streets 

In accordance with § 17-1 and when signs are erected giving 
notice thereof, no person shall operate any vehicle with a gross 
weight in excess of the amounts specified herein at any time 
upon any of the following streets or parts of streets : 

(a) thousand pound limit. 

(List streets, specifying terminal limits of that part of street 
to which applicable if necessary.) 

(b) thousand pound limit. 



41 



Schedule VIII (New, 1952.) 

§ 21-8— Commercial vehicles prohibited from using certain 

streets 

When signs are erected giving notice thereof, no person shall 
operate a commercial vehicle except as provided under § 17-2, 
upon any of the following streets or parts of streets : 

(List the boulevards, streets in parks, and other streets to 
which this section is applicable, specifying terminal limits of 
parts of streets if necessary.) 

Schedule IX (New, 1968.) 
§ 21-9- — Size restrictions on certain streets 

In accordance with § 17-3 and when signs are erected giving 
notice thereof, no person shall operate any vehicle exceeding the 
following dimensions at any time upon any of the following 
streets or parts of streets : 

(Specify the height, width or length limit that may not be ex- 
ceeded and the streets or parts of streets where each such limit 
applies.) 



42 



APPENDIX 

Parking Meter Zones 

(New, 1952.) 

§ (22-1) — Parking meter zones 

(a) Parking meter zones are hereby established within the 
district or upon those streets or parts of streets described in 
schedule attached to and made a part of this ordi- 
nance in which zones the parking of vehicles upon streets shall 
be regulated by parking* meters between the hours specified in 

said schedule of any day except Sundays and public 

holidays. 

(b) The city traffic engineer is hereby authorized, subject to 
the approval of the city council by amendment of said schedule 

, to establish parking meter zones at other locations 

upon those streets or parts of streets where it is determined 
upon the basis of an engineering and traffic investigation that 
the installation of parking meters shall be necessary to aid in 
the regulation, control and inspection of the parking of vehicles. 

§ (22-2)— Installation of parking meters 

(a) The city traffic engineer shall install parking meters in 
the parking meter zones established as provided in this ordi- 
nance upon the curb immediately adjacent to each designated 
parking space. Said meters shall be capable of being operated, 
either automatically or mechanically, upon the deposit therein 
of a five-cent coin of United States currency, for the full period 
of time for which parking is lawfully permitted in any such 
parking meter zone or, in lieu thereof, for the following periods 
of time, upon the deposit therein of a coin or coins of United 
States currency as specified: 

Upon the deposit of one nickel: 

For the full lawful parking time. 
Upon the deposit of one penny; 

For one-fifth of the lawful parking time. 
Upon the deposit of two pennies: 

For two-fifths of the lawful parking time. 
Upon the deposit of three pennies : 

For three-fifths of the lawful parking time. 

43 



Upon the deposit of four pennies: 

For four-fifths of the lawful parking time. 

Upon the deposit of five pennies: 

For the full lawful parking time.* 

(b) Each parking meter shall be so designed, constructed, in- 
stalled and set that upon the expiration of the time period reg- 
istered, by the deposit of one or more coins, as provided herein, 
it will indicate by an appropriate signal that the lawful parking 
meter period has expired, and during said period of time and 
prior to the expiration thereof, will indicate the interval of time 
which remains of such period. 

(c) Each parking meter shall bear thereon a legend indicat- 
ing the days and hours when the requirement to deposit coins 
therein shall apply, the value of the coins to be deposited, and 
the limited period of time for which parking is lawfully per- 
mitted in the parking meter zone in which such meter is located. 

§ (22-3) — Parking meter spaces 

(a) The city traffic engineer shall designate the parking 
space adjacent to each parking meter for which such meter is 
to be used by appropriate markings upon the curb and/or the 
pavement of the street. Parking meter spaces so designated 
shall be of appropriate length and width so as to be accessible 
from the traffic lanes of such street. 

(b) No person shall park a vehicle in any such designated 
parking meter space during the restricted or regulated time ap- 
plicable to the parking meter zone in which such meter is lo- 
cated so that any part of such vehicle occupies more than one 
such space or protrudes beyond the markings designating such 
space, except that a vehicle which is of a size too large to be 
parked within a single designated parking meter zone shall be 
permitted to occupy two adjoining parking meter spaces when 
coins shall have been deposited in the parking meter for each 
space so occupied as is required in this ordinance for the park- 
ing of other vehicles in such space. 



*The amount charged for use of metered parking spaces should be ad- 
justed as may be necessary to reflect current practice in each state or in 
a given municipality. 

44 



§ (22-4) Parking Meter Zones 

§ (22-4) — Deposit of coins and time limits 

(a) No person shall park a vehicle in any parking space upon 
a street alongside of and next to which a parking meter has 
been installed during the restricted and regulated time appli- 
cable to the parking meter zone in which such meter is located 
unless a coin or coins of United States currency of the appro- 
priate denomination as provided in this ordinance shall have 
been deposited therein, or shall have been previously deposited 
therein for an unexpired interval of time, and said meter has 
been placed in operation. 

(b) No person shall permit a vehicle within his control to be 
parked in any such parking meter space during the restricted 
and regulated time applicable to the parking meter zone in 
which such meter is located while the parking meter for such 
space indicates by signal that the lawful parking time in such 
space has expired. This provision shall not apply to the act of 
parking or the necessary time which is required to deposit im- 
mediately thereafter a coin or coins in such meter. 

(c) No person shall park a vehicle in any such parking meter 
space for a consecutive period of time longer than that limited 
period of time for which parking is lawfully permitted in the 
parking meter zone in which such meter is located, irrespective 
of the number or amounts of the coins deposited in such meter. 

(d) The provisions of this section shall not relieve any per- 
son from the duty to observe other and more restrictive provi- 
sions of this ordinance and the State vehicle code prohibiting 
or limiting the stopping, standing or parking of vehicles in 
specified places or at specified times. 

§ (22-5) — Use of slugs prohibited 

No person shall deposit or attempt to deposit in any parking 
meter any slug, button or any other device or substance as sub- 
stitutes for coins of United States currency. 

§ (22-6) — Tampering with meter 

No person shall deface, injure, tamper with, open or willfully 
break, destroy or impair the usefulness of any parking meter. 

§ (22-7) — Application of proceeds 

(a) The coins required to be deposited in parking meters as 

45 



provided in this ordinance are levied and assessed as fees to 
cover the regulation and control of parking upon public streets; 
the costs of parking meters, their installation, inspection, super- 
vision, operation, repair and maintenance, control and use of 
parking spaces, and regulating the parking of vehicles in park- 
ing meter zones; and the costs of acquiring, establishing, im- 
proving, maintaining and operating public off-street parking 
facilities. 

(b) The coins deposited in parking meters shall be collected 
by the duly authorized agents of the city (treasurer) and shall 
be deposited by him in a special fund to be known as the "Park- 
ing Meter Special and Trust Fund." 

(c) The city (treasurer) shall pay from such special fund 
the costs of any parking meters purchased by the city and in- 
stalled as provided in this ordinance, and expenses incurred for 
their installation, inspection, service, supervision, repair and 
maintenance, for making collections from such parking meters, 
and for the enforcement of the provisions of this ordinance ap- 
plicable to parking meter zones. The net proceeds of the opera- 
tion of parking meters in said special fund, after the payment 
of such costs and expenses, shall be used for parking studies 
and for the acquisition, establishment, improvement, mainte- 
nance and operation of public off-street parking facilities as the 
city council shall from time to time direct. 

Schedule 

§ (22-8)- — -Parking meter zones 

In accordance with § (22-1), parking meter zones are here- 
by established within the district or upon those streets or parts 
of streets described herein in which the parking of vehicles upon 
streets shall be regulated by parking meters between the hours 
specified of any clay except Sundays and public holidays as 
follows : 

(a) One-hour limit : 

(1) Between a. m. and p. m. except (Mon- 

days) and between ........ a. m. and p. m, on 

(Mondays). 

(2) Between a. m. and p. m. 

(b) Two-hour limit : 

(1) Between ........ a. m. and p. m. 

46 



INDEX TO MODEL TRAFFIC ORDINANCE 



Section 



Accidents 
Drivers' 

Reports 
Studies 



files 
by traffic 



division 

Traffic division to irv estimate „ 2-2, 

When driver unable to report 



2-7 
2-6 

2-5 

-4 

3-9 



Written 
Alighting 
Alley 
One-way 
Parking 



report — 3-1 



from vehicle 



alleys 

restricted 



10-1 



-1. -2 
, 14-2 



Angle parking 

Obedience to signs or markings 13-2 

Permits ior ._.—.« -- ~.~ — 13-3 

Signs or markings indicating 13-1 

Animals, ridden or driven 

Exclusion from certain streets 17-4 

Rules apply to .. 3-4 

Application of ordinance 20-1 

Arrest procedure 

Audit of records ami reports 19-4 

Authority to impound vehicles „ 19-13 

Disposition or lines and forfeitures 19-11 

Official misconduct relating thereto 19-12 

Failure to obey citation 19-6 

Forms and records oi traffic cita- 
tions and arrests 19-2 

Illegally Darker! vehicle 

Citation on v 19-7 

Failure to comply with citation ...... 19-8 

Presumption in reference to illegal 

parking 19-9 

Issuance of citation „ 19-3, -7 

Procedure of police officers 19-3 

Summary of citations 19-4 

Traffic violations bureau Art. XVIII 

When copy of citation shall be 

deemed a lawful complaint 19-5 

When warrant to be issued 19-10 

Arterial streets, speed limits for 5-5 

Authorized emergency vehicle, drivers 
of, rights and duties 3~7 

B 

Bicycle 

Application of rtales „ 12-1 

Dealers 12-10 

Effect of regulations .„ 12-1 

Impounding, as penalty . 12-15 

Inspection 12-6 

Incense 

Application ..„ 12-3 

Issuance ~ 12-4 

Plate, attachment ... 12-5 

Records 12-4 

Renewal 12-7 

Rental agencies 12-9 

Required 12-2 

Transfer of ownership 12-8 

Obedience to traffic-control devices .... 12-12 

Ordinances applv to 12-11 

Parking 12-13 

Path, rules apply on 12-1 

Penalties 12-15 

Rental agencies 12-9 

Restrictions on use of certain streets 17-4 

Riding on sidewalks 12-14 

Traffic ordinances apply to 12-11 

U turn sign _ 12-12 

Boarding or alighting from streetcars 

or vehicles ~ 1.0-1 

Bridge signal, pedestrians obey 11-3 

Bus stops and stands (see Public car- 
rier stops and stands) 



Section 
Business district 

Central business district defined - 1-2 

Pedestrians in ~ 11-2 

U turns prohibited » 6-4 



Captions, effect of 

Carts 

Central business district defined — .™. 
Chief of police 
Bicycles 

inspection „.. 

lyicense — 

license plate 12- 

Books of traffic citation forms 

Emergency and experimental regu- 
lations 

Parades and processions, permits for 

Traffic commission 

Children 

Driver's duty toward .* 

Obey bicycle rules - 

City traffic engineer 
Angle loading or unloading, permits 

for 

Authority to establish and designate 

Angle parking „.. 

Crosswalks 

Curb loading zones „„. 

One-way streets and alleys 

Parking meters 22-1 

Parking prohibitions ana restric- 
tions 
Hazardous or congested places .... 

Harrow streets 

One-way roadways «. 

One-way streets „„„. 

Schools, adjacent to 

Play streets , „.. 

Public carrier stops and stands .... 

Restricted turns 

Safety zones 

Speed regulation by traffic signals 

"Stop" inter sect ions 

Streetcar stops . 

Through streets „ 

Traffic- control devices „.. 

Traffic lanes ..„....„ 

Turn ?narkcrs, buttons or signs .... 

"Yield" intersections .7. 

Duties of 



Emergency and experimental regula- 
tions, approval by 

Office created „„„.. 

Permits 

Angle loading- and unloading „.. 

Curb loading zones , „„*, 

Traffic commission „. 

Coasters, use on roadway restricted .... 
Commercial vehicle 

Definition , 

Use on certain highwavs prohib- 
ited 17-2, 

Commission on traffic safety 

Constitutionality of ordinance ™™.'..„ 

Construction, uniform , 

Coordination of traffic activities . 

Crosswalk 

Designation by city traffic engineer 

Pedestrians must use „ 

Unnecessary blocking ..„ 

Curb loading zone 

City traffic engineer to designate 

Definition 



20-3 
3-4 
1-2 



12-6 

12-2 

4, -5 

19-2 

2-11 
9-5 
2-12 

11-4 

12-1 



13-3 

13-1 
4-8 

15-1 

7-1 

to -3 



14-9 
14-6 
14-8 
14-7 
14-5 
4-6 
15-5 
6-2 
4-8 
5-6 
8-3 
10-4 
8-2 
4-1 
4-9 
6-1 
8-3 
2-10 

2-11 
2-10 

13-3 
15-2 
2-12 
3-5 

1-3 

21-8 
2-12 
20-6 
20-2 
2-12 

4-8 
11-3 
9-1 

15-1 
1-4 



45 



i.VlUJL>u.Li xiwvrrio \jxvuii\ni\v/£i 



Section 
Curb loading zone— (Con td) 
Freight curb loading zone 

Definition 1-5 

Use of—time limit « 15-4 

Passenger curb loading zone 

Definition 1-7 

Use of — time limit -« 15-3 

Permits for curb loading zones 15-2 



1-1 to -9 
1-1 



Definitions 

Generally , 

Incorporation of state 

Driver 

Accidents 

When unable to report 3-9 

Written report .... , 3-8 

Authorized emergency vehicle, driver 
of, privileges and duties 3-7 

Duties with respect to 

Obstructed traffic 9-1 

One-way streets and alleys 7-2 

Parking 13-1 to 16-7 

Pedestrians „, 11-4 

Play streets 4-7 

Procession, funeral or other 9-2 

Speed regulations 5-1 to -5 

Street use restrictions 17-4 

Streetcar stops, parking at prohib- 
ited 10-4 



Effective date of ordinance 20-9 

Emergency regulations 2- 11, 3-1 

.Enforcement of ordinance 

Police officers, duty of 3-1 

Recommendations concerning 2-12 

Traffic division, duty of 2-2, 3-1 

Engineer (see City traffic engineer) 
Experimental regulations 2-11 



Fines, disposition of 19-11 

Fire department officials, authority of 3-1 
Freight curb loading zone (see Curb 

loading zone) 
Funeral processions (see Processions, 

funeral) 

G 
Garage, removal of vehicle to 19-13 

H 

Headings, effect of ~ « 20-3 

Height restrictions 17-3 

Highway (see also, Roadway, Street) 

Angle parking . 13-1 

Load restrictions on certain highways 17-1 
One-way roadways, parking on .... 14-7, -8 

Ordinance applies on 20-1 

Speed zones 5-1 to -5 

Traffic lanes 4-9 

Highway improvement _ fund - 19-11 

Highway safety commission 2-12 

Horn, use for pedestrian 11-4 

Horse-drawn vehicles may be barred 
from certain streets 17-4 

I 

Impounding 

Bicycle as penalty 12-15 

Vehicles when authorized « 19-13 

Inspection of bicycles . 12-6 

Interpretation, uniform 20-2 

Intersection 

Crosswalks 4-8 

Safety zones 4-8 

Speed limits 5-2 

"Stop" intersections 8-2, -3 



Section 

Intersection— (Contd) 

Stop when traffic obstructed „ ....... 9-1 

Turning movements „..„ „..„.. 6-1, -2 

"Yield" intersections „.. &-3 

Invalidity, effect of „.. 20-6 

L 

Laned roadway, restricted direction of 

movement during certain periods ,.„« 7-3 
Lanes 

Authority to mark 4-9 

Off-center 7-3 

taws (see State traffic laws) 

Left turn restriction 6-2, -3 

Length restrictions 17-3 

Licenses for bicycles _ 12-2 to -5 

Load restrictions upon vehicles using 

certain highways 17-1, 21-7 

U o a ding an d n n loa d i n g 

Angle parking, permits for «. 13-3 

Curb loading zone 

Definition 1-4 

Freight curb loading zone 

Definition „.. 1-5 

Use of — time limit 15-4 

Passenger curb loading zone 

Definition „..-..„. 1-? 

Use of — time limit ~..~~ 15-3 

Loading zone (see Curb loading zone) 

M 
Meters (see Parking meters) 
Motor-driven cycle restrictions 17-4 

N 

Nonmotorized traffic 

Exclusion of 17-4 

Obedience to laws ™ S-4 

O 

Obedience to traffic regulations 
Authority of police and fire depart- 
ment officials «. 3-1 

Required obedience by 
Persons propelling push carts or 

riding animals 3-4 

Public employees 3-6 

Required obedience to 

Official traffic -control devices 4-3 

Police and fire department officials 3-3 

Restricted turn signs .... 6-3 

Traffic ordinance _ 3-2 

Off-center lanes 7-3 

Official time standard — definition 1-6 

Official traffic-control devices (see also, 
Railroad sign, Traffic-control sig- 
nals, Traffic signs) 

Authority to install 4-1 

Bicycle riders obey 12-12 

Manual and specifications, confor- 
mance to required „„ 4-2 

Obedience to required 4-3 

Penalties, use of for 19-11 

Presumption of validity „.._. 4-5 

Testing „ ;. 2-11 

When required for enforcement pur- 
poses 4-4 

One-way roadways, parking or stand- 
ing „ 14-8 

One- way streets and alleys 

Authority to sign „ 7-1 

Obedience to signs indicating 7-2 

One-way movement during certain 

periods 7-3 

Parking 14-7 

Schedule of 21-1 



Index 



49 



Section 

Parades (see Processions) 
Parental responsibility tor bicyclists .„. 
Park, parking (see aiso t Load, Stand, 
Stop) 

Alleys, restrictions 

All-night parking prohibited 

Authorized emergency vehicle ex- 
upt 



12-1 



14-2 
14-3 



3-7 



Bicycles 12-13 

Curb loading zones 

Freight 15-4 

Passenger 15-3 

Hazardous or congested places 14-9 

Illegally parked vehicle 

Citation on 19-7 

Failure to comply with citation on 19-8 

Presumption in reference to 19-9 

impounding vehicles 19-13 

Narrow roadways .- -. 14-1, -6 

One-way roadways „ 14-8 

One-way streets 14-7 

Parking for certain purposes prohib- 
ited 14-4 

Prohibited in specified places .... 14-1 to -9 
Prohibitions on certain streets 
Parking onlv 

All times 16-3, 21-3 

Certain hours 16-4, 21-4 

Stopping, .standing or parking 

Certain hours 16-5, 21-5 

Regulations not exclusive 16-2 

Schools, parking adjacent to 14-5 

Time limits on certain streets .... 16-6, 21-6 

Traffic not to be obstructed 14-1 

Parking meters 

Application of proceeds 22-7 

Deposit of coins and time limits ........ 22-4 

Installation of 22-2 

Slugs prohibited 22-5 

Spaces 22-3 

Tampering prohibited 22-6 

Zones established 22-1, -8 

Passenger curb loading Kone (see Curb 
loading zone) 

Passengers, boarding or alighting 10-1 

Peace officer (see Police officer) 
Pedestrians 
Bicyclists may dismount and cross as 12-12 

Bicyclists yield to 12-14 

Boarding or alighting from vehicles 10-1 

Children U-4 

Cross at right angle to curb 11-1 

Crosswalks authorized „ 4-! 



Crosswalks, use of 
Driver's duty toward 
Incapacitated 



11-2 
11-4 

11-4 



Obedience to bridge and railroad sig- 
nals 

Police officers may direct traffic to 
protect 3-1 

Prohibited crossing 11-2 

Rules apply to persons on toy vehi- 
cles 

Penalties 

Bicycle riders 

Disposition of 

General , 

Permits 



11-3 



3-5 

. 12-15 
. 19-11 
. 19-1 



Angle loading or unloading „ 13-3 

Curb loading zones 15-2 

Parades and processions 9-5 

Persons (see also, Bicyclists, Drivers, 
Pedestrians), propelling push carts 

or riding animals „ 3-4 

Play streets 

Authority to establish ....„„„„..«..- 4-6 

Traffic restrictions on — ♦ «., 4-7 



Section 

Police department (see also, Chief of. 
police, Traffic division) 

Accidents and accident reports 3-8 

Enforcement •_ r 3-1, 2-2 

Parades and processions, permits for 9-5 

Records of traffic violations 2-3 

Traffic division established 2-1 

Police officer 

Arrest procedure 19-3 

Authority of 3-1 

Books of traffic citation forms „ 19-2 

Definition 1-8 

Obedience to required 3-3 

Procedure on arrest (see Arrest pro- 
cedure) 

Processions 

Drivers in 9-3 



Driving through prohibited , 

Funeral, designation required 
Permits, when required 

Public carrier stops and stands 



. 9-4, 



9-2 
2-9 



15-5 



11-3 


10-3 


-6, -7 
19-4 
12-4 


19-2 
19-2 


2-11 



City traffic engineer to designate 

Parking, stopping and standing oi 
buses and taxicabs 15-6 

Restricted use by other vehicles 15-7 

Public employees, obedience to traffic 

regulations required 3-6 

Publication of ordinance - 20-7 

Push carts 3-4 

R 

'Railroad signal, pedestrian compliance 

with 

Railroad train, blocking streets re- 
stricted .... 

Records 

Accident reports „. 2- 

Audit of traffic citation records 

Bicycle licenses 

Traffic citations, warrants and com- 
plaints 

Traffic violations 2-3, -7, 

Regulations, power to adopt 

Repeal of conflicting or inconsistent 

ordinances or parts thereof 20-8 

Reports 
Accidents 

Traffic division to file 2-6, -7 

When driver unable to report 3-9 

Written report by driver 3-8 

Annual traffic safety report, traffic 

division to file „ 2-8 

Bicycle dealers „ „...„.„—. 12-10 

Traffic^ commission « 2-12 

Retroactive, ordinance not - ~ 20-5 

Riding upon vehicle „ 10-2 

Right of way. bicycles on sidewalks .... 1.2-14 

Right turn restriction 6-2, -3 

Roadway (see also, Highway, Street) 

Bicycles on „ 12-11, -14 

Coasters, roller skates, etc. 3-5 

Off-center lanes 7-3 

Parking, one-way roadways 14-8 

Pedestrians on 11-1 to -4 

Restricted direction of movement 

during certain periods 7-3 

Traffic lanes 4-9 

Roller skates, use on roadway re- 
stricted 3-$ 

S 

Safety zone, establishment by city 

traffic engineer 4-8 

Schedules of designated streets 

Commercial vehicles prohibited 21-8 

Load restrictions ..„—..... 21-7 

One-way „—„„. 21-1 

Parking meter zones „.„. 22-8 

Parking prohibited at all times 21-3 



1VJ.UUEL TRAFFIC ORDINANCE 



Section 
Schedules of designated streets— (Contd) 
Parking prohibited during certain 

hours » 21-4 

Parking time limited « ~.,~ 21-6 

Size restrictions „......„.,..... 21-9 

Speed limits ~ - 5-2 to -5 

Stopping, standing or parking pro- 
hibited during certain hours 21-5 

Through , „ 21-2 

Schools, parking near „„ — 14-5 

Short title of ordinance „ 20-4 

Sidewalk, riding bicycle on 12-14 

Signals (see Traffic-control signals) 
Signs (see Traffic signs) 

Size restrictions „ 17-3 

Skaters .. , 3-5 

Speed regulations 

Arterial streets ,.„„ 5-5 

Decrease of limits ™,~ 5-4 

Increase of limits —.— ~.™. 5-3 

Intersections, decrease of limits . 5-2 

State laws apply 5-1 

Traffic signals, regulation by 5-6 

Stand, standing (see also. I,oading, 
Park, Stop) 
Angle parking 
Obedience to signs or markings .... 13-2 
Permits for angle loading or un- 
loading „ 13-3 

Signs or markings indicating angle 

parking . 13-1 

Authorized emergency vehicle ex- 
empt 3-7 

Curb loading zones 

Freight ..'.. .._ 15-4 

Passenger „ ~ 15-3 

Hazardous or congested places ..« 14-9 

One-way roadways 14-7, -8 

Prohibited during certain hours on 

certain streets 16-5. 21-5 

State traffic laws 

Arrest procedures specified by 19-3 

Bicycle equipment specified by .... 12-9 

Consistency of traffic -control devices 4-2 

Definitions incorporated ~ 1-1 

Emergency directions supercede ..„ 3-1 

Enforced by local police officers .... 2-2, 3-1 

Impounding vehicles, authorize .19-13 

Official traffic -control devices that 

implement , 4-1 

Public employee exemptions specified 

in 3-6 

Push carts, apply to .. 3-4 

Restrictions apply at parking meters 22-4 

Speed limit s^ v 5-1 to -5 

Traffic citations for violating 19-2, -7 

"Stop" intersection (see also. Through 
street, "Yield" intersection! desig- 
nation of 8-3 

Stop, obstructed traffic 9-1 

Stop, stopping (see also, Loading, Park, 
Stand) 
Curb loading zones 

Freight ..', , 15-4 

Passenger 15-5 

Hazardous or congested t places 14-9 

Prohibited during certain hours on 

certain streets 16-5, 21-1 

Street (see also. Highway, Roadway) 
Commercial vehicles barred from 

certain streets— exceptions V '-2 

Load restrictions on vehicles using 

certain highways I7~l 

Narrow, parking may be prohib- 
ited .' 14-6 

One-way, parkins may be prohib- 
ited '. ;. v H-7 

One-way streets, direction of move- 
ment 7-2 



Section 
Street (see also, Highway, Roadway)— 
(Contd) 

Play streets 4-7 

Railroad trains and streetcars not 

to block . 10-3 

Restrictions on tuse by certain vehi- 
cles „.., 17-4 

Speed zones .«. - 5-2 to -5 

Through streets, designation of .„ 8-2 

U turns, limitations on . „ 6-4 

Streetcar 

Blocking streets restricted 10-3 

Boarding or alighting from .„.„.„«.... .10-1 

Streetcar stops J 0-4 

Unlawful riding 10-2 



Taxicab stops and stands (see Public 

carrier stops and stands) 
Through street or highway 

Designation of .„ « _ 8-1 

Schedules of 21-2 

Signs required -«— . 8-2 

Time, official defined ,-..„ , 1-6 

Toy vehicles -. - 3-5 

Traffic citations and arrests (see Ar- 
rest procedure) 
Traffic commission, powers and duties 2-12 
Traffic- control devices (see Official 

traffic -control devices) 
Traffic-control signals (see also. Of- 
ficial traffic -control devices, Traf- 
fic signs) 

Authority to install , ..,..,.♦ 4-1 

Manual and specifications « 4-2 

Speed regulation by - 5-6 

Traffic district (see Business district) 
Traffic division 

Definition 1-9 

Division established .„.„ — 2-1 

Duties of „ 2-2 to -9 

Traffic commission „... , 2-12 

Traffic engineer (see City traffic en- 
gineer) 
Traffic lanes, marking by city traffic 

engineer ..„...„ 4-9 

Traffic laws (see State traffic laws) 
Traffic signals (see Traffic-control sig- 
nals) 
Traffic signs (see also, Official traf- 
fic-control devices, Traffic -control 
signals) 

Authority to install , 1-1 

Manual and specifications 4-2 

Parking prohibitions and restric- 
tions 13-1, 14-1 to 16-7 

Required to indicate 
Commercial vehicles barred from 

certain streets — exceptions 17-2 

Curb loading zones 15-1 

Load restrictions on vehicles using 

certain highways 17-1 

One- way streets and alleys ..... 7-1 

Parking prohibitions and restric- 
tions 14-5 to -9. 16-1 to J 

Public carrier stops or stands 15-5 

Speed limits, special 5-2 to -5 

"Stop" and "yield" intersections .... 8-3 

Streetcar stops 10-4 

Through streets 8-2 

Turning movements, special .... 6-1 to -3 
When required for enforcement pur- 
poses 4-4 

Traffic violations 

Records 2-3 

Traffic division to malce arrests for 2-2 
Traffic violations bureau Art. XV HI 



Index 



51 



Section 
Turning vehicle 

limitations on turning around -..„ 6-4 

Official devices to indicate required 

course ~ m ...« ~ -» 6- 1 

Restrictions and prohibitions 6-2, -3 

U 

U turns 

Authority to restrict 6-2 

Bicyclists to obey, sign — 12-12 

limitations on 6-4 

Uniformity of interpretation „ „ 20-2 

United States government 
Angle parking on federal-aid high- 
ways , 13-1 

Employees must obey rules ~ _ 3-6 

Procession permit exception 9-5 

Unlawful riding 10-2 

V 

Vehicle (see also, Bicycle, Commercial 
vehicle, Streetcar and other topics) 

Animal-drawn 3-4 

Boarding or alighting from 10-1 

Commercial, defined 1-3 

Miscellaneous driving rules «*.»— 9-1 to -5 



Section 
Vehicle (see also, Bicycle, Commercial 
vehicle, Streetcar and other topics) — 
(Contd) 

One-way streets -...« 7-2 

Parking restrictions — 14-1 to -9, 

16-1 to -7 

Play streets ~. 4-7 

Restrictions against certain - — 17-4 

Riding upon -..- 10-1 

Size restrictions .... ..... 17-3 

Speed regulations «~ ~ 5-2 to -5 

Weight restrictions 17-1, -2 

W 

Weight restrictions 17-1, -2 

Width restrictions . 17-3 

Words and phrases defined 1-1 to -9 

y 

Yield signs - 8-2, -3 

Z 

Zones 

Curb loading „.. 15-1 to -4 

Parking meter «.« . 22-1 to -7 

Speed „ - 5-2 to -5